Rujm

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Rujm (Arabic: رجم‎, rûjm; p. rûjûm) is a word that appears as an element in numerous place names. It can be translated as "mound, cairn, hill, spur," and also as "stone heap" or "tumulus."[1][2] The following is a list of place names that include Rujm as an element:

  • Kanân Rujm Kûddâh, "the peaks of the cairn of the potter", or of "the flint stone for striking fir"[3]
  • Khirbat er Rujm, "the ruin of the stone heap"[4]
  • Rujm Abu Ḥashabe[5]
  • Rujm Abu Helal, "the cairn of Abu Helal"[6]
  • Rujm Abu Meheir (Rujm Abu Muheir), "the cairn of Abu Meheir"[6][7]
  • Rujm Abu Shuweikeh, "the cairn of the thistles"[6]
  • Rujm Abu Zumeiter, "the cairn of Abu Zumeiter"[6]
  • Rujm Afâneh, "the cairn of rottenness"[6]
  • Rujm el 'Ajamy, "the cairn of the Persian"[6]
  • Rujm 'Alei, "the cairn of the high place"[6]
  • Rujm 'Atîyeh, "the cairn of 'Atiyeh"[6]
  • Rujm el 'Azâzimeh, "the cairn of the Azazimeh Arabs"[6]
  • Rujm el Bahr, "the cairn of the sea"[6]
  • Rujm el Bakarah "the cairn of the cow"[6]
  • Rujm el Bârish, "the cairn of the ground covered with variegated herbiage"[6]
  • Rujm Bâruk, "the cairn of Baruk"[6]
  • Rujm Beni Yasser, "rujm of the sons of Yasser" (a fortlet of Nabataean origin)[8][9]
  • Rujm Birjis, (on the Kerak plateau)[10]
  • Rujm ed Debbâbeh, "the cairn of the moveable hut"[6]
  • Rujm ed Deir, "the cairn of the monastery"[6]
  • Rujm ed Derbi, "the cairn of the roadster"[6]
  • Rujm edh Dhib, "the cairn of the wolf"[6]
  • Rujm ed Dîr[11]
  • Rujm ed Dûribeh, "the cairn of the little road"[6]
  • Rujm el Fahjeh, "the cairn of el Fahjeh"[6]
  • Rujm el-Farideyyeh[12]
  • Rujm Heleiseh, "the cairn of the verdure"[6]
  • Rujm Handhal, "the cairn of colocynth"[6]
  • Rujm el Heik, "the cairn of the spindle"[6]
  • Rujm el-Hamiri, (southeast of Hebron)[13]
  • Rujm al-Henu, (Jordan)[14]
  • Rujm el Heri, (southeast of Madaba)[15]
  • Rujm el-Hiri, "the stone heap of the wild cat"[2]
  • Rujm el Humeitah, "the cairn of the mountain fig"[6]
  • Rujm el Hummûs, "the cairn of the chick-pea"[6]
  • Rujm el Humra, "the red cairn"[6]
  • Rujm Ibn Basma, "the cairn of Ibn Basma"[6]
  • Rujm Jemảh, "the cairn of the gathering"[16]
  • Rujm Jîz, "the cairn on the valley side"[6]
  • Rujm Jureideh, "the cairn of the troop"[6]
  • Rujm el Kahakîr, "the cairn of the stone heaps"[6]
  • Rujm el Kandôl, "the cairn of the thorn tree"[6]
  • Rujm el-Khadar[17]
  • Rujm el Kherâzmîyeh, "the cairn of the Kharezinians"[6]
  • Rujm el Khiâri, "the cairn of the cucumber"[6]
  • Rujm el Kurrât, "the stone of the attacks"[6]
  • Rujm Kuteit, "the cairn of the cat" or "the cairn of the crag"[6]
  • Rujm el Lukâr, "the cairn of Lukâr"[6]
  • Rujm Al-Malfouf, "circular towers"[18]
  • Rujm (el Mehawâfet) el Kibliyyeh, "the southern cairn (of the boundary)"[6]
  • Rujm (el Mehawâfet) esh Shemaliyyeh, "the northern cairn (of the boundary)"[6]
  • Rujm el-Merih, (a Nabataean or Late Roman era watchtower located 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) south of Lajjun)[19]
  • Rujm el-Meshreferh (in Jordan, associated with Mizpah)[20]
  • Rujm el Mogheifir, "the cairn of the pardoned"[6]
  • Rujm el Mutukh, "the cairn of the debris"[6]
  • Rujm en Nâkeh, (Rujm en-Naqa) "the cairn of the she-camel"[6][21]
  • Rujm en Niâs, "the cairn of en Niyâs[6]
  • Rujm en Nûeita, "the cairn of the sailors"[6]
  • Rujm en Nūkb, "the cairn of the pass"[6]
  • Rujm er Refeif, "the glittering cairn"[6]
  • Rujm Reheif, "the sharp-pointed cairn"[6]
  • Rujm Reiya, "the cairn of quenching thirst," or "the cairn of sweet fragrance"[6]
  • Rujm es S'â, "the cairn of the tax-gatherers"[6]
  • Rujm es Sâîgh (Rujm as-Sayigh), "the cairn of the goldsmith"[6][22]
  • Rujm es-Sebit[23]
  • Rujm ash Shami
  • Rujm ash Shara'irah
  • Rujm esh Sheikh Suleimân, "the cairn of Sheikh Suleimân"[6]
  • Rujm Shummer, "the cairn of wild fennel"[6]
  • Rujm es Sûeif, "the cairn of the little sword"[6]
  • Rujm at Tarûd, "the cairn of the projection," or "the cairn of the prominent peak"[6]
  • Rujm Umm el 'Arâis, "the cairn of the mother of brides"[6]
  • Rujm Umm Kheir, "the cairn of Umm Kheir"[6]
  • Rujm Umm es Sata, "the cairn of the mother of the assault"[6]
  • Rujm el Waîr, "the cairn of rugged rocks"[6]
  • Rujm el Yaklûm, "the cairn of Yaklûm"[6]
  • Rujm az-Zuwaira (in Zuwaira al-Fauqa, or Upper Zohar)[24]
  • Rŭjûm el Behîmeh, "the cairns of the beast"[16]
  • Rujûm Umm Kharrûbeh, "the cairns by the locust tree" (Ceratonia siliqua)[16] (or, "the cairns of the mother of the carob tree")

