List of Emperors of Ethiopia

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The following is a list of Emperors of Ethiopia, from the Zagwe dynasty starting in the 9th/10th century until 1974. Kings of Axum and Dʿmt are listed separately due to numerous gaps and large flexibility in chronology.

Emperors of Ethiopia (9th/10th century–1974)[edit]

Names in italics indicate rulers who were usurpers or not widely recognized.

Ethiopian Empire (9th/10th century–1936)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Mara Takla Haymanot  ? – ?  ?  ? Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Tatadim  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Jan Seyum  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Germa Seyum  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Yemrehana Krestos  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Germa Seyum Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Kedus Harbe  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Jan Seyum Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Gebre Mesqel Lalibela  ? – ? 1189 1229 Son of Jan Seyum Zagwe Gebre Mesqel Lalibela.png
Na'akueto La'ab  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kedus Harbe Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Yetbarak  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Gebre Mesqel Lalibela Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Mairari  ? – ?  ?  ? Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Harbai  ? – ?  ?  ? Zagwe Sin foto.svg
Yekuno Amlak  ? – 19 June 1285 10 August 1270 19 June 1285 Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yagbe'u Seyon  ? – 1294 19 June 1285 1294 Son of Yekuno Amlak Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Senfa Ared IV  ? – ? 1294 1295 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Hezba Asgad  ? – ? 1295 1296 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Qedma Asgad  ? – ? 1296 1297 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Jin Asgad  ? – ? 1297 1298 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Saba Asgad  ? – ? 1298 1299 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Wedem Arad  ? – 1314 1299 1314 Brother of Yagbe'u Seyon Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Amda Seyon I  ? – 1344 1314 1344 Son of Wedem Arad Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Newaya Krestos  ? – 1372 1344 1372 Son of Amda Seyon I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Newaya Maryam  ? – 1382 1372 1382 Son of Newaya Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Dawit I  ? – 6 October 1413 1382 6 October 1413 Son of Newaya Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tewodros I  ? – 1414 1413 1414 Son of Dawit I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yeshaq I  ? – 1429 1414 1429 Son of Dawit I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Andreyas  ? – 1430 1429 1430 Son of Yeshaq I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Takla Maryam  ? – 1433 1430 1433 Son of Yeshaq I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sarwe Iyasus  ? – 1433 1433 1433 Son of Takla Maryam Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Amda Iyasus  ? – 1434 1433 1434 Son of Takla Maryam Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Zara Yaqob 1399 – 1468
(aged 69)
19/20 June 1434 1468 Son of Dawit I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Baeda Maryam I 1448 – 8 November 1478
(aged 30)
26 August 1468 8 November 1478 Son of Zara Yaqob Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Eskender 15 July 1471 – 1494
(aged 23)
1478 1494 Son of Baeda Maryam I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Amda Seyon II c. 1487 – 26 October 1494
(aged c. 7)
1494 26 October 1494 Son of Eskender Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Na'od  ? – 1508 1494 31 July 1508 Son of Baeda Maryam I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Dawit II 1501 – 2 September 1540
(aged 39)
1508 2 September 1540 Son of Na'od Solomonic Lebna Dengel.png
Gelawdewos 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559
(aged 38–37)
3 September 1540 23 March 1559 Son of Dawit II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Menas  ? – 1 February 1563 1559 1 February 1563 Son of Dawit II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sarsa Dengel 1550 – 4 October 1597
(aged 47)
1563 4 October 1597 Son of Menas Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yaqob
(1st reign)
 ? – 1606 1597 1603 Son of Sarsa Dengel Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Za Dengel  ? – 4 October 1604 1603 4 October 1604 Nephew of Sarsa Dengel Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yaqob
(2nd reign)
 ? – 1606 1604 1606 Son of Sarsa Dengel Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Susenyos I 1572 – 17 September 1632
(aged 60)
1606 17 September 1632 Grandson of Dawit II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Fasilides 1603 – 18 October 1667
(aged 64)
1632 18 October 1667 Son of Susenyos I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yohannes I  ? – 1682 1667 1682 Son of Fasilides Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyasu I
Iyasu the Great
1654 – 13 October 1706
(aged 52)
19 July 1682 13 October 1706 Son of Yohannes I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yeshaq Iyasu  ? – 1685 1685 1685 Claimed to be grandson of Susenyos I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Haymanot I  ? – 1708 27 March 1706 30 June 1708 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Amda Seyon  ? – September 1707 September 1707 September 1707 Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Tewoflos  ? – 14 October 1711 1 July 1708 14 October 1711 Son of Fasilides Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Nebahne Yohannes  ? – ? 1709 July 1710 Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Yostos  ? – 1716 14 October 1711 19 February 1716 Grandson of Iyasu I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Dawit III 1695 – 1721
(aged 26)
8 February 1716 18 May 1721 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Bakaffa  ? – 19 September 1730 18 May 1721 19 September 1730 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyasu II (1723-10-21)21 October 1723 – 27 June 1755(1755-06-27) (aged 31) 19 September 1730 27 June 1755 Son of Bakaffa Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Hezqeyas  ? – ? 1736 1737 Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Iyoas I c. 1740 – 14 May 1769
