Grand Prince of Kiev
Grand Prince of Kiev (sometimes Grand Duke of Kiev) was the title of the Kievan prince and the ruler of Kievan Rus' from the 9th to 12th centuries.
The Annals of St. Bertin (Annales Bertiniani) for the year 839 became the first written record on the Rus'/Rhos. Louis the Pious, the Frankish emperor, came to the conclusion that the people called Rhos (qui se, id est gentem suum, Rhos vocari dicebant) belong to the gens of Swedes (eos gentis esse Sueonum).
Most of modern surveys of Rus' history narrate that in these Frankish annals the ruler of the Rhos/Rus (people of Swedish origin) was called chaganus (Latin form of the Turk word khaqan, or khagan, qaghan, qagan), similar to the Khazar chaqan (khaqan), a title of a prime ruler in the nomadic societies in Eurasia.
Yet the original Latin text, published by Georg Weitz in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in 1883, contains a very significant difference from modern translations: it says the ruler of the Rhos was named not chaganus, but chacanus. Based on such a spelling of the royal name, chacanus, some historians thought that it simply meant the Scandianvian name Håkan. Such an interpretation of the passage in the Annales Bertiniani suggests that by 839 this konung Hakan, accompanied by his military followers from Scandinavia, most likely from East Sweden, operated in North Rus'. The Khagan-versus-Håkan debate, started in the 18th century, is still alive, although at present there is almost total unity of opinion that the title of the ruler of Rus' is of Khazar origin.
Rurik (Rørik in Old East Norse), a semi-legendary Scandinavian Varangian, was the founder of Rurik Dynasty, which ruled Kievan Rus', Rus' principalities and early Russian Tsardom for the next 700 years. Genealogical DNA test results of modern Rurikid princes indicate that Rurik was of Finno-Ugrian descent (haplogroup N1c1)., however the Rurikids do not possess the DYS390=24 mutation associated with the Finnic languages, theirs remaining the ancestral DYS390=23, with the Rurikid haplotype itself (all values considered) more closely associated with [North] Germanic speakers (Varangians). Rurik's capital was Holmgard (Novgorod), a city settled by Slavic and Finno-Ugrian peoples (now north-western Russia). His successor Oleg relocated the capital to Kiev (now the capital of Ukraine) at around 880, laying the foundation of what has become known as Kievan Rus'.
While the early rulers of Rus' were Scandinavians, they gradually merged into the local Slavic population but in the 11th century, dynastic links still remained; Yaroslav the Wise, (called Jarisleif in Scandinavian chronicles), married a Swedish princess Ingigerd, gave asylum to king Olaf II of Norway, and invited Harald Hardrada, later king Harald III of Norway, and his warriors to fight for him. According to Adam of Bremen, Anund Gårdske, a man from Kievan Rus' was elected king of Sweden, ca 1070. As he was a Christian, however, he refused to sacrifice to the Aesir at the Temple at Uppsala and he was deposed by popular vote.
The unity of Kievan Rus' gradually declined, and by 1136 Kievan Rus' had shattered into a number of smaller states, the southern of which contested control of Kiev. Finally, Kievan Rus' was destroyed by the Mongols in the period of 1237–1240, but the Rurikid line persisted and continued to rule Rus' principalities.
Princes of Kiev 
Legendary princes of Kiev 
According to some Ukrainian historians (i.e. Kanyhin, Tkachuk), Ptolemy's mention of Metropolis, Sarmatian town on Dnieper River (the name Dnieper is derived from Sarmatian (Iranian) Dānu apara "the river far away"), shows the ancient existence of Kiev.
- Bozh (Bož, Boz), (died c. 376 CE)
Bozh was a prince of Antes, the east Slavic people (slavized Sarmatians) who inhabited the territories between the Dniester River and the middle Dnieper River, near the present-day city of Kiev. He was killed by Winithar (Viniþa-harjis, "Veneti-killer"), prince of Ostrogoths, soon after the Hunnic invasion which took place in c. 376.
- Alyp-bi (378–390)
According to some Slavic historians (i.e. Alexander Veltman), the ancient Koueve or Kievans from folk legends entered the Gothic history under the name Kwäne, Quene, Choani, Cunni, Chuni, and in the end Hunni; the town of Kiev got the name Kiänugard, Kuenagard, Konagard, Kunagard, Hunugard.
