On 5 September 1968, a day before Swaziland gained independence from the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union sent a telegram to the Swazi government recognising the Kingdom, and offered to establish diplomatic relations. In 1970, Soviet diplomats who were accredited to Mozambique travelled to Swaziland on an unofficial basis, and raised the question of the establishment of official relations between the countries. Swazi King Sobhuza II, under pressure from the South African government, refused to establish such relations.
On 3 May 1995, Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a presidential decree instructing the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to prepare the necessary notes to establish diplomatic relations with the Kingdom. On 19 November 1999, the Russian Federation and Swaziland officially established diplomatic relations, when the ambassadors of the two countries to Mozambique met in Maputo and exchanged diplomatic notes.
The Ambassador of Russia to Mozambique is concurrently accredited to Swaziland, with residence in Maputo. The current Ambassador to Swaziland is Igor Popov, who was appointed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 June 2006, and presented his Letters of Credence to King of Swaziland Mswati III on 27 July 2006. Swaziland does not have diplomatic representation to Russia.
- Ginsburgs, George; Slusser, Robert M. (1981). A calendar of Soviet treaties, 1958-1973. BRILL. p. 881. ISBN 90-286-0609-2.
- Arkhangelskaya, Alexandra. "Swaziland’s foreign policy today". Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, via the University of Swaziland. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- (Russian) Yeltsin, Boris (3 May 1995). "Об установлении дипломатических отношений с Королевством Свазиленд". President of Russia. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "Russia, Swaziland agree to exchange embassies". Moscow: ITAR-TASS. 3 December 1999. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- (Russian) "Российско — свазилендские отношения". Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 17 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Putin, Vladimir (1 June 2006). "О НАЗНАЧЕНИИ ПОПОВА И.В. ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫМ И ПОЛНОМОЧНЫМ ПОСЛОМ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ В КОРОЛЕВСТВЕ СВАЗИЛЕНД ПО СОВМЕСТИТЕЛЬСТВУ". President of Russia. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- (Russian) Documents on the Russia–Swaziland relationship from the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs