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The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Mauritius, Seychelles, Maldives, Indonesia (as the rupiah), and formerly those of Burma and Afghanistan. Historically, the first currency called "rupiya" was introduced around 900 BCE by mahajnapadas.
The history of the rupees traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BC. Ancient India was the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. The term is from rūpya, a Sanskrit term for silver coin, from Sanskrit rūpá, beautiful form.
In the Maldives, the unit of currency is known as the rufiyah, which is a cognate of the Hindi rupiya. Both the Indian rupees () and the Pakistani rupee are subdivided into one hundred paise (singular paisa) or pice. The Mauritian and Sri Lankan rupees subdivide into 100 cents. The Nepalese rupee subdivides into one hundred paisas (both singular and plural) or four sukas or two mohors.
Afghanistan's currency was also denominated in Afghan rupees until 1925, with each Afghan rupee subdividing into 60 paisas. Prior to the introduction of the Afghan rupee in 1891, the legal currency was the Kabuli rupee. Until the middle of the 20th century, Tibet's official currency was also known as the Tibetan rupee. The Indian rupee was the official currency of Dubai and Qatar until 1959, when India created a new Gulf rupee (also known as the "external rupee") to hinder the smuggling of gold. The Gulf rupee was legal tender until 1966, when India significantly devalued the Indian rupee and a new Qatar-Dubai Riyal was established to provide economic stability.
- 1 Alternative names and pronunciations
- 2 Countries currently using the rupee or similar
- 3 Etymology
- 4 Value
- 5 Denomination
- 6 East African Coast and South Arabia
- 7 Straits Settlements
- 8 Sign
- 9 Fictional use
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Alternative names and pronunciations
Countries currently using the rupee or similar
|Countries||Currency||ISO 4217 code||Its exchange rate to the US Dollar as of 27 October 2014|
|India||Indian rupee||INR||61.310 Indian Rupees|
|Nepal||Nepalese rupee||NPR||99.670 Nepalese Rupees|
|Maldives||Maldivian rufiyaa||MVR||15.370 Maldivian rufiyaa|
|Indonesia||Indonesian rupiah||IDR||12,160.00 Indonesian Rupiahs|
|Pakistan||Pakistani rupee||PKR||102.90 Pakistani Rupees|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Lankan rupee||LKR||130.850 Sri Lankan Rupees|
|Mauritius||Mauritian rupee||MUR||31.70 Mauritian Rupees|
|Seychelles||Seychellois rupee||SCR||13.870 Seychellois Rupees|
The Hindi word rūpiya is derived form Sanskrit word rūpya, which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin". It is derived from the noun rūpa "shape, likeness, image". The word rūpa is being further identified as having sprung from the Dravidian (proto-Tamil) root uruppu, which means "a member of the body".
Rūpya was used as a generic descriptor or a common noun for silver coins of any denomination at least since the Magadha kingdom. Rūpiya was adopted as the name of a silver coin weighing 178 grains minted in northern India by Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule between 1540 and 1545. Suri also introduced copper coins called dam and gold coins called mohur that weighed 169 grains.
The history of the rupees traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BC. Ancient India was the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. The coin has been used since then, even during the times of British India, defined as 11.66g of .917% silver with an ASW of .3437 of a Troy ounce (that is, silver worth about US$10 at modern prices). At the end of the 19th century, the Indian silver rupee went unto a gold exchange standard at a fixed rate of one rupee to one shilling and fourpence in British currency, or 15 rupees to 1 pound sterling.
Valuation of the rupee based on its silver content had severe consequences in the 19th century, when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of vast quantities of silver in the United States and various European colonies resulted in a decline in the relative value of silver to gold.
Each circulating coin of British India and later India and Pakistan, until the rupee was decimalised, had a different name in practice. A paisa was equal to two dhelas, three pies and six damarees. While a coin was minted for pie after independence in Pakistan for a very short period, a dhela and a damaree were never minted. Other coins for two paisas (taka), two annas (dawannee), four annas (a chawanee, or a quarter of a rupee), eight annas (an atthannee, or half a rupee) were widely in use until decimalization in 1961.The names of these coins denotes the numeral of their value in annas in Urdu except taka (two paisas or half an anna). While the word taka was commonly used in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), alternatively for rupee, the two paise coin was called a taka in West Pakistan. Taka is an ancient Sanskrit word for money. After the partition of India, these coins remained in circulation until decimalization in 1961 in Pakistan. As the value of rupee rapidly eroded over the years, minting of the fractions of decimalized rupee has been completely abandoned. Presently, bank notes and some coins of 5 and 10 rupees are rarely in use and the paper currency is the sole method of any cash transaction. All fractions of the rupee are of only historical significance and no fractions are in use at all. It is, however, interesting that a taka in West Pakistan was worth two paises while this word was used alternatively for rupee in East Pakistan. After its independence, Bangladesh started to officially call its currency "taka" (BDT) in 1971.
