|Type||Rimfire semi-automatic rifle|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Designer||William B. Ruger, Harry H. Sefried II|
|Number built||over 5 million|
|Specifications (Standard 10/22 carbine)|
|Weight||5.25 lb (2.4 kg)|
|Length||37 in (940 mm)|
|Barrel length||18.5 in (470 mm)|
|Feed system||10-round rotary magazine or 25-round box magazine|
The Ruger 10/22 is a semi-automatic rimfire rifle chambered in .22 Long Rifle. It has a removable 10-round (or 5-round) rotary magazine which allows the magazine to fit flush with the bottom of the stock. Higher capacity magazines are also available. A magnum version, chambered for the .22 WMR cartridge, was made from 1998 to 2007, and a .17 HMR version, the 10/17 was announced in 2004, but was only listed in the catalog for two years. The standard version has been in production since 1964.
Uses and customization 
The 10/22 was immediately popular upon its release, being one of the first modern rifles chambered in .22 which was designed as a quality adult gun (with adult ergonomics) and not a cheap "youth rifle". However, its easy handling characteristics, negligible recoil and inexpensive ammunition nonetheless make it ideal for young or inexperienced shooters. It is very popular for small-game hunters and those who want an inexpensive rifle firing inexpensive ammunition for target and plinking use. This popularity has led to many after-market modifications being available to improve performance, augment the rifle's looks, or increase its magazine capacity, leading the 10/22 to be one of the most customizable firearms made. Custom manufacturers also make "clones" of the 10/22, which are similar in design (most parts will interchange) but built to much higher specifications and costs. The 10/22 barrel uses a unique attachment method where the barrel is screwed rather than pinned into the frame (the barrel is not threaded, but attachment involves two screws), making removal and replacement of the barrel (which would require a gunsmith's work with most other rifles) very easy. This, when combined with the simple construction of the rest of the components, means that the average person can easily replace any part in the gun with nothing more than a screwdriver, a hex key and simple punches.
The 10/22 is available in a wide variety of configurations. As of 2012, there are six basic Ruger 10/22 models, not counting distributor exclusives which come in numerous variations and combinations. In addition there are variations in stock, finish, and other features for each model, such as hardwood, laminated wood, and synthetic stocks are available. The discontinued 10/22 International model was fitted with a Mannlicher stock. Standard barrel lengths are 20" in the 10/22 Rifle, 181⁄2" in the 10/22 Carbine, and 161⁄8" in the 10/22 Compact Rifle which is also fitted with a shorter stock. The 10/22 Target model is available with a 20" bull barrel with no iron sights. There is also a 22" stainless barreled version, without a barrel band around the stock, of which Wal-Mart is the exclusive dealer. Production of this model has been discontinued. In April 2012, the new "Takedown" stainless version was introduced. The "Takedown" model has an 18.5" stainless barrel and a synthetic black stock, which are able to separate into two sub-assemblies for ease of transport with a backpack-style transport case. All .22 LR versions use an aluminum receiver, while the discontinued .22 Magnum version used a steel receiver with integral scope bases.
22 Charger pistol 
The 22 Charger pistol, introduced in late 2007, is a handgun based on the 10/22 action. The 22 Charger comes with a black laminated wood pistol stock with forend, a 10" (254 mm) matte blued heavy barrel, a bipod, and a Weaver style scope base in lieu of iron sights. Overall length is just under 20" (508 mm), making it quite large for a handgun. As it has an included bipod it is likely to be used from a shooting bench or table. The bipod attaches to a sling swivel on the stock fore-end, and is easily removable. Due to technical features, such as the magazine being outside the pistol grip, the Charger is not legally available in some U.S. states. As of 2013, The Ruger Charger was discontinued.
AWC Ultra II 
The AWC Ultra II version of the Ruger 10/22 is integrally-suppressed and features a shortened barrel. The sound suppressor encloses a ported stainless barrel and is made of 300 series stainless steel having a 1" diameter which closely resembles a bull barrel. The barrel length is 16.5" with an overall weapon length of 341⁄2" and the weight is 6 lbs. Due to the integral suppressor, this model is a Title II weapon in the U.S.
SR-22 Rifle 
In 2009, Ruger released the SR-22 Rifle model, a 10/22 receiver embedded in an outer receiver that mimics the dimensions of an AR-15 style rifle such as their own SR-556. The SR-22 Rifle uses standard 10/22 rotary magazines, as opposed to the tall box magazines used by most AR-15 style rimfire rifles. The positions of the magazine release, the safety and the charging handle are all more similar to a standard 10/22 than an AR-15. The SR-22 Rifle competes directly with other AR-15 style rimfire rifles such as those made by Colt and Smith & Wesson.
