Coronations in Norway
Coronations in Norway were held from 1164 to 1906, mostly in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Although a crowning ceremony was formerly mandated by the nation's constitution, this requirement was eliminated in 1908. However, Norwegian kings have since chosen voluntarily to take part in a ritual of "benediction" to mark their accession to the throne, during which the crown is present, but not physically bestowed upon the sovereign. The new ceremony retains some of the religious elements of earlier rites, while eliminating other features now considered to be "undemocratic".
- 1 History
- 2 The Norwegian coronation ritual from 1818 to 1906
- 3 The modern "blessing" rite (after 1906)
- 4 Historical list of coronations
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Sources and External links
The first coronation in Norway—and in all of Scandinavia—took place in Bergen in 1163 or 1164. These rites continued in the Christ Church (Old Cathedral) there, until the capital was moved to Oslo under Håkon V. While some crownings were held in Oslo thereafter, most took place at Nidaros Cathedral, in Trondheim. Norwegian kings had historically been proclaimed (konungstekja in Old Norse) at the Øyrating in Trondheim, starting with King Harald I Fairhair or King Håkon I the Good in the 10th century; this continued even after the tradition of coronations began. Sometimes this led to competing claims: King Sverre, for example, was hailed as king at Øyrating in 1177, but not crowned until well after the death of King Magnus V in 1184. Ultimately, the coronation rite replaced the konungstekja ceremonies altogether, until the resurrection of the latter in the modern benediction service.
Under the Danish union
In the late 14th century, Norway, Sweden and Denmark were united in the Kalmar Union. During this era, monarchs were crowned in all three countries consecutively. After the federation was dissolved, Norway remained unified with Denmark under the Danish king until 1814. After the introduction of autocracy in Denmark in 1660, no further coronations took place in Norway until after the advent of the Constitution of Norway in 1814 and the Swedish Union, which took place during that same year. Throughout the Danish Union, the king of Denmark-Norway only went through one ceremony, in Denmark, in which he placed the crown upon his own head and was anointed.
Under the Swedish union
The current constitution of Norway (1814) originally required the monarch to be crowned in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. No coronation took place in the few months Christian Frederick was king of Norway, and Charles II, the first Swedish king of Norway under the new union, never visited the country during his reign and thus was never crowned. Once Charles III had ascended the throne, this rite resumed in accordance with the new constitution. While the Norwegian ritual closely followed the Swedish rite, the anointing of the king on the forehead and right wrist corresponded more closely to the Danish usage.
In September 1818, Charles III John was crowned in the first Norwegian coronation since 1660, providing a set of regalia for this purpose. His son Oscar had a Swedish coronet set upon his head and took the oath as crown prince. His wife, Désirée Clary, was in France at this time. Regalia for the queen was commissioned in 1830 for Desirée's intended coronation in Norway, but the ceremony never occurred. When Oscar and his wife, Josephine of Leuchtenberg, became king and queen, they were crowned in Sweden. Oscar's separate Norwegian coronation ceremony was delayed several times and ultimately never occurred, as the Bishop of Nidaros refused to crown the Queen unless she first abandoned her Roman Catholic faith and converted to Norway's official religion, Evangelical Lutheranism. The next coronation was that of Charles IV and Louise of the Netherlands in 1860. This was the first coronation of a Norwegian queen in several centuries. Oscar II and Sophia of Nassau were crowned in 1873.
The Swedish union was abolished in 1905, at which time Norway elected Prince Carl of Denmark, who took the name Haakon VII, as its new king. Haakon and his wife, Maud of Wales, were crowned at Trondheim on 22 June 1906, in keeping with the constitutional mandate. However, since many Norwegian statesmen had come to regard coronation rites as "undemocratic and archaic", this provision was repealed in 1908. Currently a new monarch is only required to take a formal accession oath in the Council of State, and then at the Parliament, the Storting.