Early 19th-century East India Company rupees were used in Australia for a limited period. Decimalisation occurred in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1969, in India in 1957, and in Pakistan in 1961. Thus, an Indian rupee is now divided into 100 paise and so is the Pakistani rupee. Paisa is sometimes referred to as naya-paisa, meaning the "new-money" in India, a habit continued from when India became independent—when the new country introduced new currency, people used naya-paisa to distinguish it from the old currency. The issuance of the Indian currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India, whereas in Pakistan it is controlled by State Bank of Pakistan. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is "Rs". India adopted a new symbol () for Indian rupees on 15 July 2010.
In most parts of India, the rupee is known as rupaya, rupaye, or one of several other terms derived from the Sanskrit rupya, meaning silver. However, in the Bengali and Assamese languages, spoken in Assam, Tripura, and West Bengal, the rupee is known as a taka, and is written as such on Indian banknotes. In Odisha it is known as Tanka. In India and Pakistan, currency is issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupees. Pakistani currency is also issued in a denomination of 5000 rupees. Large denominations of rupees are often counted in lakh (100,000 = 1 lakh, 100 lakh = 1 crore/karor, 100 crore/karor = 1 Arab, 100 Arab = 1 kharab/khrab, 100 Kharab/khrab = 1 Neel, 100 Neel = 1 Padma, 100 Padma = 1 Shankh, 100 shankh = 1 udpadha, 100 udpadha= 1 ank). Terms beyond a crore are not generally used in the context of money, e.g. an amount would be called Rs 1 lakh crore (equivalent to 1 trillion) instead of Rs 10 kharab.
East African Coast and South Arabia
In East Africa, Arabia, and Mesopotamia, the rupee and its subsidiary coinage was current at various times. The usage of the rupee in East Africa extended from Somalia in the north, to as far south as Natal. In Mozambique, the British India rupees were overstamped, and in Kenya, the British East Africa Company minted the rupee and its fractions, as well as pice. The rise in the price of silver immediately after the first world war caused the rupee to rise in value to two shillings sterling. In 1920 in British East Africa, the opportunity was then taken to introduce a new florin coin, hence bringing the currency into line with sterling. Shortly after that, the florin was split into two East African shillings. This assimilation to sterling did not, however, happen in British India itself. In Somalia, the Italian colonial authority minted 'rupia' to exactly the same standard, and called the pice 'besa'.
The Straits Settlements were originally an outlier of the British East India Company. The Spanish dollar had already taken hold in the Straits Settlements by the time the British arrived in the 19th century; however, the East India Company tried to introduce the rupee in its place. These attempts were resisted by the locals, and by 1867 when the British government took over direct control of the Straits Settlements from the East India Company, attempts to introduce the rupee were finally abandoned.
The rupee sign "₨" is a currency sign used to represent the monetary unit of account in Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Maldives. It resembles, and is often written as, the Latin character sequence "Rs" or "Rs." The rupee sign is encoded in the Unicode character set at U+20A8 (some fonts, such as Microsoft Sans Serif, instead display the Unicode rupee sign erroneously as “Rp”). It is common to find a prefix before the digits denoting the rupee currency value written as "Re: 1" (for one unit), or "Rs. 140" (for more than one rupee).
The rupee sign also exists in other languages. Some of them are encoded in the Unicode standard:
|Language||Sign in Unicode|
|Sinhala||රු SINHALA RUPEE SIGN (HTML:
|Bengali||U+09F2 ৲ bengali rupee mark (HTML:
U+09F3 ৳ bengali rupee sign (HTML:
|Gujarati||U+0AF1 ૱ gujarati rupee sign (HTML:
|Kannada||U+0CB0 ರ kannada rupee sign (HTML:
|Tamil||U+0BF9 ௹ tamil rupee sign (HTML:
|North Indic||U+A838 ꠸ north indic rupee mark (HTML:
Indian rupee sign
The Indian rupee is represented by the Indian rupee sign, . The new sign is a combination of the Devanagari letter र (ra) and the Latin capital letter R without its vertical bar (similar to the R rotunda). The parallel lines at the top (with white space between them) are said to make an allusion to the tricolor Indian flag. and also depict an equality sign that symbolizes the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity.
On 5 March 2009, the Indian government announced a contest to create a sign for the Indian rupee. During the 2010 Union Budget, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee mentioned that the proposed sign would reflect and capture the Indian ethos and culture. Five signs created by Nondita Correa-Mehrotra, Hitesh Padmashali, Shibin KK, Shahrukh J Irani, and D Udaya Kumar had been short-listed from around 3,331 responses received and one of them was to be finalized at the Union Council of Ministers of India meeting held on 24 June 2010. The decision was deferred by a request of the Finance Minister, and it was decided when they met again on 15 July 2010, and selected the symbol created by D.Udaya Kumar son of N. Dharmalingam, a former DMK MLA.
