(Latin: "By praying, by working")
|Type||Independent day and boarding
|Religion||Church of England|
|Location||Lawrence Sheriff Street
|DfE URN||125777 Tables|
|Former Pupils||Old Rugbeians|
|School Song||Floreat Rugbeia|
Rugby School is a co-educational day and boarding school located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, England. Rugby School is a registered charity and is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain. The influence of Rugby and its pupils and masters in the nineteenth century was enormous and in many ways the stereotype of the English public school is a reworking of Thomas Arnold's Rugby. It is one of the original nine English public schools defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, It is one of the best-known and most expensive schools in the country. "Floreat Rugbeia" is the traditional school song.
Rugby School was founded in 1567 as a provision in the will of Lawrence Sheriff, who had made his fortune supplying groceries to Queen Elizabeth I of England. Since Lawrence Sheriff lived in Rugby and the neighbouring Brownsover, the school was intended to be a free grammar school for the boys of those towns. Up to 1667, the school remained in comparative obscurity. Its history during that trying period is characterised mainly by a series of lawsuits between descendants of the founder, who tried to defeat the intentions of the testator, and the masters and trustees, who tried to carry them out. A final decision was handed down in 1667, confirming the findings of a commission in favour of the trust, and henceforth the school maintained a steady growth.
It was no longer desirable to have only local boys attending and the nature of the school shifted, and so a new school – Lawrence Sheriff Grammar School – was founded in 1878 to continue Lawrence Sheriff's original intentions; that school receives a substantial proportion of the endowment income from Lawrence Sheriff's estate every year.
The core of the school (which contains School House, featured in Tom Brown's Schooldays) was completed in 1815 and is built around the Old Quad (quadrangle), with its Georgian architecture. Especially notable rooms are the Upper Bench (an intimate space with a book-lined gallery), the Old Hall of School House, and the Old Big School (which makes up one side of the quadrangle and was once the location for teaching all junior pupils). Thomas Hughes (like his fictional hero, Tom Brown) once carved his name onto the hands of the school clock, situated on a tower above the Old Quad. The polychromatic school chapel, new quadrangle, Temple Reading Room, Macready Theatre and Gymnasium were designed by the well-known Victorian Gothic revival architect William Butterfield in 1875, and the smaller Memorial Chapel was dedicated in 1922.
In 2005, Rugby School was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. However, Mrs Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from anti-cartel rules applied to business, were following a long-established procedure in sharing the information with each other, and that they were unaware of the change to the law (on which they had not been consulted). She wrote to John Vickers, the OFT director-general, saying, "They are not a group of businessmen meeting behind closed doors to fix the price of their products to the disadvantage of the consumer. They are schools that have quite openly continued to follow a long-established practice because they were unaware that the law had changed."
Rugby School continues to offer scholarship places for outstanding students from the local community, who come from state (maintained) primary schools in the immediate vicinity of Rugby. The school's new Arnold Foundation has been established to enable it to offer similar support to children from outside the Rugby area.
- Richard Seele – 1600
- Nicolas Greenhill – 1602
- Augustus Rolfe – 1606
- Wiligent Greene – to 1642
- Raphael Pearce – 1642 to 1651
- Peter Whitehead
- John Allen – to 1669
- Knightley Harrison – 1669 to 1674
- Robert Aahbridge – 1674 to 1681
- Leonard Jeacocks – 1681 to 1687
- Henry Holyoake – 1687 to 1730
- John Plomer – 1731 to 1742
- Thomas Crossfield – 1742 to 1744
- William Knail – 1744 to 1751
- John Richmond – 1751 to 1755
- Stanley Burrough – 1755 to 1778
- Thomas James – 1778 to 1794
- Henry Ingles – 1794 to 1806
- John Wooll – 1806 to 1827
- Thomas Arnold – 1828 to 1842
- Archibald Tait – 1842 to 1848
- Dr Meyrick Goulburn – 1849 to 1857
- Frederick Temple – 1858 to 1869
- Henry Hayman DD – 1870 to 1874
- Thomas William Jex-Blake, DD, 1874 to 1887
- John Percival, DD, – 1887 to 1895
- Herbert Armitage James, DD – 1895 to 1910
- Albert Augustus David – 1910 to 1921
- William Wyamar Vaughan – 1921 to 1931
- Percy Hugh Beverley Lyon – 1931 to 1948
- Sir Arthur Frederic Brownlow fforde – 1948 to 1957
- Walter Hamilton – 1957 to 1966
- James Woodhouse – 1967 to 1980
- Brian Rees −1980 to 1985
- Richard Bull – 1985 to 1990
- Michael Mavor – 1990 to 2001
- Patrick Derham – 2001 to 2014
- Peter Green – 2014-
Rugby's most famous headmaster was Thomas Arnold, appointed in 1828, he executed many reforms to the school curriculum and administration. Arnold's reputation and the school's reputation was immortalised through Thomas Hughes' book Tom Brown's School Days.
David Newsome writes about the new educational methods employed by Arnold in his book, 'Godliness and Good Learning' (Cassell 1961). He calls the morality practised at Arnold's school muscular Christianity. Dr. George Mosse, former professor of History in University of Wisconsin-Madison, lectured on Arnold's time at Rugby. According to Mosse, Thomas Arnold created an institution which fused religious and moral principles, gentlemanly conduct, and learning based on self-discipline. These morals were socially enforced through the "Gospel of work." The object of education was to produced "the Christian gentleman," a man with good outward appearance, playful but earnest, industrial, manly, honest, virginal pure, innocent, and responsible.
In 1888 the appointment of Marie Bethell Beauclerc by Percival was the first appointment of a female teacher in an English boys' public school and the first time shorthand had been taught in any such school. The shorthand course was popular with one hundred boys in the classes.
William Webb Ellis
The game of Rugby football owes its name to the school. The legend of William Webb Ellis and the origin of the game is commemorated by a plaque. The story has been known to be a myth since it was first investigated by the Old Rugbeian Society (renamed the Rugbeian Society) in 1895. There were no standard rules for football during Webb Ellis's time at Rugby (1816–1825) and most varieties involved carrying the ball. The games played at Rugby were organised by the pupils and not the masters, the rules of the game played at Rugby and elsewhere were a matter of custom and were not written down. They were frequently changed and modified with each new intake of students. The sole source of the story is credited to one Matthew Bloxam (a former pupil, but not a contemporary of Webb Ellis) in October 1876 (four years after the death of Webb Ellis) in a letter to the school newspaper (The Meteor) wherein he quotes some unknown friend relating the story to him. He elaborated on the story some three years later in another letter to The Meteor, but shed no further light on its source. Richard Lindon is credited for the invention of the "oval" rugby ball, the rubber inflatable bladder and the brass hand pump. Lindon, a Boot and Shoemaker, had premises immediately across the street from the School's main entrance in Lawrence Sheriff Street. No doubt the boys of Rugby School had significant input into their required design.
Rugby School has both day and boarding-pupils, the latter in the majority. Originally it was for boys only, but girls have been admitted to the sixth form since 1975. It went fully co-educational in 1995. The school community is divided into houses:
- Marshall House (Day House. Pupils leave Marshall House at age 13 to join one of the other houses, usually Town for boys and Southfield for girls)
- Age range: 11 – 18
- Day pupils: 77 boys, 64 girls
- Annual day fees: £19,605; Juniors £11,550 (numerous scholarships and bursaries available)
- Full boarding pupils: 369 boys, 296 girls
- Annual full boarding fees: £31,245
- Total pupils: 446 boys, 360 girls
- Including 6th form/FE: 194 boys, 168 girls
- Staff numbers: 100 full-time – 9 part-time
- Method of entry: Common Entrance, Interview, Scholarship or bursary exam
- Professional affiliations: HMC
- Religious affiliation: Church of England
There have been a number of notable Old Rugbeians including the purported father of the sport of Rugby William Webb Ellis, the inventor of Australian rules football Tom Wills, the war poets Rupert Brooke and John Gillespie Magee, Jr., Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, author and mathematician Lewis Carroll, poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, the author and social critic Salman Rushdie (who said of his time there: "Almost the only thing I am proud of about going to Rugby school was that Lewis Carroll went there too.") and the Irish writer and republican Francis Stuart. Matthew Arnold's father Thomas Arnold, was a headmaster of the school. An OR seven-a-side rugby team was invited to compete in the inaugural Old Boys Sevens tournament in June 2010, hosted by the Old Silhillians, the former pupils' association of Solihull School. Philip Henry Bahr (later Sir Philip Henry Manson-Bahr), a zoologist and medical doctor, World War I veteran, was President of both Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and Medical Society of London, and Vice-President of the British Ornithologists’ Union.
The Rugbeian Society is for former pupils at the School. An Old Rugbeian is sometimes referred to as an OR.
The purposes of the society are to encourage and help Rugbeians in interacting with each other and to strengthen the ties between ORs and the school.
in 2010 the Rugbeians reached the semi-finals of the Public Schools' Old Boys' Sevens tournament, hosted by the Old Silhillians to celebrate the 450th anniversary of fellow Warwickshire public school, Solihull School.
It is most commonly believed to be derived from Wessex Fives, a game played by Thomas Arnold, Headmaster of Rugby, who had played Wessex Fives when a boy at Lord Weymouth's Grammer, now Warminster School. The open court of Wessex Fives, built in 1787, is still in existence at Warminster School although it has fallen out of regular use.
Rugby Fives is played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles), the aim being to hit the ball above a 'bar' across the front wall in such a way that the opposition cannot return it before a second bounce. The ball is slightly larger than a golf ball, leather-coated and hard. Players wear leather padded gloves on both hands, with which they hit the ball.
- "Charity Commission – Rugby School". Charity Commission. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- List of Schools on Emetis.com
- Rugby by Henry Christopher Bradby
- "Rugby School". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- Independent schools face huge fines over cartel to fix fees
- Article at UK Office of Fair Trade
- "Private schools send papers to fee-fixing inquiry". The Daily Telegraph (London). 1 March 2004. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Scholarships" Rugby School web site
- John Barclay Hope Simpson, Rugby Since Arnold: A History of Rugby School from 1842, Published by Macmillan, 1967
- Rugby School – History and Traditions
- Richard Lindon web site
- Good Schools Guide
- Salman Rushdie: The Arab spring is a demand for desires and rights that are common to all human beings, Telegraph
- "Sir Philip Henry Manson-Bahr". Lives of the fellows : Munk's Roll : Volume VI. Royal College of Physicians of London. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Obituary Notices: Sir Philip Manson-Bahr, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., D.T.M.&H.". British Medical Journal 2 (5525): 1332–1334. 1966. PMC 1944321. PMID 5332525.
- Rugbeians On-line
- Ruby Fives Association
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