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Both countries have had diplomatic relations since 1992. Uzbekistan was once a former Soviet Socialist republic. It still has strong ties to Russia and the West. In the aftermath of the May 2005 unrest, Uzbekistan demanded that the United States leave the base at Karshi-Khanabad. In November 2005, both presidents Islam Karimov and Vladimir Putin signed a mutual cooperation agreement in Moscow. Uzbekistan has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Tashkent.
Recently, however, Uzbekistan has opted to formally withdraw from the Russian-led CSTO alliance in 2012, leading some to debate whether such a move indicated a shift in its foreign policy to the West. However, Uzbekistan remains a part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, of which both Russia and China are part of, and of which it is the only non-founding member.
Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Russia for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Men are trafficked to Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries.