Russia–United States relations

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Russia–United States relations
Map indicating locations of Russia and USA

Russia

United States

Russia–United States relations is the bilateral relationship between the Russian Federation, a successor state to the Soviet Union, and the United States of America. Russia and the United States maintain diplomatic relations and still agree on pursuing a limited bilateral agenda such as jointly combating the palpable threats of terrorism. However, in 2014, already strained relations between Russia and the US, as well as other countries allied with the US, greatly deteriorated due to the Ukrainian crisis and the Syrian Civil War, which caused observers to characterize those as assuming an adversarial nature, or the advent of Cold War II,[1][2][3] with mutual trade and investment being significantly restricted.

Country comparison[edit]

Russia Russia United States United States
Area 17,075,400 km² (6,592,800 sq mi) 9,526,468 km² (3,794,101 sq mi)[4]
Population 146,657,134 317,552,000
Population density 8.3/km² (21.5/sq mi) 33.7/km² (87.4/sq mi)
Capital Moscow Washington, D.C.
Largest city Moscow (11,503,501) New York City (8,244,910)
Government Federal semi-presidential
constitutional republic
Federal presidential constitutional republic
two-party system
First leader Boris Yeltsin George Washington
Current leader Vladimir Putin Barack Obama
Official languages Russian English (de facto)
GDP (nominal) $2.501 trillion $17.511 trillion (Q2 2014)
External debt (nominal) $0.041 trillion (1.6% of GDP) $16.7 trillion (108% of GDP)
GDP (PPP) $3.1 trillion $17.511 trillion
GDP (nominal) per capita $15,717 $55,609
GDP (PPP) per capita $18,996 $55,609
Human Development Index 0.788 (high) 0.937 (very high)
Foreign exchange reserves 465,228 (millions of USD) 142,898 (millions of USD)
Military expenditures $87.8 billion $612 billion

History[edit]

Background: the United States and the Soviet Union[edit]

In the late 1980s, Eastern European nations took advantage of the relaxation of Soviet control under Mikhail Gorbachev and began to break away from communist rule.

On 3 December 1989, Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit.[5] In December 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved and the Commonwealth of Independent States was formed.

With the ending of Communism, relations between Russia and the United States, already greatly improved in the final years of the USSR, developed further.

Yeltsin years[edit]

  • 1992: The United States and Russia sign an Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes on June 17.
  • 1993: U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the START II treaty in Moscow on January 3.[6]
  • 1993: First summit meeting between U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin on April 4 in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss a new and expanded $1 billion aid package intended to support Russian democrats and to fund medical supplies, food and grain assistance as well as loans to Russian entrepreneurs.[7]
  • 1993: The United States announces a bilateral aid program of $1.8 billion for Russia and the former Soviet republics on July 9 to 10.
  • 1993: The U.S.-Russian Commission on technical cooperation in energy and space has its first meeting in Washington, D.C. on August 31 to September 2.
  • 1994: Clinton and Yeltsin sign the Kremlin accords on January 14 in Moscow.
  • 1994: First joint U.S.-Russian Space Shuttle mission on February 3.
  • 1994: The United States and Russia move to end the practice of aiming their strategic nuclear missiles at each other on May 30.
  • 1994: Russia joins the Partnership for Peace program on June 22.
Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton share a laugh in October 1995.
  • 1995: Russia gives condolences to the United States in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing on April 20.
  • 1995: Clinton and Yeltsin meet in Moscow to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe on May 9.
  • 1995: Clinton and Yeltsin hold a summit on European Security in Moscow on May 9 to May 10.
  • 1995: U.S. Space Shuttle Atlantis successfully docks with Russian space station Mir on June 29.
  • 1995: Russia joins the NATO-led IFOR in the aftermath of the Bosnian War on December 20.
  • 1996: Ratification of START II treaty on January 26.
  • 1996: Clinton and Yeltsin attend the Summit of the Peacemakers in Sharm al-Sheikh, Egypt to condemn the terrorist attacks in Israel and to declare their support for the Middle East peace process on March 14.
  • 1996: Clinton attends a Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security with Yeltsin in Moscow on April 20.
  • 1997: Russia joins the NATO-led Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to cooperate on political and security issues on January 1.
  • 1997: Clinton and Yeltsin hold another summit on European Security in Helsinki, Finland, on March 21.
  • 1997: Russia attends the NATO summit in Paris, France, on May 27.
  • 1997: The NATO-Russia Founding Act provides the formal basis of bilateral cooperation between the United States, Russia and NATO is signed on May 27.
  • 1997: Russia joins the G8 at the 23rd G8 summit in Denver, Colorado, on June 20 to June 22.
  • 1998: Clinton and Yeltsin agree to exchange information on missile launchings and to remove 50 metric tons of plutonium from their countries' nuclear weapons stocks in a summit in Moscow on September 1 to 2.
  • 1998: Launch of the International Space Station on November 20.
  • 1999: Russia joins the NATO-led KFOR in the aftermath of the Kosovo War on June 12.
  • 1999: Clinton and Yeltsin meet at an Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe Summit Meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, from November 18–19, to discuss arms control, Chechnya and events in Europe. Clinton remarks that the international community does not dispute Russia's right to defend its territorial integrity and to fight terrorism.[8]