- Kyi (legendary)
According to Slavophiles, Kyi ruled since 430, one of the dates attributed to the legendary founding of Kiev in 482, although that date relates to Kovin on the Danube in Serbia. Some historians speculate that Kyi was a Slavic prince of eastern Polans in the 6th century. Kyi's legacy along with Shchek's is mentioned in the Book of Veles, authenticity of which, however, is disputed.
- Oleg (Oldegar) (8th century)
Oleg, an apocryphal Kiev voivode, probably of Danish or Swedish origin, under the overlordship of the Khazar Khaganate.
- Bravlin (c. 790 – c. 810)
- Dir (Dyri) (c. 838–882)
According to some Russian historians (i.e. Gleb S. Lebedev), Dir was a chacanus of Rhos (Rus' khaqan). Thomas Noonan asserts that one of the Rus' "sea-kings", the "High king", adopted the title khagan in the early 9th century. Peter Benjamin Golden maintained that the Rus' became a part of the Khazar federation, and that their ruler was officially accepted as a vassal kagan of the Khazar Khaqan of Itil.
Some western historians (i.e. Kevin Alan Brook) suppose that Kiev was founded by Khazars or Magyars, both Turkic peoples. Kiev is a Turkic place name (Küi = riverbank + ev = settlement). At least during the 8th and 9th centuries Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire (a hill-fortress, called Sambat, "high place" in Old Turkic). According to Omeljan Pritsak, Constantine Zuckerman and other scholars, Khazars lost Kiev at the beginning of the 10th century.
Rurik Dynasty 
The Rurikids were descendants of Rurik (Rørikr), a Varangian pagan chieftain, according to the FamilyTreeDNA Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project, Rurik appears to have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup N1c1, based on testing of his modern male line descendants. But while genetically related to the later Baltic Finnic peoples, the Rurikids do not possess the DYS390=24 mutation associated with the Finnic languages, theirs remaining the ancestral DYS390=23 (which is also found among West Finns), with the Rurikid haplotype itself (all values considered) more closely associated with [North] Germanic speakers (Varangians).
All the rulers of Kievan Rus' before the conversion of Vladimir I and all the country to Christianity are Pagan rulers, except Olga of Kiev. In the period between the 2nd half of the 13th century and the 2nd half of the 14th century, princes of Kiev were forced to accept Mongol/Tatar overlordship.
|Portrait||Name||Born-Died||Ruled From||Ruled Until|
|Rurik I, founder of the dynasty.||c. 830 – 879||864||879|
|Oleg the Seer (Helgi), Varangian konung of Holmgård (Novgorod) and Kønugård (Kiev)||?–912||882||912|
|Igor I (Ingvar), the son of Rurik I||?–945||912||945|
|St.Olga (Helga) (regent), was baptized by Emperor Constantine VII but failed to bring Christianity to Kiev||?–969||945||962|
|Sviatoslav I (Sven), the first true ruler of Rus' who destroyed the Khazar Khaganate and united all of the Rus' principalities under the Kiev throne||942–972||962||972|
|Yaropolk I (Jaropolk), supposedly was baptised into Catholicism, and then was murdered by two Varangians||958 (960?)–980||972||980|
|Vladimir I the Great (Valdamarr), son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha, his early rule is characterized by a staunch pagan reaction but in 988 he was baptized into Orthodoxy and successfully converted Kievan Rus' to Christianity||958–1015||980||1015|
|Sviatopolk I the Accursed (Sventopluk), son of Yaropolk I and a Greek nun||980–1019||1015||1019|
|Yaroslav I the Wise (Jarizleifr), son of Vladimir the Great (Valdamarr) and Rogneda of Polotsk (Ragnhild), Prince of Rostov, Prince of Novgorod, and Grand Prince of Kiev; during his reign Kievan Rus' reached the pinnacle of its power||978–1054||1019||1054|
|Iziaslav I of Kiev, son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, first time||1024–1078||1054||1068|
|Vseslav I of Polotsk, son of Bryachislav of Polotsk and unknown mother, a brief ruler during Iziaslav's official reign||1039–1101||1068||1069|