The selection process was challenged under the Right to Information Act in the Delhi High Court. The petitioner, Rakesh Kumar, who was a participant in the competition, described the process as "full of discrepancies" and "flawed", and named the Finance Ministry and the chairman of Indian Rupee Symbol Selection Committee as respondents.
On 26 November 2010, the Delhi High single bench Court dismissed the writ petition, stating there was no justifiable ground for the stated allegations. On 31 March 2011 High Court divisional bench of Chief Justice and Justice Sanjiv Khanna of Delhi High Court in their judgment court allowed RTI activist Rakesh Kumar Singh to file PIL against Indian Rupee symbol selection process.
On 25 April 2012 the Delhi High court issued notice to the Government of India over the selection process for the rupee symbol and other symbols. On 11 July 2012 in a court hearing the Government did not respond to the serious charges made in PIL. After that, the Honorable Delhi High Court slammed MHA for failing to respond and asked the Government to respond within four weeks, at the next hearing, to be held on 22 August 2012.
In its 3 October 2012 order, the High Court said "last opportunity is granted to the respondent to file the counter affidavit. Let the same be filed within six weeks."
On 5 December 2012, the Delhi High Court issued notice to the Indian Government as it was not responding to the serious charges made in PIL.
On 3 January 2013, taking cognizance in view of the irregularities, flaws and arbitrariness involved in the Rupee symbol and other Public Competitions, the Honorable Delhi High Court in its landmark judgement directed the Indian Government to formulate/prepare guidelines to ensure transparency, wider participation of public in Public Competitions.
On 11 April 2013 the Government of India created guidelines for conducting public competitions for design of symbols/logos.
In Super Paper Mario, Mario, the protagonist, collects rupees (called 'rubees') in Chapter 2.
Famously referred to by Miss Prism in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest : "Cecily, you will read your Political Economy in my absence. The chapter on the Fall of the Rupee you may omit. It is somewhat too sensational. Even these metallic problems have their melodramatic side."
- Coinage of the Tripura Kingdom
- Coins of British India
- History of Rupee
- Tables of historical exchange rates to the india rupee
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Cite error: The named reference
- Subodh Kapoor (January 2002). The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious ..., Volume 6. Cosmo Publications. p. 1599. ISBN 81-7755-257-0.
- Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1985) [London: Oxford University Press, 1962–1966.]. "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Includes three supplements, published 1969–1985. Digital South Asia Library, a project of the Center for Research Libraries and the University of Chicago. Retrieved 26 August 2010. "rū'pya 10805 rū'pya 'beautiful, bearing a stamp' ; 'silver'"
- Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1985) [London: Oxford University Press, 1962–1966.]. "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Includes three supplements, published 1969–1985. Digital South Asia Library, a project of the Center for Research Libraries and the University of Chicago. Retrieved 26 August 2010. "rūpá 10803 'form, beauty'"
- Theodore Roosevelt, Kermit Roosevelt (1929). "Trailing the giant panda". Scribner. "... The currency in general use was what was known at the Tibetan rupee ..."
- Richard F. Nyrop (2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. Wildside Press. ISBN 1-4344-6210-2. "... The Indian rupee was the principal currency until 1959, when it was replaced by a special gulf rupee to halt gold smuggling into India ..."
- "Etymology of rupee". etymonline.com. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- Robert Caldwell. "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages".
- Mughal Coinage at RBI Monetary Museum. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
- Subodh Kapoor (January 2002). The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious ..., Volume 6. Cosmo Publications. p. 1599. ISBN 81-7755-257-0.
- Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (2004). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1900. Colin R. Bruce II (senior editor) (4th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873497988.
- "Equivalent of 0.343762855 troy ounce of silver in U.S. dollar". xe.com. 2 October 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
- "Indian Rupee Joins Elite Currency Club". Theworldreporter.com. 17 July 2010.
- "Competition For Design" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "India seeks global symbol for rupee". Hindustan Times. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
- "Cabinet defers decision on rupee symbol". Sify Finance. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Rupee: Which of the 5 final designs do you like?". Rediff Business. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "List of Five Entries which have been selected for Final". Ministry of Finance, Govt of India. Retrieved 15 July 2010.[dead link]
- "Rupee to get a symbol today!". Money Control.com. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Cabinet approves new rupee symbol". The Times of India. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Rupee symbol maker has DMK background". The Statesman. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Nair, Harish V (23 November 2010). "‘Rs' selection process challenged in High Cout [sic]". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- "W.P.(C) No. 7915 of 2010 & CMs 20440-41/2010". Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- "रुपये का सिंबल तय करने को लेकर केंद्र जवाब तलब 9915655". Jagran.com. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Guidelines for conduct of public competitions for design of symbols/logos". Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article rupee.|
- Picture of original Mughal rupiya introduced by Sher Shah Suri
- Pakistani Currency by Mian Ji
- New rupee symbol reflects strength of economy