Putin and Bush Jr[edit]

Vladimir Putin and wife Lyudmila at service for victims of the September 11 attacks, November 16, 2001.

During the presidencies of Vladimir Putin, who assumed the top office on the last day of 1999, and George W. Bush, the U.S. and Russia began to have serious disagreements. Under Putin, Russia became more assertive in international affairs; under Bush, the U.S. took an increasingly unilateral course in its foreign policy in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Nevertheless, Putin and Bush established friendly personal relations.

In 2002, Bush withdrew the United States from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in order to move forward with plans for a missile defense system. Putin called the decision a mistake. Russia strongly opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, though without exercising its veto in the United Nations Security Council. Russia has regarded the expansion of NATO into the old Eastern Bloc, and U.S. efforts to gain access to Central Asian oil and natural gas as a potentially hostile encroachment on Russia's sphere of influence.

Post–Cold War increase of tensions[edit]

U.S. plan to place missiles in Poland[edit]

In March 2007, the U.S. announced plans to build an anti-ballistic missile defense installation in Poland along with a radar station in the Czech Republic. Both nations were former Warsaw Pact members. American officials said that the system was intended to protect the United States and Europe from possible nuclear missile attacks by Iran or North Korea. Russia, however, viewed the new system as a potential threat and, in response, tested a long-range intercontinental ballistic missile, the RS-24, which it claimed could defeat any defense system. Russian President Vladimir Putin warned the U.S. that these new tensions could turn Europe into a "powder keg". On June 3, 2007, Putin warned that if the U.S. builds the missile defense system, Russia would consider targeting missiles at Poland and the Czech Republic.[9]

On October 16, 2007, Vladimir Putin visited Iran to discuss Russia's aid to Iran's nuclear power program and "insisted that the use of force was unacceptable."[10] On October 17, Bush stated "if you're interested in avoiding World War III, it seems like you ought to be interested in preventing them from having the knowledge necessary to make a nuclear weapon," understood as a message to Putin.[11] A week later Putin compared U.S. plans to put up a missile defense system near Russia's border as analogous to when the Soviet Union deployed missiles in Cuba, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis.[12]

On February 14, 2008, Vladimir Putin again announced that Russia might have to retarget some of its rockets towards the missile defense system, claiming that "If it appears, we will be forced to respond appropriately – we will have to retarget part of our systems against those missiles." He also said that missiles might be redirected towards Ukraine if they went ahead with plans to build NATO bases within their territory, saying that "We will be compelled to aim our missiles at facilities that we consider a threat to our national security, and I am putting this plainly now so that the blame for this is not shifted later,"[13]

On July 8, 2008, Russia announced that if a U.S. anti-missile shield is deployed near the Russian border, they will react militarily. The statement from the Russian foreign ministry said "If a U.S. strategic anti-missile shield starts to be deployed near our borders, we will be forced to react not in a diplomatic fashion but with military-technical means." Later, Russia's ambassador to the United Nations Vitaly Churkin stated that "military-technical means" does not mean military action, but more likely a change in Russia's strategic posture, perhaps by redeploying its own missiles.[14]