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mann, 2005, p. 139.
  2. ^ a b Negev and Gibson, 2005, p. 518.
  3. ^ Stewardson, 1888, p. 100.
  4. ^ Stewardson, 1888, p. 118.
  5. ^ Carter, 1999, p. 329.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be PEF et al., 1838, p. 195.
  7. ^ Talbert, 2000, p. 1080.
  8. ^ Parker and Betylon, 2006, p. xix.
  9. ^ Parker and Betylon, 2006, p. 294.
  10. ^ Lapp, Schaub and Rast, 1989, p. 90.
  11. ^ Stewardson, 1888, p. 56.
  12. ^ Talbert, 2000, p. 1089.
  13. ^ Magness, 2004, p. 28.
  14. ^ Heinzeller and Nebelsick, 2004, p. 464.
  15. ^ "Rujm el Heri". Structural. WorldCityDB.com. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
  16. ^ a b c Stewardson, 1888, p. 136.
  17. ^ Carter, 1999, p. 209.
  18. ^ McGovern and Brown, 1986, p. 9.
  19. ^ Parker and Betylon, 2006, p. xviii.
  20. ^ Walton et al., 2000, p. 313.
  21. ^ Shatzman, 1991, p. 60.
  22. ^ Pringle, 1997, p. 9.
  23. ^ Carter, 1999, p. 192.
  24. ^ Pringle, 1997, p. 118.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carter, Charles E. (1999). The emergence of Yehud in the Persian period: a social and demographic study (Illustrated ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-84127-012-8. 
  • Lapp, Paul W.; Schaub, R. Thomas; Rast, Walter E. (1989). Bāb edh-Dhrāʻ: excavations in the cemetery directed by Paul W. Lapp (1965-67). EISENBRAUNS. ISBN 978-0-931464-51-5. 
  • Heinzeller, Thomas; Nebelsick, J. H. (2004). Echinoderms: München (Illustrated ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-36481-2. 
  • Magness, Jodi (2004). Debating Qumran: collected essays on its archaeology (Illustrated, annotated ed.). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1314-1. 
  • Mann, Joel F. (2005). An international glossary of place name elements. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5040-8. 
  • McGovern, Patrick E.; Brown, Robin (1986). The late bronze and early iron ages of central Transjordan, the Baqʻah Valley project, 1977-1981 (Illustrated ed.). UPenn Museum of Archaeology. ISBN 978-0-934718-75-2. 
  • Negev, Avraham; Gibson, Shimon (2005). Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land (4th, revised, illustrated ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-8571-7. 
  • Parker, Samuel Thomas; Betlyon, John Wilson (2006). The Roman frontier in central Jordan: final report on the Limes Arabicus Project, 1980-1989 (Illustrated ed.). Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-298-5. 
  • Pringle, Denys (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological gazetteer, Part 183 (Illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46010-1. 
  • Shatzman, Israel (1991). The armies of the Hasmonaeans and Herod: from Hellenistic to Roman frameworks. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-145617-6. 
  • Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF); Stewardson, Henry C. (1838). The Survey of Western Palestine. Printed for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund by Harrison & Sons. 
  • Stewardson, Henry C. (1888). The Survey of Western Palestine: A General Index (Electronic edition, 2005 ed.). 
  • Talbert, Richard J. A. (2000). Barrington atlas of the Greek and Roman world: map-by-map directory, Volume 1 (Illustrated ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04945-8. 
  • Walton, John H.; Matthews, Victor Harold; Chavalas, Mark William (2000). The IVP Bible background commentary: Old Testament (6th, illustrated ed.). InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-1419-0.