Rum Patrol

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Rum Patrol
Rum Patrol ships Tucker and Cassin.jpg
Rum Patrol ships USCGD Cassin and USCGD Tucker, circa 1930.
Objective Enforce prohibition in United States waters.
Date 1920 - 1933
Executed by  United States

The Rum Patrol was an operation of the United States Coast Guard to interdict liquor smuggling vessels, known as "rum runners" in order to enforce prohibition in American waters. On 18 December 1917, the 18th Amendment to the Constitution was submitted to the states by Congress. On 16 January 1919, the amendment was ratified and the Liquor Prohibition Amendment, which prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, or exportation of intoxicating liquors, came into effect on 16 January 1920.

Origin[edit]

The establishment of prohibition gave rise to smuggling of illicit liquor into the United States and, to deal with this problem, twenty-five destroyers were transferred by the United States Navy to the Treasury Department for service with the Coast Guard. Some began to show signs of wear and tear after the often arduous pace of operations on the Rum Patrol and required replacement. Accordingly, five of the newer flush deck destroyers were transferred to the Treasury Department in 1930-1931.

It was thought that adapting these older vessels for Coast Guard service would be less costly than building new ships. In the end, however, the rehabilitation of the vessels became a saga in itself because of the exceedingly poor condition of many of these war-weary ships. In many instances, it took nearly a year to bring the vessels up to seaworthiness. Additionally, these were by far the largest and most sophisticated vessels ever operated by the service, and trained personnel were nearly nonexistent. As a result, Congress authorized hundreds of new enlistees. These inexperienced men generally made up the destroyer crews.

Some of the destroyers were pre-World War I 742-ton "flivvers", capable of over 25 kn (29 mph; 46 km/h) — an advantage in the rum-chasing business. They were, however, easily outmaneuvered by smaller vessels. The destroyers’ mission, therefore, was to picket the larger mother ships and prevent them from off-loading their cargo onto the smaller, speedier contact boats that ran the liquor into shore.

On 20 February 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution, the repeal of Amendment 18, was proposed by Congress and ratification was completed on 5 December 1933. This eliminated the need for the Rum Patrol. The remaining destroyers were returned to the Navy and sold for scrap.

Ships of the Patrol[edit]

Coast Guard designation Navy designation USCG Commissioning USCG Decommissioning
CG-01USCGD Cassin (CG-1) DD-043USS Cassin (DD-43) 30 August 1924 5 June 1933
CG-02USCGD Conyngham (CG-2) DD-058USS Conyngham (DD-58) 8 March 1925 5 June 1933
CG-03USCGD Cummings (CG-3) DD-044USS Cummings (DD-44) 15 May 1925 30 April 1932
CG-04USCGD Downes (CG-4) DD-045USS Downes (DD-45) 14 October 1924 18 November 1930
CG-05USCGD Ericsson (CG-5) DD-056USS Ericsson (DD-56) 28 May 1925 30 April 1932
CG-07USCGD Porter (CG-7) DD-059USS Porter (DD-59) 20 February 1925 5 June 1933
CG-08USCGD Ammen (CG-8) DD-035USS Ammen (DD-35) 22 January 1925 18 May 1931
CG-10USCGD Burrows (CG-10) DD-029USS Burrows (DD-29) 30 June 1925 14 February 1931
CG-11USCGD Fanning (CG-11) DD-037USS Fanning (DD-37) 30 May 1925 12 August 1930
CG-12USCG Henley (CG-12) DD-039USS Henley (DD-39) 14 November 1924 30 January 1931
CG-14USCGD McCall (CG-14) DD-028USS McCall (DD-28) 17 June 1925 12 August 1930
CG-15USCGD Monaghan (CG-15) DD-032USS Monaghan (DD-32) 30 June 1925 29 January 1931
CG-16USCGD Patterson (CG-16) DD-036USS Patterson (DD-36) 24 November 1924 1 April 1930
CG-17USCGD Paulding (CG-17) DD-022USS Paulding (DD-22) 23 January 1925 12 August 1930
CG-18USCGD Roe (CG-18) DD-024USS Roe (DD-24) 30 May 1925 4 March 1930
CG-18USCGD Hunt (CG-18) DD-194USS Hunt (DD-194) 5 February 1931 28 May 1934
CG-19USCGD Terry (CG-19) DD-025USS Terry (DD-25) 30 June 1925 12 August 1930
CG-19USCGD Wood (CG-19) DD-195USS Welborn C. Wood (DD-195) 15 April 1931 21 May 1934
CG-20USCGD Trippe (CG-20) DD-033USS Trippe (DD-33) 24 June 1924 15 April 1931
CG-20USCGD Semmes (CG-20) DD-189USS Semmes (DD-189) 25 April 1932 20 April 1934
CG-21USCGD Davis (CG-21) DD-065USS Davis (DD-65) 4 September 1926 5 June 1933
CG-22USCGD Shaw (CG-22) DD-068USS Shaw (DD-68) 13 July 1926 5 June 1933
CG-23USCGD Tucker (CG-23) DD-057USS Tucker (DD-57) 29 September 1926 5 June 1933
CG-24USCGD Wainwright (CG-24) DD-062USS Wainwright (DD-62) 30 July 1926 29 March 1934
CG-25USCGD Wilkes (CG-25) DD-067USS Wilkes (DD-67) 23 August 1926 29 March 1934

References[edit]