On August 14, 2008, the United States and Poland agreed to have 10 two-stage missile interceptors – made by Orbital Sciences Corporation – placed in Poland, as part of a missile shield to defend Europe and the U.S. from a possible missile attack by Iran. In return, the U.S. agreed to move a battery of MIM-104 Patriot missiles to Poland. The missile battery would be staffed – at least temporarily – by U.S. Military personnel. The U.S. also pledged to defend Poland – a NATO member – quicker than NATO would in the event of an attack. Additionally, the Czech Republic recently agreed to allow the placement of a radar-tracking station in their country, despite public opinion polls showing that the majority of Czechs are against the plans and only 18% support it.[15] The radar-tracking station in the Czech Republic would also be part of the missile defense shield. After the agreement was announced, Russian officials said defences on Russia's borders would be increased and that they foresee harm in bilateral relations with the United States[16]

On November 5, 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in his first annual address to the Federal Assembly of Russia promised to deploy Iskander short-range missilies to Kaliningrad, near the border with American-backed Poland.[17]

Russian-Georgian clash[edit]

Main article: Russia–Georgia war

In August 2008, American-Russian relations were strained, when Georgia attempted to quell unrest in South Ossetia, resulting in Russia invading. Russia claimed that it was a mission to protect Georgian separatist regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia from a Georgian offensive and the careless bombing of civilian areas. The United States chose to support Georgia in the conflict, sending humanitarian and military aid to Georgia and assisting with the withdrawal of Georgian troops from Iraq.[citation needed]

After the conflict, in 2009, U.S. Vice President Biden visited Georgia then said that the Russians "have a shrinking population base, have a withering economy, have a banking sector and structure that is not likely to be able to withstand the next 15 years."[18]

Russian-Venezuelan military cooperation[edit]

On November 25, 2008, a Russian naval fleet arrived in Venezuela, a nation the U.S. considers to be part of its sphere of influence. Russian war vessels- including the Battlecruiser Peter the Great, which is equipped with missiles- arrived in the port of La Guaira to conduct joint naval exercises with the Venezuelan navy. The incident is seen by many as an echo of the Cuban Missile Crisis of the Cold War Era, and has increased tensions between Russia and the United States.[citation needed] While Russia maintains that the exercises are nothing more than a method of strengthening ties with Venezuela, the United States believes that the placing of Russian war ships into the American sphere of influence is blatant provocation and a direct retaliation for both the American missile plan in Eastern Europe and interference with the Russia-Georgia situation of August 2008.

North Korean nuclear threat[edit]

On May 25, 2009, North Korea's new nuclear test shocked North Korea's bilateral relations with Russia and China. Russia responded to this new nuclear program by condemning North Korea's move[19] and that it could lead to a nuclear war. North Korea later threatened to attack its neighboring rival South Korea after it joined a U.S. led plan to check vessels suspected of carrying equipment for weapons of mass destruction. Due to this, ambassadors from five permanent veto-wielding council members (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States) were ready to have a meeting to make a new resolution to this nuclear strike. On June 15, 2009, Russia and China have both supported the new UN sanctions on North Korea.

Syrian uprising[edit]

While the U.S. favored sanctions and resolutions calling Assad to quit, Russia has refused to support such moves. In March 2012, a bipartisan group of 17 U.S. senators called on the Department of Defense to stop doing business with Russian state-controlled arms exporter Rosoboroneksport over its arming of the Syrian government. The group of senators included John Cornyn, R-TX, Dick Durbin, D-IL., Kelly Ayotte, R-NH, and Kirsten Gillibrand, D-NY.[20]

"Reset" of relations under Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev[edit]

U.S. President Barack Obama with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2009.
Barack Obama and Russian political leaders. Liberals Leonid Gozman, Boris Nemtsov, communist Gennady Zyuganov, social democrat Yelena Mizulina and social liberal Sergey Mitrokhin.

Despite U.S.-Russia relations becoming strained during the Bush administration, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and U.S. President Barack Obama struck a warm tone at the 2009 G20 summit in London and released a joint statement that promised a "fresh start" in U.S.-Russia relations. The statement also called on Iran to abandon its nuclear program and to permit foreign inspectors into the country.[21]

In March 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov symbolically pressed a "reset" button. The gag fell short as the Russian on the button was wrongly translated by the State Department as "overload" instead of "reset". After making a few jokes, they decided to press the button anyway.[22]

A White House fact sheet of June 2010 lists numerous Government-to-Government Agreements and Accomplishments as well as Private, Non-Governmental Initiatives and Activities.[23]

The New START Treaty[edit]

On March 24, 2010, the United States and Russia reached an agreement to reduce their stockpiles of nuclear weapons. The new nuclear arms reduction treaty (called New START) was signed by President Obama and President Medvedev on April 8, 2010, in Prague. The agreement cut the number of long-range nuclear weapons held by each side to about 1,500, down from the current 1,700 to 2,200 set by the Moscow Treaty of 2002. The New START replaced the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which expired in December 2009.[24] However, in practice, New START requires only the US, not Russia, to cut its nuclear arsenal; Moscow is not required to reduce its nuclear stockpile.

Vigilant Eagle 2010[edit]

In August 2010, the United States and Russia conducted a joint anti-hijacking exercise.[25]

It was planned to conduct joint anti terrorist exercises already in 2008 but due to the war in South Ossettia the drill was postponed. In 2010, the exercise took place over the territory of Russia's Kamchatka region and the US state of Alaska. According to Alexander Zelin it was an example of successful international cooperation on preventing a terrorist threat as Russian, Canadian and US fighter jets, along with airborne warning and control aircraft, worked together to rescue a simulated hijacked aircraft. However, the chief of the Russian Air Force confessed that the maneuvers also revealed a number of problems in the interaction between the pilots of the 3 states.

Putin's third term[edit]

In March 2012, with the election of Putin back to presidency, White House spokesman Jay Carney said U.S.-Russian cooperation is based on mutual interests. He also said it is a policy based on an approach based on U.S. national interests and the areas where the U.S can reach an agreement with Russia on things like Iran, on trade and other matters.[26]

Dispute on Twitter[edit]

On May 28, 2012, following an address by Michael McFaul, U.S. ambassador to Moscow, at National Research University – Higher School of Economics regarding the "Reset" of U.S.–Russian relations, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation launched an extended criticism of Ambassador McFaul on Twitter. McFaul replied a number of times and released a slideshow used during the talk.[27]

Increased tension[edit]

In May 2012, Russian General Nikolay Yegorovich Makarov said that there is a possibility of a preemptive strike on missile defense sites in Eastern Europe, to apply pressure to the United States regarding Russia's demands.[28] In July 2012, two Tu-95 Bears were intercepted by NORAD fighters in the air defense zone off the U.S. coast of Alaska, where they may have been practicing the targeting of Fort Greely and Vandenberg Air Force Base.[29] Later in August 2012, it was revealed that an Akula-class submarine had conducted a patrol within the Gulf of Mexico without being detected, raising alarms of the U.S. Navy's anti-submarine warfare capabilities.[30][31]

On 14 December 2012, President Barack Obama signed the called the Magnitsky Act, which "[imposed] U.S. travel and financial restrictions on human rights abusers in Russia". On 28 December 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a bill, widely seen as retaliatory, that banned any United States citizen from adopting children from Russia.[32]

On February 12, 2013, just hours before the 2013 State of the Union Address, two Russian Tu-95 Bear strategic bombers equipped with nuclear-tipped cruise missiles circled the United States territory of Guam.[33][34] Air Force F-15 jets based on Andersen Air Force Base were scrambled to intercept the aircraft.[33][34] The Russian aircraft reportedly "were intercepted and left the area in a northbound direction."[33][34]

There have been increasing concerns that Russia is violating the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty of 1987. Based on a classified briefing in 2012 with John Kerry, at the time acting as the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, these compliance concerns have already been voiced. By the end of 2013, it was clear that a rearmament of the Novosibirsk and Tagil divisions with the mobile Yars missile system by solid-propelled intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) has been taking place.[35] The silo-based RS-26 Rubezh missile system is based on upgraded RS-24 Yars rockets that can carry multiple independently targetable nuclear warheads, and most importantly, they are equipped to evade the anti-ballistic missile defense installations in Poland.[36] Rose Gottemoeller, the State Department's senior arms control official, has discussed these possible threats with Russian officials in May 2013, but the White House has not yet clarified whether the deployment of these missile systems are indeed violating the aforementioned agreement.[37]

North Korean threat 2013[edit]

Main article: 2013 Korean crisis

In April 2013, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un ordered missiles to be ready to launch at U.S. military bases in South Korea, Japan and Guam. Russia immediately supported U.N. sanctions against North Korea.[citation needed] Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Igor Morgulo specifically told North Korea to stop causing tensions in the Korean peninsula.[citation needed] Both Russia and China have condemned North Korea's actions and support U.N. sanctions against North Korea.[citation needed]

Edward Snowden affair[edit]

Relations between the United States and Russia worsened when in late July 2013 Russia granted political asylum to the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who was wanted by U.S. prosecutors for theft of government property and espionage. This further aggravated relations between the two countries and led to the cancellation of a previously planned one-on-one meeting between Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin that was scheduled for early September 2013 in Moscow, Russia.[38][39][40]

Ukraine 2014[edit]

Following the collapse of the government of Viktor Yanukovych in Kiev in February 2014, which Russian leaders argued was a coup d'état, Russia organized the annexation of Crimea on the basis of a local referendum. The annexation of Crimea was denounced by Western leaders, including the US leadership, as a breach of international law, and thus its status as a part of Russia remains universally unrecognized.

Political cartoon by Ranan Lurie

As unrest spread into eastern Ukraine in the spring of 2014, relations between the U.S. and Russia began to sour. Russian support for separatists fighting Ukrainian forces attracted U.S. sanctions. After one bout of sanctions announced by President Obama on July 16, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin said sanctions were driving Russia into a corner that could bring relations between the two countries to a "dead-end."[41]

On July 17, 2014, relations between the two countries deteriorated further when Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was brought down by a suspected surface-to-air missile in eastern Ukraine, near the Russian border. Obama said the missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists, who he said were being supplied by Russia with sophisticated weapons, training, heavy arms, and anti-aircraft equipment; though no evidence backing these claims has been released.[42] America's top military officer Martin Dempsey said that in response the United States was "looking inside our own readiness models to look at things that we haven’t had to look at for 20 years, frankly, about basing and lines of communication and sea lanes"[43] On 20 August 2014, as tensions between the two countries continued to be strained over events in Ukraine, and the resultant sanctions, the Russian government temporarily shut down four McDonald's outlets in Moscow, citing sanitary concerns. The U.S. company has operated in Russia since 1990, and at August 2014 had 438 stores across the country.[44] On 23 August 2014, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich ruled out any government move to ban McDonald's and said the temporary closures had nothing to do with the sanctions.[45]

In August 2014, President Barack Obama stated: "We had a very productive relationship with President Medvedev. ... I think President Putin represents a deep strain in Russia that is probably harmful to Russia over the long term..." Obama also verbally attacked Russia, saying: "Russia doesn't make anything. Immigrants aren't rushing to Moscow in search of opportunity. The life expectancy of the Russian male is around 60 years old. The population is shrinking."[46] On August 7, Russia granted NSA leaker Edward Snowden 3 more years of asylum, presumably in retaliation to America's intervention in Ukraine.

