Russia–Syria relations (Russian: Российско-сирийские отношения) refers to the bilateral relationship between the two countries, Russia and Syria. Russia has an embassy in Damascus and had a consulate in Aleppo, since closed down. Syria has an embassy in Moscow. Russia enjoys a historically strong, stable, and friendly relationship with Syria, as it did until the Arab Spring, with most of the Arab countries. In addition, Russia's only Mediterranean naval base for its Black Sea Fleet is located in the Syrian port of Tartus.
Early in 2012, Russia took a strong stand in support of Syria's government and against international action—promoted by Western and Arab countries—to punish the government for its crackdown on the Syrian uprising. As one of five veto-wielding members of UN Security Council, Russia promised to veto any sanctions against the Syrian government put before the Security Council and continued supplying large amounts of arms that Syria had earlier contracted to buy.
Russian – Syrian relations since the independence
Syria has gained full independence from France but could not attain stability for a long period after the end of World War II. The political life of Syria which has been relatively calm during the years 1945-1949 has entered a stage of total turmoil and disorder beginning from 1949. Three coups d'etats have been made in Syria during 1949-1953 and military dictatorships have been established twice in that process. Finally Baas Party has come to the fore in the political life of Syria following the military coup d’etat of February 25, 1954 and USSR become an important country for Syria together with the predominance of Baas Party.
The relations of USSR, which have begun being interested in the Middle East, with Syria have been initiated with a secret agreement signed on February 10, 1946, just before the declaration of independence of Syria. That agreement prescribed the provision of diplomatic and political support of USSR to Syria in the international arena and the Soviet military help for the foundation of the national army of that country. The non-aggression pact signed on 10 April 1950 had carried the Soviet – Syrian relations to an advanced dimension. The rapprochement between the two countries has emerged as a natural outcome of the international conjuncture in that period. When we have a look at the cold war period we see that each conflict and war that broke out in the Middle East acted as a factor that had led Syria approach to USSR more closely.
The first event which reinforced the rapprochement between USSR – Syria has been the Suez crisis and the prestige of the Soviets has increased in the Middle East thanks to that crisis which broke out in 1956. The Soviet help to Syria has been accelerated as a result of the conflict of interests between the western countries led by USA and USSR in the Middle East. Cooperation between USSR and Syria has deepened further by meas of military and economic strategic agreements.
Baghdad pact has been another development that led to the rapprochement between USSR and Syria. Syria has perceived that pact as a pact against itself and approached to the Soviets more closely. In deed the consequence of Baghdad pact was not only the approach of Syria to USSR but also the separation of the Middle Eastern countries as the satellites of the eastern and western blocs at the same time. One of the reasons that led to the development of the USSR – Syrian relations was the accession to power by Hafez Assad in Syria in 1970.
The Syrian port city of Tartus hosts a Soviet-era naval supply and maintenance base, under a 1971 agreement with Syria. The base was established during the Cold War to support the Soviet Navy's fleet in the Mediterranean Sea. Since Russia forgave Syria of three-fourths, or $9.8 billion, of its $13.4 billion Soviet-era debt and became its main arms supplier, Russia and Syria have conducted talks about allowing Russia to develop and enlarge its naval base, so that Russia can strengthen its naval presence in the Mediterranean. Amid Russia's deteriorating relations with the West, because of the 2008 South Ossetia War and plans to deploy a US missile defense shield in Poland, President Assad agreed to the port’s conversion into a permanent Middle East base for Russia’s nuclear-armed warships. Since 2009, Russia has been renovating the Tartus naval base and dredging the port to allow access for its larger naval vessels.
Syria for the past few years has reached out to Russia to obtain modern weapons that included many modern anti-tank and anti-air missile systems that will further improve its combat capabilities. In 2008, Syria agreed to purchase MiG-29SMT fighters, Pantsir S1E air-defense systems, Iskander tactical missile systems, Yak-130 aircraft, and two Amur-1650 submarines from Russia. Russia's foreign minister said his country's sale of weapons to Syria would not upset the balance of power in the Middle East. The sales he stated are "in line with the international law" and "in the interests of strengthening stability and maintaining security" in regions close to Russian borders, Sergei Lavrov told reporters during a visit to the United Nations in New York. In 2011 and 2012, Syria's arms contracts with Russia amounted to $687 million. Dmitri Trenin reports in the New York Times that from 2000 to 2010 Russia sold around $1.5 billion worth of arms to Syria, making Damascus Moscow’s seventh-largest client.
Russia has significant trade relations with Syria. Its exports to Syria were worth $1.1 billion in 2010 and its investments in the country were valued at $19.4 billion in 2009 according to The Moscow Times. Besides lucrative arms contracts worth at least $4 billion, Russian firms have a substantial presence in Syria's infrastructure, energy and tourism industries. Stroitransgaz, a natural gas facility construction company, has the largest Russian operation in Syria. In 2010, it was involved in projects worth $1.1 billion and had a staff of 80 Russians working in Syria. Stroitransgaz is building a natural gas processing plant 200 kilometers east of Homs in the Al-Raqqa region and is involved in technical support for the construction of the Arab Gas Pipeline. Tatneft is the most significant Russian energy firm in Syria. The company began in 2010 through a joint venture with the Syrian national oil company to pump Syrian oil and it planned to spend $12 million on exploratory wells near the Iraqi border. Other firms with large business interests in Syria include steel pipe manufacturer TMK, gas producer ITERA, and national carrier Aeroflot.
Russia was one of three countries to vote against a formal UN Security Council condemnation of the Bashar al-Assad government for its attack on civilians in the city of Homs in February 2012. It also opposed any sanctions or intervention against the regime. Russia's association with the ruling Assad family go back four decades. Recently though, Russian politicians have begun to acknowledge Bashar's potential downfall, saying "An opposition victory can't be excluded, unfortunately, but it's necessary to look at the facts: There is a trend for the government to progressively lose control over an increasing part of the territory," Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov, Moscow's Middle East envoy, said during hearings at a Kremlin advisory body.
- Embassy of Russia in Damascus
- Embassy of Syria in Moscow
- Russia's role in the Syrian conflict
- China–Syria relations
- Russia clings on to last outpost in West Asia| Pionner| 3 February 2012
- contribution to ‘What Should the United States Do About Syria?: A TNR Symposium.’| Daniel W. Drezner| tnr.com| 9 February 2012
- Why Russia is willing to sell arms to Syria By Fred Weir| csmonitor.com| 19 January 2012
- Historical Background and the Present State of the Russian-Syrian Relations http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1354741741.pdf
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- Russia defends arms sales to Syria - UPI.com
- Amos, Howard (26 August 2011). "News Analysis: Russia Damages Image in Arab Spring". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Trenins, Dmitri (9 February 2012). "Why Russia Supports Assad". New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- Amos, Howard (2 September 2011). "Billions of Dollars of Russian Business Suffers Along With Syria". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Syria: EU Bilateral Trade and Trade with the World". European Commission. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Allison, Roy (2013). "Russia and Syria: Explaining Alignment with a Regime in Crisis". International Affairs 89 (4): 795–823. doi:10.1111/1468-2346.12046.
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- Diplomatic missions
- (Arabic) (English) (Russian) Embassy of Russia in Damascus