(aged c. 19)
27 June 1755 7 May 1769 Son of Iyasu II.
The beginning of the Zemene Mesafint
Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yohannes II  ? – 18 October 1769 7 May 1769 18 October 1769 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Haymanot II
(1st reign)
1754 – 7 September 1777
(aged 23)
18 October 1769 August 1770 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Susenyos II  ? – c. 1771 August 1770 December 1770 Possibly the illegitimate son of Iyasu II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Haymanot II
(2nd reign)
1754 – 7 September 1777
(aged 23)
December 1770 13 April 1777 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Salomon II  ? – ? 13 April 1777 20 July 1779 Son of Abeto Adigo Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(1st reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
20 July 1779 8 February 1784 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyasu III  ? – by 1810 16 February 1784 24 April 1788 Grandson of Iyasu II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyasu  ? – May 1813 1787 1788 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Baeda Maryam  ? – ? 1787 1788 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Haymanot  ? – before 1810 February 1788 1789 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(2nd reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
24 April 1788 26 July 1789 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Hezqeyas  ? – 13 September 1813 26 July 1789 January 1794 Son of Iyasu III Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(3rd reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
January 1794 15 April 1795 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Baeda Maryam II  ? – ? 15 April 1795 December 1795 Possibly son of Salomon II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(4th reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
December 1795 20 May 1796 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Salomon III
(1st reign)
 ? – ? 20 May 1796 15 July 1797 Son of Tekle Haymanot II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yonas  ? – May 1813 18 August 1797 4 January 1798 Grandson of Fasilides Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(5th reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
4 January 1798 20 May 1799 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Salomon III
(2nd reign)
 ? – ? 20 May 1799 15 July 1799 Son of Tekle Haymanot II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Demetros
(1st reign)
 ? – 1802 25 July 1799 24 March 1800 Son of Arqedewos Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Tekle Giyorgis I
(6th reign)
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
24 March 1800 June 1800 Son of Yohannes II Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Demetros
(2nd reign)
 ? – 1802 June 1800 June 1801 Son of Arqedewos Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Egwale Seyon  ? – 12 June 1818 June 1801 12 June 1818 Son of Hezqeyas Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyoas II  ? – 3 June 1821 14 June 1818 3 June 1821 Son of Hezqeyas Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Gigar
(1st reign)
c. 1745 – 26 November 1832?
(aged c. 87)
3 June 1821 April 1826 Possibly son of Iyasu II Possibly Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Baeda Maryam III  ? – ? April 1826 April 1826 Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Gigar
(2nd reign)
c. 1745 – 26 November 1832?
(aged c. 87)
April 1826 18 June 1830 Possibly son of Iyasu II Possibly Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Iyasu IV  ? – ? 18 June 1830 18 March 1832 Son of Salomon III Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Gebre Krestos
(1st reign)
 ? – ? 18 March 1832 1832 Allegedly a descendant of Fasilides Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sahle Dengel
(1st reign)
 ? – ? 1832 1832 Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Gebre Krestos
(2nd reign)
 ? – ? 1832 8 June 1832 Allegedly a descendant of Fasilides Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Egwale Anbesa  ? – ? 1832 1832 Non-Dynastic Sin foto.svg
Sahle Dengel
(2nd reign)
 ? – ? October 1832 29 August 1840 Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yohannes III
(1st reign)
c. 1797 – c. 1873
(aged c. 77)
30 August 1840 October 1841 Son of Tekle Giyorgis I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sahle Dengel
(3rd reign)
 ? – ? October 1841 1845 Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yohannes III
(2nd reign)
c. 1797 – c. 1873
(aged c. 77)
1845 1845 Son of Tekle Giyorgis I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sahle Dengel
(4th reign)
 ? – ? 1845 1850 Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Yohannes III
(3rd reign)
c. 1797 – c. 1873
(aged c. 77)
1850 1851 Son of Tekle Giyorgis I Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Sahle Dengel
(5th reign)
 ? – ? 1851 11 February 1855 Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic Sin foto.svg
Tewodros II c. 1818 – 13 April 1855
(aged c. 50)
11 February 1855 13 April 1868 Son of Haile Giorgis Wolde Giorgis.
The end of the Zemene Mesafint
Claimed the Solomonic lineage later in his reign Téwodros II - 2.jpg
Tekle Giyorgis II  ? – 1873 11 June 1868 11 July 1871 Son of Wagshum Gebre Medhin Claimed both the Zagwe and the Solomonic lineage Sin foto.svg
Yohannes IV (1837-07-11)11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889(1889-03-10) (aged 51) 11 July 1871 10 March 1889 Son of Dejazmatch Mercha Solomonic
(Tigrean Branch)
Yohannesson.jpg
Menelik II[1] (1844-08-17)17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913(1913-12-12) (aged 69) 10 March 1889 12 December 1913 Son of Negus Haile Melekot Solomonic Menelik II - 4.jpg
Iyasu V[2] (1895-02-04)4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935(1935-11-25) (aged 40) 12 December 1913 27 September 1916 Grandson of Menelik II Solomonic Yasu V.jpg
Zewditu I[3] (1876-04-29)29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930(1930-04-02) (aged 53) 27 September 1916 2 April 1930 Daughter of Menelik II Solomonic Ethiopia empress zauditu.jpg
Haile Selassie I
(1st reign)[4]
(1892-07-23)23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975(1975-08-27) (aged 83) 2 April 1930 2 May 1936 Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael Solomonic Selassie restored.jpg