The end of 2014 saw the passage by the US of the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014,[47][48] aimed at depriving certain Russian state firms from Western financing and technology while also providing $350 million in arms and military equipment to Ukraine, and the imposition by the US President's executive order of yet another round of sanctions focussed on stifling the economy of the Russian Crimea.[49]

Due to the situation concerning Ukraine, relations between the United States and Russia are at their worst since the end of the Cold war.[50] In 2015, on Defender of the Fatherland Day, a mock missile was paraded reading "to be personally delivered to Obama".[51]

Russian intelligence operations[edit]

According to the 2007 reports referring to American sources, Russian espionage under Vladimir Putin had reached Cold War levels.[52]

Perception of the United States within Russia[edit]

President Obama greets attendees at the New Economic School graduation in Gostinny Dvor, Moscow, July 7, 2009

A poll by the University of Maryland, College Park, released early July 2009 found that only 2 percent of Russians had "a lot of confidence" that American President Barack Obama would do the right thing in world affairs.[53] Russian media has criticized the United States over the past years for pursuing an anti-missile system in Europe, for favoring NATO expansion and for supporting Georgia in its armed conflict with Russia in 2008.[54]

The Russian press expresses varying opinions of Russian-America relations.[55] Russian media treatment of America ranges from doctrinaire[56] and nationalistic[57] to very positive toward the United States and the West.[58][59][60][61]

As of 2013, 51% of Russians have a favorable view of the U.S., down from 57% in 2010.[62]

The May 2014 polls conducted by the Levada center survey showed that 71% of Russians had a negative or somewhat negative attitude to the U.S., up from 7% in April 1990, shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union.[63]

Space exploration[edit]

The Planetary Society is known to have collaborated with Russia, especially Cosmos 1 and LIFE.

According to the Washington Post NASA recently renewed a contract that requires Russia to aid in transporting U.S. astronauts to the International Space Station. While adding additional support at the Russian launch site, this contract is costing the United States $457.9 million. Along with the renewal NASA has also announced that they will be cutting some contacts with Russia after the country annexed Crimea which includes meetings, and teleconferences. The funding the United States continues to borrow from Russia is due to the lack of funding NASA is receiving from congress.[64]

Economic ties[edit]

The U.S. Congress voted to repeal the Jackson–Vanik amendment on November 16, 2012.[65]

The economic relationship between Russia and the U.S. is unbalanced. Russia is the 20th largest trading partner for the U.S., with $27 billion worth of trade exported across the Atlantic. On the flip-side, the U.S. is Russia's fifth largest partner, with just $11 billion worth of trade.

Military ties[edit]

Following the demise of the Soviet Union, the United States and Russia signed a bilateral treaty called the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II). Signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin on January 3, 1993, it banned the use of multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles on intercontinental ballistic missiles.

The United States and Russia have conducted joint military maneuvers, training and counter-terrorist exercises in Germany. This was done in hopes to strengthen relations with the United States and Russia.[66] The Russian president has also proposed that the United States and Russia put a joint missile defense system in Azerbaijan, a proposal being considered by the United States.[67] In 2008, in response to tensions over Georgia, the United States had cancelled its most recent joint NATO-Russia military exercises.[citation needed]

As of August 2012, the U.S. and Russia continue to hold joint military exercises like Northern Eagle (held since 2004, together with Norway)[68][69][70] and Vigilant/Watchful Eagle (with Canada)[71] among others, with the aim of improving joint cooperation against terrorism and piracy.

NATO–Russia relations[edit]

Russian-American relations are heavily influenced by the United States' deep involvement with NATO and its policies. NATO and Russia agreed to cooperate on security issues at the 2002 Rome summit and have been gradually improving relations ever since. However, due to the expansion of the alliance, the Russian intervention in Georgia and other controversies, relations deteriorated significantly.

As part of the NATO-Russia cooperation the Russian government offered and recently agreed to host a NATO transit hub at Ulyanovsk airport to facilitate the NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014,[72][73] which drew criticism from the Communist Party.[73]

Joint operations and mutual support[edit]

Presidents Bush and Putin, November 16, 2001.

