Russian Expeditionary Force in France
The Russian Expeditionary Force was a World War I military force sent to France by the Russian Empire. In 1915 the French requested that Russian troops be sent to fight alongside their own army on the Western Front. Initially they asked for 300,000 men, an absurdly high figure, probably based on their assumptions about Russia's 'unlimited' reserves. General Mikhail Alekseev, the Imperial Chief of Staff, was opposed to sending any, though Nicholas II finally agreed to send a unit of brigade strength. The First Russian Special Brigade finally landed at Marseille in April 1916. A Second Special Brigade was also sent to serve alongside other Allied formations on the Salonika Front in northern Greece. In France, the First Brigade served with distinction until the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1917. With Brigade morale being sapped by political agitation, it was finally disbanded before the end of the year. However, some of the more determined formed the Légion Russe (French for Russian Legion), and continued to preserve a Russian presence in the west and, indeed, in the Great War itself, right up until the Armistice in November, 1918.
Before March 1917
In December 1915 the French politician, Paul Doumer, on a visit to Russia, proposed that 300,000 troops fight in France in exchange for munitions. While the Russian High Command showed little enthusiasm for this proposal, Tsar Nicholas II supported it. General Alexeyev, the Russian chief of staff from August 1915, made an offer to send Russian troops to France, as long as Russian officers (operating under the French High Command) oversaw the Russian troops, and provided that the French Navy equip and transport them.
The 1st Russian Special Brigade formed in January, 1916 under the command of General Nikolai Aleksandrovich Lokhvitsky. It comprised the 1st and 2nd regiments, from Moscow and Samara respectively. Brigade personnel came mostly from reserve units, with the 1st regiment's troops mainly being factory workers and the 2nd's mainly being peasants, with a total of 8,942 men. It left Moscow on February 3, 1916 and arrived in Marseille on April 16 of the same year.
The 3rd, 4th and 5th Brigades soon followed. The 2nd and 4th Brigades arrived on the Salonika front in August and November 1916. The 3rd Brigade comprised mostly professional soldiers and reserve units formed in Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk; it left for France in August 1916.
General Aleksei Brusilov, commander of the Russian Southwest Front from March 1916 was responsible for the four Special Brigades, which contributed a total of 44,319 men to the Entente effort in western and southern Europe. The 6th, 7th and 8th Brigades never formed due to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.
Approximately 450 Estonian troops also served with the REF, mostly in the 1st and 3rd Brigades. After February 1917 these troops wore small Estonian flags to distinguish themselves from their Russian allies.
On 23 April the 1st Special Brigade transferred to Châlons-sur-Marne area, overseen by General Henri Gouraud of the French Fourth Army. French President Raymond Poincaré, impressed by the camp, awarded General Lokhvitsky the Commander of the Legion of Honor. The 1st Brigade then re-deployed further east up the Marne valley between Suippes and Auberive at the end of June 1916.
By March 1917 the Special Brigades were in the Fort Pompelle region, and on April 16, 1917 the 1st Brigade took Courcy and the 3rd Brigade took Mount Spin, resulting in 4,542 men killed, wounded or missing in action.
The Cimitière Militaire Russe de Saint-Hilaire le Grand at Mourmelon-le-Grand in the Marne Department contains the graves of 1000 Russian officers and men. In 1937 a chapel was built[by whom?] here to commemorate all of the Russians who died on the Western Front. There are also two Imperial Russian war graves in the Gouzeaucourt New British Cemetery, near Cambrai.
After the October Revolution and subsequent withdrawal of Russia from the Allies, the Russian troops were looked upon with distrust and relegated to labor companies and internment camps, primarily at Camp Militaire, near La Courtine. The camp was divided into the 1st and 2nd Brigades.
The Russian soldiers in one of the camps began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied. The other camp was still led by Russian officers (notably Colonel Gotua) and was used to help suppress the rebellious one. Finally the French, backed by a newly arrived Russian-manned 75mm field artillery regiment, shelled the rebellious camp, resulting in approximately 10 dead and 44 wounded, as well as an unknown number of dead and wounded shot by Gotua's camp. The survivors were at first sent to jail camps in North Africa and France, and after some months many were sent back to Russia, while a good number of the men integrated into French society.
The loyal men under Colonel Gotua demanded that they be allowed to fight and thus was formed the Russian Legion. It joined the French 1st Moroccan Infantry Division on December 13, 1917. The combined units fought around Amiens in March 1918 and on the road from Soissons to Paris in May 1918 with losses during this fighting accounted for nearly 85% of the Russian Legion's forces.
In July and August Russian volunteers, mainly veterans of the Expeditionary Force, meant that the Legion became first a Brigade and then a Regiment with a total of 21⁄2 infantry companies as well as a mortar unit. They were sent towards Laffaux. On September 12 the Regiment pierced three lines of fortifications despite heavy losses and were awarded a special flag by the Commander of the French Army, Marshal Ferdinand Foch as well as attracting more volunteers. By November 1, 1918 the Regiment had 564 men with a machine gun company and 3 infantry companies.
After the German withdrawal to the border the Moroccan Division, including the Russian Regiment, advanced upon Moyeuvre. The operation was halted by the signing of the armistice treaty on November 11. Near the end of 1918 the entire Russian Regiment was recalled and demobilized. Some Russians chose to remain in France, while others returned to revolutionary Russia. Among the latter was Rodion Malinovsky, the future Soviet Minister of Defence.
- The Volunteers of the Russian Expeditionary Corps in the Moroccan Division during the Second Battle of Marne at the Wayback Machine (archived January 19, 2008), by Henri Maurel. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- CRW Flags. History of the Flag of Estonia. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- WW1 rebellion of Russian troops on the Western Front at Courtine, France at the Wayback Machine (archived July 29, 2009). Retrieved on 4 July 2007.
- Cockfield, Jamie H. With Snow on Their Boots: The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France During World War I. ISBN 0-312-17356-3.
- Poitevin, Pierre, "La Mutinerie de la Courtine. Les régiments russes revoltés en 1917 au centre de la France", Payot Ed., Paris, 1938.