Although coronations are not expressly banned under current Norwegian legislation, none have been held since 1906. Instead, the two sovereigns who followed Haakon VII have chosen to create a "benediction" ceremony to mark the beginning of their reigns. This new rite is held at Nidaros, and retains some of the religious elements of earlier coronation rituals while harking back to the old konungstekja rites held prior to the initial institution of coronations in the 12th century. The crown jewels are displayed, but not bestowed, during this ceremony, reflecting a modern rejection of the medieval Christian concept that a crowned and anointed monarch was God's highest temporal representative in his or her nation.
The Norwegian coronation ritual from 1818 to 1906
From 1818 to 1906, the Norwegian coronation ritual commenced with the king and queen making a procession to the Nidaros Cathedral preceded by the Norwegian Regalia. Once there, they were greeted by the Bishops of Trondheim, Kristiania (now Oslo) and Bergen and their attendant clergy with the words: "The Lord bless your going out and your coming in now and forevermore". Entering the cathedral, the monarchs seated themselves upon two canopied thrones in the choir.
The ceremony begins
Once the king and queen were seated, the Bishop of Trondheim began the ceremony by intoning the first line of the Introit hymn, which was then sung by the choir and the people. Next, the Bishop of Kristiania recited the Nicene Creed following which the Bishop of Bergen intoned the first six verses of the Te Deum. This was followed by a sermon, given by the Bishop of Kristiania. A priest and the choir sang a verse of a hymn, each singing alternate lines in turn. The choir next sang the first part of the Anthem, while the king proceeded to a throne set up for him on a dais before the altar, with the Royal Standard being held at his right. The king removed the mantle he had worn during the procession into the church, and it was laid on the altar as the royal mantle was taken from the altar and placed over his shoulders by the Bishop of Trondheim and the Chief Justice.
Anointing and crowning the king
After receiving his royal mantle, the king knelt before the altar as the Bishop of Trondheim anointed his right forearm and forehead with holy oil using a formula unique to the Norwegian rite. Following this, the king seated himself upon his throne and the bishop of Trondheim and the prime minister conjointly crowned him. The bishop of Trondheim and the foreign minister then handed the king the scepter; this was followed by the orb, which was handed to the king by the bishop of Trondheim and a Councilor of State. The bishop of Trondheim and another Councilor of State next handed the king the royal sword. Each item of the regalia was presented using a uniquely Norwegian formula. Once all of the crown jewels had been given to the sovereign, the choir sang the second part of the Anthem and a part of another hymn, after which the bishop of Trondheim said a prayer for the newly crowned king and gave him his blessing. The king then returned to his throne in the choir wearing his crown and bearing his scepter and orb.
Anointing and crowning the queen
Now the queen left her canopied throne in the choir and proceeded to her throne before the altar, as the choir sang the third part of the Anthem and part of yet another hymn. She was robed in the royal mantle and then knelt as the bishop of Trondheim anointed her on her right forearm and forehead. She then seated herself on her throne, and was in turned crowned and given her scepter and orb by the bishop using formulas appropriately modified from those used for the king. Afterwards, the fourth part of the anthem was sung by the choir, together with portions of another hymn. The bishop of Trondheim said a prayer for the queen and blessed her, using a form similar to those used for the king. The queen then returned to her throne in the choir bearing her regalia.
After the crowning of the queen, the President of the Storting stood up and proclaimed the coronation act to have been duly performed. Following this, two verses of the hymn "God bless our dear Fatherland" were sung, and then the fifth part of the Anthem was sung by the choir while the bishops and clergy left the sanctuary. The king and queen then proceeded out of the cathedral wearing their coronation mantles and regalia, thus concluding the ceremony.
