Ruqayyah bint Muhammad

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Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (Arabic: رقية بنت النبي محمد) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija. Ruqayyah died in 2 A.H., at the time of the battle of Badr.[1]

In Medina[edit]

The early modern Shiite cleric Muhammad Baqir Majlisi wrote that she was killed by her husband Uthman.[2][3]

However, in Sunni traditions it is generally agreed her death was caused by illness during the battle of Badr. Uthman taking care of Her and the circumstances was being witnessed by Talhah, of the first eight Sahaba to embrace Islam.[4]

Other views[edit]

The Sunni Muslims believe that all four of Khadija's daughters are from her marriage to Muhammad. The Sunni scholar Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr says:[5]

His children born of Khadīja are four daughters; there is no difference of opinion about that.

While this view is shared by some Shiites,[2] others consider Fatimah as the only biological daughter of Muhammad and they argue their rationale regarding this matter by using some historical traces.[2][6] In the incident of Mubahala in which Muhammad was ordered to invite Christian disputants and accompany his family members for the imprecation, as mentioned by Quran3:61, there was no female accompanied by Muhammad apart from Fatimah.[7]

Shiites believe that Fatimah is the only female who is recognized among the five members of Ahlul Bayt (along with Muhammad, Ali, Hasan, Husain according to the purification verse in Quran33:33).[8] According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the expression Ahlul Bayt can only mean the family of Muhammad and in spite of the claims of many members of the community and Muhammad's relatives for a place in the Ahlul Bayt, and the later efforts to include Muhammad's wives, the number of privileged is limited to those five members.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ibn Kathir. Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya (PDF). Garner Publishing Limited. p. 417 Vol. 4. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Muhammad B. Majlesi, An Account of the Prophet’s Children, Hayat Al-Qulub vol 2, A Detailed Biography of Prophet Muhammad, Published by: Ansariyan Publications
  3. ^ Aḥmad Sayyārī (2009), Revelation and falsification: the Kitāb al-qirāʼāt, page 248
  4. ^ The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar Written By Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan Shaybānī and Edited by Majid Khadduri; Published by JHU Press, 2001 Citations of As Sahih Bukhari Volume II 282-283; As Sahih Bukhari Volume III page 114; Sarakhsi Mabsût Volume X page 17-18 and Abu Yusuf Kitab Al Kharaj page 196
  5. ^ al-Istī`āb fī Ma`rifat al-Aşĥāb (Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr, The Comprehensive Compilation of the Names of the Prophet's Companions) vol.1 pp.50
  6. ^ Yasin T. al-Jibouri (1994), Khadija Daughter of Khuwaylid
  7. ^ Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992), Fatima the Gracious, Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6
  8. ^ a b Vacca, V. "Fāṭima". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.