|Town or city||Rundāle municipality|
|Client||Ernst Johann von Biron|
|Design and construction|
Rundāle Palace (Latvian: Rundāles pils; German: Schloss Ruhental, formerly also Ruhenthal and Ruhendahl) is one of the two major baroque palaces built for the Dukes of Courland in what is now Latvia, the other being Jelgava Palace. The palace was built in two periods, from 1736 until 1740 and from 1764 until 1768. It is situated at Pilsrundāle, 12 km west of Bauska.
In 1735 Duke of Courland Ernst Johann von Biron bought land in Rundāle with old medieval castle in the teritory of planned summer residence. Old castle was demolished and construction works after Bartolomeo Rastrelli design started in 1736. However construction works proceeded quite slowly because part of the materials and resources were transferred to construction of Jelgava Palace, project which was more important for the duke. Following Biron's fall from grace in 1740, the palace stood unfinished and empty until the 1762, when Biron returned from his exile. Under Rastrelli supervision its construction was finished in 1768. Johann Michael Graff produced lavish stucco decorations for the palace during this time.
After Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was absorbed by the Russian Empire in 1795, Catherine the Great presented the palace to Count Valerian Zubov, the youngest brother of her lover, Prince Platon Zubov. He spent his declining years there after the death of Valerian Zubov in 1804. His young widow, Thekla Walentinowicz, a local landowner's daughter, remarried Count Shuvalov, thus bringing the palace to the Shuvalov family, with whom it remained until the German occupation in World War I when the German army established a hospital and a commandant's office there. In 1812 Palace was used as hospital also for Napaleons army. Several soldiers who died in this hospital was buried in the park of the Palace. Now a monument is built there. In the end of the 19th. century palace and park was actively restored and reconstructed.
The palace suffered serious damage in 1919 during the Latvian War of Independence. During their retreat Bermontians partly burned the Palace. In 1920 after Latvian agrarian reforms Palace became property of Ministry of Agriculture. Part of the premises were occupied by the local school and part was reconstructed as a flats for latvian military veterans. In 1924 Rundāle Palace was included in the list of the State protection monuments however it was still used as a school. In 1933, Rundāle Palace was taken over by the Ministry of the Education and was officially reconstructed for the needs of school.
Palace dealt a serious blow after World War II, when the grain storehouse was set up in the premises but there was also still school located in Palace. Later, the former duke's dining room was transformed into the school's gymnasium. School was located in the Palace until 1978. In 1963 Rundāle Palace became branch of the Bauska local history museum. In 1965 and later also in 1971 Supreme soviet of Latvian SSR took decision on the restoration of the Rundāle Palace. In 1972 Rundāle Palace Museum was established. Latvian painter and art historian Imants Lancmanis became director of the new museum and restoration of the Palace became his life's work. Extensive research and restoration work started in the palace which was completely funded by the state until 1992. After restoration of Latvia's independence state continued to partly finance restoration works however part of the finances was attracted through private donations and later also through Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund of the EU. In the spring of the 2015 it was announced that restoration works in the Rundāle Palace are finished. All restoration costs from 1972 until 2014 are counted aprox. 8 420 495 Euros.
The palace is one of the major tourist destinations in Latvia. It is also used for the accommodation of notable guests, such as the leaders of foreign nations. The palace and the surrounding gardens are now a museum.
- Lancmanis, Imants, Rundāle Palace, Rundāle Palace Museum, 2007 ISBN 9984-9668-4-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rundāle Palace.|
- The Rundāle Palace Museum website.
- Rundāle Palace presented by Castles on the Web photoarchive
- Rundāle Palace Stock Photography
- The local tourist office in Bauska
- Virtual tour of the Rundale palace at Virtual Latvia project
- Rundāle Parish on Rundale.lv