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|Molar mass||532.7 g/mol|
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
As an organic semiconductor, the major application of rubrene is in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors, which are the core elements of flexible displays. Single-crystal transistors can be prepared using crystalline rubrene, which is grown in a modified zone furnace on a temperature gradient. This technique, known as physical vapor transport, was introduced in 1998.
Rubrene holds the distinction of being the organic semiconductor with the highest carrier mobility, reaching 40 cm2/(V·s) for holes. This value was measured in OFETs prepared by peeling a thin layer of single-crystalline rubrene and transferring to a Si/SiO2 substrate.
Several polymorphs of rubrene are known. Crystals grown from vapor in vacuum can be monoclinic, triclinic, and orthorhombic motifs. Orthorhombic crystals (space group Bbam) are obtained in a closed system in a two-zone furnace at ambient pressure.
Rubrene, like other polycyclic aromatic molecules, undergoes redox reactions in solution. It reduces and oxidizes and reversibly at 0.95 and -1.37 V, respectively vs SCE. When the cation and anion are co-generated in an electrochemical cell, they can combine with annihilation of their charges, but producing an excited rubrene molecule that emits at 540 nm. This phenomenon is called electrochemiluminescence.
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- Oana Diana Jurchescu "Molecular organic semiconductors for electronic devices" chapter Low Temperature Crystal Structure of Rubrene Single Crystals Grown by Vapor Transport, PhD thesis (2006) Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
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