The modern "blessing" rite (after 1906)
When Olav V ascended the throne in 1957, he felt the need for a religious ceremony not only to commence his reign, but also to enter upon his duties as the new head of the Church of Norway. Understanding why a coronation ceremony was no longer mandated, Olav proposed the creation instead of a ritual of royal consecration, to be known as Signing til kongsgjerning (i.e., 'Blessing the King for his Reign'), to be held on 22 June 1958. Although the government of Prime Minister Einar Gerhardsen was initially cool to this idea, several ministers and members of the Storting ultimately chose to attend what became a major national event. Carried by radio throughout the kingdom, the ceremony saw the king seat himself upon the 1818 coronation throne in Nidaros Cathedral, where he listened to a sermon. Following this, he knelt before the high altar, where Bishop Arne Fjellbu laid his hand on the king's head and recited a special prayer of consecration and blessing which formed the climax of the ritual:
Eternal, Almighty God, Heavenly Father, we thank thee whose grace in need has always gone over our land in woeful and good times to this day. Hear, today, our king's and our prayer. We pray thee, send thy grace to King Olav the Fifth, assist him by thy Spirit and give him wisdom and peace from thee that his reign be a benefit and a blessing on Norway's land and people. Deceitful and burdensome days will come; may truth and goodness from thee be his power and gladness. Eternal, powerful God, bless our king, be thou always his Lord and his King and grant his House all good days in time and eternity. Amen.
Upon Olav's death in 1991, his successor Harald V and his wife Sonja expressed their wish to be consecrated as Olav had been. Accordingly, on 23 June 1991, they attended a service of consecration at Nidaros Cathedral, presided over by Bishop Finn Wagle, assisted by the Bishop of Oslo, Andreas Aarflot. The Crown Jewels of Norway had been placed inside the cathedral prior to the ceremony, with the king's and queen's crowns arranged each on their respective side of the high altar.
On entering the cathedral the king and queen were met by bishops Wagle and Aarflot and Bishop Wagle greeted them with the words: "May the Lord bless your going in and your coming out now and for evermore." The king and queen proceeded through the nave and seated themselves on the 1818 coronation thrones. After scriptural readings and a sermon, King Harald came forward and knelt before the high altar, where Bishop Wagle put his right hand on his head and said the consecration prayer, including the petition, "Bless King Harald the Fifth, strengthen him and in the exercise of his solemn responsibilities." Queen Sonja then came forward and knelt beside the king and Bishop Wagle lay his right hand on her head and said a prayer asking God to help her use her talents to benefit the Norwegian people and land. The bishop then said a prayer over both the kneeling king and queen and turned and knelt at the high altar as the Royal Anthem was sung. He then rose and turned to pronounce a concluding blessing on the kneeling monarchs: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you. Amen." The Lord Chamberlain then came forward, as the king and queen rose and turned, and conducted them back to their coronation thrones. Images of King Harald's benediction may be viewed here.
Historical list of coronations
The following is a list of royal coronations in Norway from the 12th century through the modern era. For kings reigning before the independent Norway of 1905 the modern Norwegian name forms are given in parenthesis where relevant.
Christ Church (Old Cathedral), Bergen
The first coronation in Norway, and Scandinavia, took place in Bergen in 1163 or 1164. The Christ Church (Old Cathedral) in Bergen remained the place of coronations in Norway until the capital was moved to Oslo with King Haakon V.
|Coronation||Picture||Name||Reign||Other regnal titles|
|1163/1164||Magnus V||1161 - June 15, 1184|
|June 29, 1194||Sverre Sigurdsson||1184 - March 9, 1202|
|July 29, 1247||Haakon IV
with Margrét Skúladóttir
|1217 - December 16, 1263|
|September 14, 1261||Magnus VI (Magnus VI Lagabøte)
with Ingeborg of Denmark
|December 16, 1263 - May 9, 1280|
|1280||Eric II||May 9, 1280–1299|
|1281||Margaret of Scotland
(consort of Eric II Magnusson)
When King Haakon V succeeded his brother, the capital of Norway was moved from Bergen to Oslo, where it has remained. The other coronations in Oslo took place during the Kalmar Union (note the overlap with Trondheim).