VLEH Target Tactical Rifle 
10/22 Takedown 
On March 28th, 2012 Ruger introduced the 10/22 Takedown model. This model dissasembles into barrel and action/buttstock components easily. It is shipped in a backpack style case that has room for the rifle, ammunition, and accessories. As of May 2012, it is priced approximately 40% higher than the basic carbine models.
The image on the bottom right shows two 10/22 carbines, the top one in issued form (with a 4-power magnification scope added, using the factory supplied scope base) and the bottom one in highly modified form. The modified target version includes an 18 inch bull barrel, a muzzle brake, a laminated wood silhouette style stock, and a scope with an illuminated reticle, in addition to internal modifications of the trigger group to improve the firing characteristics. See the entry on accurizing for more information on the reasons for these modifications.
A wide variety of aftermarket modification kits are offered for the 10/22, including conversions to bullpup configuration and cosmetic alterations to replicate the appearance of weapons like the M1 Carbine, Thompson submachine gun, AR-15, and AK-47.
There are many types of magazines for the Ruger 10/22. The standard 10/22 ships with a black 10 round rotary magazine. Ruger has also produced a clear, polycarbonate 40th anniversary edition 10 round magazine as well as a five round rotary magazine (for states that restrict magazine capacities). In 2011-2012 Ruger came out with the Ruger BX-25, a 25 round box magazine with a black composite frame and steel feed lips. Aftermarket options include 25, 30, and 50 round box magazines; 50 round tear-drop-shaped rotary magazines, and a 50 round drum magazines.
The standard 10-round 10/22 magazine stores the cartridges in a rotary fashion, rather than stacked, as seen in a box magazine. This allows the magazine to fit flush into the rifle without protruding from the stock at the natural balance point for one handed carry. The action of the rifle strips a cartridge from the magazine with each shot, allowing the next cartridge to feed into place.
Care should be taken not to use all magazines interchangeably. The owners manual for the 10/22 Magnum model states, "Do not attempt to use standard 10/22 magazines in the 10/22 Magnum rifles or load 22 short, long, or long rifle ammunition into the 22 magnum. They will not function correctly and are unsafe to use in 22 Magnum rifles." It goes on to say, "Never attempt to use 22 Long Rifle ammunition in Ruger 10/22 Magnum rifle magazines. The cartridges have a smaller case diameter and can split or burst when fired in the larger magnum chamber, releasing hot powder gasses and particle fragments out of the action at high speed, possibly resulting in injury to the shooter or bystanders."
See also 
- Sturm, Ruger
- Marlin Model 60, a competing .22 caliber semi-automatic rifle.
- Saurio M.R., a similar rifle of Argentine origin.
- Savage Model 64F, a competing .22 caliber semi-automatic rifle.
- Mossberg 702 Plinkster, a competing .22 caliber semi-automatic rifle.
- Remington Model 597, a competing .22 caliber semi-automatic rifle.
- Workman, William E. (1994). The Ruger 10/22. Krause Publications Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87341-277-3.
- "Ruger Introduces the New Ruger 10/17 Magnum Rifle". Ruger.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- House, James E (2006). Customize the Ruger 10/22. Gun Digest Books. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-89689-323-8.
- Wood, J.B., Firearms Assembly / Disassembly Part III: Rimfire Rifles Revised Edition, DBI Books, 1994, ISBN 0-87349-152-1 p.331
- "50 Years Of Ruger Genius" Guns Magazine, Sept, 1999 by Clair Rees
- Charles E. Petty (2000). "RUGER 10/22: From Factory to Fantasy". Guns Magazine. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
- "Ruger 10/22 Rifles". Ruger.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- Clair Rees (May 1999), "Middle-Age Spread Of the 10/22", Guns Magazine
- ".22 Charger Pistol". Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- "Ruger’s New .22 Charger Semi-Auto Pistol".
- 2009 AWC Product Guide, p. 7.
- Holt Bodinson (March 2010), "Ruger fields their own .22 LR AR: the old favorite 10/22 serves well as the platform", Guns Magazine
- "New Ruger 10/22 VLEH Target Tactical Rifle".
- "A new Take on the Ruger 10/22". March 28, 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Ruger 10/22 Carbine Pricing". Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Ruger 10/22 Takedown Pricing". Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Autoloading rifles" at Ruger-firearms.com
- "Hornady's Sweet Seventeen" by Rick Jamison, Shooting Times
- "Rotary magazine for firearm with hold-open lever" Patent
- Instruction Manual for Ruger Model 10/22 Autoloading Rifles. B 2/09 R18.
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