Italian East Africa (1936–1941)[edit]

Emperor of Ethiopia:

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Victor Emmanuel III[5] (1869-11-11)11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947(1947-12-28) (aged 78) 9 May 1936 5 May 1941 Son of Umberto I Savoy Vitorioemanuel.jpg

Viceroys and Governors-General of Italian East Africa:

Ethiopian Empire restored (1941–1974)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Haile Selassie I
(2nd reign)[6]
(1892-07-29)29 July 1892 – 27 August 1975(1975-08-27) (aged 83) 5 May 1941 12 September 1974 Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael Solomonic Selassie restored.jpg
Amha Selassie I[7] (1916-07-27)27 July 1916 – 17 February 1997(1997-02-17) (aged 80) 12 September 1974 21 March 1975 Son of Haile Selassie I Solomonic Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen.jpg

Imperial Standard[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Previously King of Shewa from 1855 to 1856, and from 1865 to 1889. Ruled together with Empress Taytu Betul from 1906 to 1913.
  2. ^ Never officially crowned as Emperor; deposed by nobility with the sanction of the Church.
  3. ^ Ruled under the regency of Ras Tafari Makonnen (future Haile Selassie I).
  4. ^ De facto ruler of the country as regent from 1916 to 1930. Crowned as King in 1928.
  5. ^ Unrecognized only by the United States and Soviet Union in 1940. Renounced title in 1943.
  6. ^ Briefly deposed during the 1960 coup attempt.
  7. ^ Designated "King" (not Emperor) by the Derg while out of the country, did not take throne.

References[edit]