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||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Norwegian (bokmål) Wikipedia. (June 2013)|
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (June 2013)|
Russenorsk (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈrʉsəˌnɔʂk]; Russian: Руссено́рск, [rʊsʲɪˈnorsk]) is an extinct dual-source pidgin language formerly used in the Arctic, which combined elements of Russian and Norwegian, and which was created by Russian traders and Norwegian fishermen from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula. It was used extensively in Northern Norway for about 150 years in the so-called Pomor trade, that is, the barter trade between Russians and Norwegians in the north. The first attested word in Russenorsk is from the 18th century; the 19th century, however, was the main period of its use. Russenorsk is important as a test case for theories concerning pidgin languages since it was used far away from most of the other documented pidgins of the world. An interesting sociolinguistic feature is that there was no social difference between its users. A special morphological feature is the verb ending -om, probably taken from a (poorly attested) Russian-English pidgin in Arkhangelsk.
As is common in the development of pidgins and trade languages, the interaction of fishermen and traders with no common language necessitated the creation of some minimal form of communication. Like all pidgins, Russenorsk had a rudimentary grammar and a restricted vocabulary, mostly composed of words essential to Arctic fishing and trade (fish, weather, etc.) and did not particularly deal with unrelated issues (music, politics, etc.). About 400 different words are attested. Russenorsk has been referred to in the literature (by S. Romaine and others) as an example of a stable pidgin.
R marks Russian origin, N marks Norwegian.
Kak sprek? Moja njet forsto. какR språkN моя́R нетR forståN how speak? my no understand What are you saying? I don't understand.
- Moja på tvoja. - I'm talking in your language.
- Kak sprek? Moje niet forsto. - What are you talking about? I don't understand.
- å råbbåte - work
- klæba - bread
- Ju spræk på moja kantor kom - You said that you would come to my office.
- Tvoja fisk kopom? - Will you buy fish?
- Saika kopom i på Arkangelsk på gaf spaserom - I'll buy pollack and we'll swim in Arkhangelsk.
- Kak pris? Mangeli kosta? - What is the price? How much?
- Eta grot dyr. Værsegod, på minder prodaj! - It is very expensive. Please lower the price!
The history of Russenorsk is mainly limited to the 18th and 19th centuries. The Russian Revolution brought about an end to its use; it is reported that the last Norwegian-Russian trade occurred in 1923, marking the last use of Russenorsk. It may have survived longer in Svalbard since both Russians and Norwegians live there, and some words survive in the local Northern Norwegian dialects:
- Languages of Svalbard
- Kola Norwegians
- Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Russenorsk". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- /po/ in both languages happens to mean 'in' when referring to speaking in a language, though they are pronounced slightly differently.
- Broch, I. & Jahr, E. H. 1984. Russenorsk: Et pidginspråk i Norge (2. utgave), Oslo: Novus.
- Broch, I. & Jahr, E. H. 1984. "Russenorsk: a new look at the Russo-Norwegian pidgin in northern Norway." In: P. Sture Ureland & I. Clarkson (eds.): Scandinavian Language Contacts, Cambridge: C.U.P., pp. 21-65.
- Jahr, E. H. 1996. "On the pidgin status of Russenorsk", in: E. H. Jahr and I. Broch (eds.): Language contact in the Arctic: Northern pidgins and contact languages, Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 107-122.
- Lunden, S. S. 1978. Tracing the ancestry of Russenorsk. Slavia Orientalis 27/2, 213–217.