Russia has expressed support for the United States' War on Terror by deploying a military hospital and a small number of military personnel (for the military hospital) to Afghanistan in order to aid the U.S. Military, NATO military forces and Afghan civilians.[citation needed] Russia has also agreed to provide logistic support for the United States forces in Afghanistan to aid in anti-terrorist operations. Russia has also allowed U.S. and NATO forces to pass through its territory to go to Afghanistan. Russian Spetsnaz have also assisted U.S., NATO and Afghan forces in operations in Afghanistan, by helping with intel and studying the lay of the land.[citation needed] The two nations support each other in combating piracy in the waters of Somalia.[citation needed]

Victory Day celebrations[edit]

On May 9, 2010, the 2nd Battalion of the 18th Infantry Regiment of the U.S. Army marched across Red Square in Russia's Victory Day Parade.[74] They were also joined by British, French and Polish troops as well as detachments from the CIS member states.[74][75] Labeled by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev as the "Anti-Hitler Coalition," it marked the first time in history that NATO troops joined the Russian military in the Victory Parade.[75]

Bering Strait crossing[edit]

The Bering Strait crossing was authorized by Tsar Nicholas II as early as 1906.[76] The Bering Strait is 37 km wide; 3 km wider than the English Channel.[77]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Mauldin, John (29 October 2014). "The Colder War Has Begun". Forbes. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Kendall, Bridget (12 November 2014). "Rhetoric hardens as fears mount of new Cold War". BBC News. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "United States". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
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  6. ^ American President: A Reference Resource. Foreign Affairs. George H.W.Bush Front Page. Miller Center. University of Virginia. History. Policy. Impact. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  7. ^ T. L. Friedman (April 1993) SUMMIT IN VANCOUVER; CLINTON PRESENTS BILLION TO YELTSIN IN U.S. AID PACKAGE The New York Times Archives. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
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  9. ^ Gottemoeller, Rose (June 5, 2007). Talk of the Nation. Interview with Robert Siegel. NPR. 
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  16. ^ Andrusz, Katya (2008-08-15). "Poland Gets U.S. Military Aid in Missile-Shield Deal". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
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  18. ^ de Nesnera, Andrea (2009-08-13). "Biden Remarks Anger Russian Officials". Voice of America. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
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  20. ^ "US lawmakers call on Pentagon to stop business with Russian arms exporter working with Syria", Washington Post
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  23. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/us-russia-relations-reset-fact-sheet
  24. ^ Baker, Peter; Ellen Barry (2010-03-24). "Russia and U.S. Report Breakthrough on Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-29. 
  25. ^ Vigilant Eagle-2010 – protection against aircraft terrorism
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  30. ^ Bill Gertz (August 14, 2012). "Silent Running". Free Beacon. Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  31. ^ Richard Dunham (August 16, 2012). "Red October redux? John Cornyn demands answers from Pentagon on Russian sub in Gulf of Mexico (UPDATED)". Houston Chronicle (Hearst Communications Inc.). Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Russia's Putin signs anti-U.S. adoption bill". CNN News Network. 
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Further reading[edit]

To 1945[edit]

  • Bolkhovitinov, Nikolai N., Elena Levin and L. H. Butterfield, eds. The Beginnings of Russian-American Relations, 1775-1815 (1976)

Cold War[edit]

  • Levering, Ralph B. et al. eds. Debating the Origins of the Cold War: American and Russian Perspectives (2013)

Since 1991[edit]

  • Ambrosio, Thomas, and Geoffrey Vandrovec. "Mapping the Geopolitics of the Russian Federation: The Federal Assembly Addresses of Putin and Medvedev." Geopolitics (2013) 18#2 pp 435–466.
  • Gvosdev, Nikolas K., and Christopher Marsh. Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors (Washington: CQ Press, 2013) excerpt and text search
  • Hopf, Ted, ed. Understandings of Russian Foreign Policy (1999)
  • Kanet, Roger E. Russian foreign policy in the 21st century (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
  • Larson, Deborah Welch, and Alexei Shevchenko. "Status seekers: Chinese and Russian responses to US primacy." International Security (2010) 34#4 pp 63–95.
  • Legvold, Robert, ed. Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century and the Shadow of the Past (2007)
  • Stent, Angela E. The Limits of Partnership: U.S. Russian Relations in the Twenty-First Century (Princeton UP, 2014) 355 pages; excerpt and text search
  • Tsygankov, Andrei P. "The Russia-NATO mistrust: Ethnophobia and the double expansion to contain “the Russian Bear”." Communist and Post-Communist Studies (2013).

External links[edit]