|Iziaslav I of Kiev, second time||1024–1078||1069||1073|
|Sviatoslav II of Kiev (on picture, first from right), son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden||1027–1076||1073||1076|
|Iziaslav I of Kiev, third time, first King of Rus' (Pope Gregory VII sent him a crown from Rome in 1075)||1024–1078||1076||1078|
|Vsevolod I of Kiev, son of Yaroslav and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden||1030–1093||1078||1093|
|Sviatopolk II of Kiev, son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland||1050–1113||1093||1113|
|Vladimir II Monomakh, son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of Byzantium, he is considered to be the last ruler of the united Kievan Rus'||1053–1125||1113||1125|
|Mstislav I the Great, known as Harald in the Norse Sagas, son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex, after his reign Kievan Rus' fell into recession starting a rapid decline||1076–1132||1125||1132|
|Yaropolk II, brother of Mstislav I.||1082–1139||1132||1139|
|Viacheslav I, brother of Yaropolk II and Mstislav II. First time.||1083–1154||1139||1139|
|Vsevolod II, married Maria, sister of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I.||?–1146||1139||1146|
|Igor II, brother of Vsevolod II.||?–1147||1146||1146|
|Iziaslav II, son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden. First time||1097–1154||1146||1149|
|Yuri I Dolgorukiy, first time||1099–1157||1149||1151|
|Viacheslav I, Second time, jointly with Iziaslav II||1083–1154||1151||1154|
|Iziaslav II, second time, jointly with Viacheslav I.||1097–1154||1151||1154|
|Rostislav I, brother of Iziaslav II. First time||1110–1167||1154||1154|
|Iziaslav III, grandson of Sviatoslav II. First time.||?–1162||1154||1155|
|Yuri I Dolgorukiy, second time.||1099–1157||1155||1157|
|Iziaslav III, second time.||?–1162||1157||1158|
|Rostislav I, second time. Jointly with Iziaslav III in 1162.||1110–1167||1158||1167|
|Iziaslav III, third time, jointly with Rostislav I.||?–1162||1162||1162|
|Mstislav II, son of Iziaslav II and Agnes of Germany. First time.||?–1172||1167||1169|
|Gleb, son of Yuri Dolgorukiy. First time.||?–1171||1169||1169|
|Mstislav II, second time.||?–1172||1170||1170|
|Gleb, second time.||?–1171||1170||1171|
|Vladimir III, son of Mstislav I the Great.||1132–1173||1171||1171|
|Michael I, half-brother of Gleb.||?–1176||1171||1171|
|Roman I, son of Rostislav I and Agnes of Swabia. First time.||?–1180||1171||1173|
|Vsevolod III the Big Nest, brother of Michael I.||1154–1212||1173||1173|
|Rurik II, brother of Roman I. First time.||?–1215||1173||1173|
|Sviatoslav III, son of Vsevolod II. First time.||?–1194||1174||1174|
|Yaroslav II, son of Iziaslav II. First time.||?–1180||1174||1175|
|Roman I, second time.||?–1180||1175||1177|
|Sviatoslav III, second time.||?–1194||1177||1180|
|Yaroslav II, second time.||?–1180||1180||1180|
|Rurik II, second time.||?–1215||1180||1182|
|Sviatoslav III, third time.||?–1194||1182||1194|
|Rurik II, third time.||?–1215||1194||1202|
|Igor III, son of Yaroslav II. First time.||?–?||1202||1202|
|Rurik II, fourth time, jointly with Roman II and Rostislav II (until 1205).||?–1215||1203||1205|
|Roman II the Great, son of Mstislav II. In his first time ruled jointly with Rurik II and Rostislav II (until 1205).||1160–1205||1203||1205|
|Rostislav II, son of Rurik II. Ruled jointly with his father 1204–1206 and with Roman II 1204–1205.||1173–1214||1204||1206|
|Rurik II, fifth time, jointly with his son Rostislav II.||?–1215||1206||1206|
|Vsevolod IV the Red, son of Sviatoslav III. His baptismal name was "Daniil" (Daniel). First time.||?–1212||1206||1207|
|Rurik II, sixth and last time.||?–1215||1207||1210|
|Vsevolod IV the Red, second time.||?–1212||1210||1212|
|Igor III, second time.||?–?||1212||1214|
|Mstislav III, son of Roman I.||?–1223||1214||1223|
|Vladimir IV, brother of Rostislav II.||1187–1239||1223||1235|
|Iziaslav IV, a member of Rurik dynasty, descendant of Rurik I.||1186–?||1235||1236|
