A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin e.g. by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. There is limited evidence as to their efficacy; and as of 2010 the best evidence does not support using gels and creams containing rubefacients for acute or chronic pain.
Common medicinal rubefacients include:
- Salicylates (such as Oil of Wintergreen, Methyl Salicylate)
- Nicotinate esters
- Capsaicin (derived from Cayenne, Capsicum minimum) "incites irritation without rubefaction"
- Isopropanol (rubbing alcohol)
Common herbal rubefacients include:
- Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
- Garlic (Allium sativum)
- Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
- Horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia)
- Mustard (Brassica alba or Brassica nigra)
- Nettle (Urtica dioica)
- Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis)
- Rue (Ruta graveolens)
- Matthews et al. 2009 Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 (3):CD007403
- Mason et al. 2004 Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain BMJ 328:995
- Matthews, P; Derry, S, Moore, RA, McQuay, HJ (2010 Nov). "Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD007403. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007403.pub2. PMID 19588430.
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