|Coronation||Picture||Name||Reign||Other regnal titles|
with Euphemia of Rügen
|November 1, 1299 - May 8, 1319|
|July 2, 1442||Christopher of Bavaria||1442 - January 5, 1448||King of Denmark
King of Sweden
|July 29, 1514||Christian II||July 22, 1513 - January 20, 1523||King of Denmark
King of Sweden
Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim
With King Charles I in 1449 the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim became the place of coronations in Norway, and, with the exception of King Christian II, has remained so. The first three took place during the Kalmar Union, and later the tradition was re-established with the Constitution of Norway of 1814 and the Union between Sweden and Norway. In the intermediate period, during the time of the double monarchy of Denmark–Norway, a joint coronation was held in Copenhagen with both a Norwegian and a Danish bishop present.
|Coronation||Picture||Name||Reign||Other regnal titles|
|November 20, 1449||Charles I||November 20, 1449 - June, 1450||King of Sweden|
|August 2, 1450||Christian I||1450 - May 21, 1481||King of Denmark
King of Sweden
|July 20, 1483||John||1483 - July 22, 1513||King of Denmark
King of Sweden
|September 7, 1818||Charles III John||February 5, 1818 - March 8, 1844||King of Sweden|
|August 5, 1860||Charles IV
with Louise of the Netherlands
|July 8, 1859 - September 18, 1872||King of Sweden|
|July 18, 1873||Oscar II
with Sofia of Nassau
|September 18, 1872 - October 26, 1905||King of Sweden|
|June 22, 1906||Haakon VII
with Maud of Wales
|November 18, 1905 - September 21, 1957|
At the beginning of the 20th century the act of coronation had become widely viewed as an anachronism by Norwegian politicians, and two years after King Haakon VII and Queen Maud were crowned, in 1908, the coronation paragraph was removed from the Constitution with only two votes against in the Parliament. When Olav V became king in 1957 he introduced a new tradition of benediction in the Nidaros Cathedral. He was followed in this by his son, Harald V, in 1991.
|Benediction||Picture||Name||Reign||Other regnal titles|
|June 22, 1958||Olav V||September 21, 1957 - January 17, 1991|
|June 23, 1991||Harald V with Sonja Haraldsen||January 17, 1991–present|
- Norwegian monarchy
- List of Norwegian monarchs
- Throne Chairs of Norway
- Throne Chair of Denmark
- Norwegian Royal Regalia
- Consecration, from the Official Website of the Norwegian Royal Family. Retrieved on 2009-09-16.
- Hoffman, Erich (1990). "Coronation and Coronation Ordines in Medieval Scandinavia". In Bak, János M. Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Bak, János M., editor (1990). Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1. God bless our dear Fatherland and let it like a garden blossom. Let the light of thy peace shine from mountain to beach and the intelligent fire the coming spring sun. Let people live together as brothers, as Christians who could be themselves.
2. Our homeland long laid in darkness and ignorance hid the light. But God, thou in mercy to us sang, thy love for us was not forgotten. Thou sent thy word to Norway's mountains and light streamed over the land.
- This was immediately followed by the assembled congregation's singing of the Royal Anthem.
1. God bless our good king. Bless him with strength and courage, bless home and castle. Enlighten him with thySpirit, Tie with thy strong hand the holy bond of fidelity between people and sovereign.
2. Loudly swears the man of Norway, each in his calling, his station, faithfulness to his sovereign. Faithful in life and death, brave in war and need, Norway's lot was always, God and his sovereign.
- The Consecration of King Olav V, from the Official Website of the Norwegian Royal Family. Retrieved on 2009-09-15.
- The Consecration of King Harald and Queen Sonya, from the Official Website of the Norwegian Royal Family. Retrieved on 2009-09-15.
- Riksregaliene: Kroninger og signinger (Norwegian)
- Histos forlag: Historical Bergen
- Norwegian Coronations
- NRK Trøndelag: Kroninger i Nidarosdomen (Norwegian)
- Aftenposten: Første folkekonge, siste kroning (Norwegian)
- Kongehuset: Dagens monarki - Signing (Norwegian)