|Yaroslav III, son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. First time||1191–1246||1236||1238|
|Michael II, son of Vsevolod IV. First time.||1185–1246||1238||1239|
|Rostislav III, son of Michael II.||1210–1262||1239||1239|
|Daniel, son of Roman II the Great.||1201–1264||1239||1240|
|Michael II, second time.||1185–1246||1241||1243|
|Yaroslav III, second time||1191–1246||1243||1246|
|St. Alexander Nevsky, son of Yaroslav III.||1220–1263||1246||1263|
|Yaroslav IV, brother of Alexander.||1230–1271||1263||1271|
|Lev, son of Daniel.||1228–1301||1271||1301|
- Since 1321 or 1324: Annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- Olgimont-Mykhailo (Algimantas Alšėniškis) (1324–1331)
- Fiodor of Kiev (Teodoras Butvydaitis) (1331–1362)
Princes of Kiev (in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ) 
- Vladimiras Algirdaitis (Volodymyr Olgerdovych) (1362–1394)
- Skirgaila (1395–1397)
- Ivan Olshansky (Jonas Alšėniškis) (1397 – c. 1402)
- Jurgis Gedgaudas (Jerzy Giedygołd) (1404–1411)
- Andrius Jonaitis Alšėniškis (Andriy Ivanovych Olshansky) (c. 1412 – c. 1422)
- Mykolas Jonaitis Alšėniškis (Mykhailo Ivanovych Olshansky) (1422–1432)
- Mykolas Simonaitis Alšėniškis (Mykhailo Semenovych Boloban Olshansky) (1433–1435)
- Švitrigaila (1435 – c. 1440), Grand Duke of the Duchy of Ruthenia (1432 – c. 1440)
- Aleksandras Olelka (Olelko Volodymyrovych) (1443–1454)
- Simonas Olelkaitis (Semen Olelkovych) (1454–1471)
See also 
- Franklin, Simon and Shepard, Jonathan (1996). The Emergence of Rus, 750–1200. Longman History of Russia, ed. Harold Shukman. Longman, London. ISBN 0-582-49091-X
- Garipzanov, Ildar (2006). The Annals of St. Bertin and the Chacanus of the Rhos. University of Bergen
- Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-04-13874-9
- Dunn, Dennis J. (2004). The Catholic Church and Russia: Popes, Patriarchs, Tsars and Commissars. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 0-7546-3610-0.
- DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes
- Stratification of Y-haplogroup N1c, Jaakko Häkkinen. August 5, 2010. University of Helsinki.
- Kendrick, T. D. (2004). A History of the Vikings. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 151–152. ISBN 0-486-43396-X.
- Stone, David R. (2006). A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-275-98502-4.
- Wilson, Andrew (2000). The Ukrainians. Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08355-6
- Magosci, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7820-6.
- Spevák, Tomáš (2006). The Kievans and the Past of Europe
- Noonan, Thomas (2001). The Khazar Qaghanate and Its Impact On the Early Rus' State: The translatio imperii from Itil to Kiev. Nomads in the Sedentary World, Anatoly Mikhailovich Khazanov and Andre Wink, eds. p. 76-102. Richmond, England: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1370-0
- Golden, Peter Benjamin (1982). The Question of the Rus' Qaganate. Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. pp. 77-92
- Brook, Kevin Alan (1996-2009). An Introduction to the History of Khazaria
- Pritsak, Omeljan (1981). The origin of Rus. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
- Zuckerman, Constantine (2007). The Khazars and Byzantium - The First Encounter. In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 399-432. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
- Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project - News
- Leszek Moczulski, Narodziny Międzymorza, p.475, Bellona SA, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 978-83-11-10826-4
- Ярополк is modern Ukrainian, Jaropełk is Polish, Jaropluk is Czech, Jaropelkas is Lithuanian, Iaropelkos is Greek, Jaropolk is German and Swedish.
- The Old Slavonic is Свѧтопълкъ in the Cyrillic alphabet, the modern Ukrainian is Святополк, Polish is Świętopełk, Czech is Svatopluk, and Slovak is Svätopluk. Reconstructed, his name is Sventopluk. More commonly, his name is given in its Latin and Frankish equivalents: Suentopolcus, Suatopluk, Zventopluk, Zwentibald, Zwentibold, Zuentibold, or Zuentibald.