Rupert I, Elector Palatine

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Not to be confused with Rupert, King of the Romans (1352–1410).
Rupert I "the Red"
Ruprecht I mit Frauen.jpg
Rupert I, Elector Palatine, with his wives.
Elector Palatine
Reign 10 January 1356 - 16 February 1390
Predecessor new title
Successor Rupert II
Spouse(s) Elisabeth, Countess of Namur
Beatrix of Jülich-Berg
Noble family House of Wittelsbach
Father Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria
Mother Mechtild of Nassau
Born 9 June 1309
Wolfratshausen
Died 16 February 1390(1390-02-16) (aged 80)
Neustadt an der Weinstraße

Rupert I "the Red", Elector Palatine (German: Ruprecht der Rote; 9 June 1309, Wolfratshausen – 16 February 1390, Neustadt an der Weinstraße) was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390.

He was the son of Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria and Mechtild of Nassau, the daughter of King Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. With the death of his brother, Rudolf II, on 4 October 1353, he inherited his domains and became sole Count for the territory, whereas they had previously shared that privilege.

The Golden Bull of 1356 guaranteed the Palatinate the right of participating in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. Previous Counts Palatine had participated in other Imperial elections.

In 1386, Rupert founded the University of Heidelberg, the third university in the Holy Roman Empire, which was named after him.

Rupert was married twice: firstly to Elisabeth, Countess of Namur, secondly to Beatrix of Jülich-Berg. Neither marriage produced an heir.

He was succeeded by his nephew, Rupert II, Elector Palatine.

Rupert I, Elector Palatine
Born: 9 June 1309 Died: 16 February 1390
German nobility
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rudolf II
Count Palatine of the Rhine
1353–1356
Succeeded by
Palatinate recognized as a secular electorate
New title Elector Palatine
1356–1390
Succeeded by
Rupert II