Russian Internet blacklist
|Launched||November 1, 2012|
Russia's Internet blacklist is a database of URLs, domain names, and IP addresses of websites and webpages containing child pornography, advocacy of drug abuse and drug production instructions, suicide advocacy or any information on suicide methods, or any information which have been prohibited for distribution in Russia by court decision. It was launched on 1 November 2012, the day when Federal law no. 139-FZ of 2012-07-28 came into force, and is maintained by the Russian Federal Surveillance Service for Mass Media and Communications (Roskomnadzor, Russian: Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере массовых коммуникаций и связи). Its operation is described in a government decree issued on 26 October 2012.
Visitors to the blacklist website can check whether a given URL or IP address is in the blacklist, and may submit new entries. After a new entry has been reviewed and verified to contain prohibited materials, Roskomnadzor will inform the website owner and hosting provider. If the material is not removed within three days, the website will be added to the blacklist, and all Russian ISPs must block it. The full content of the blacklist is available to ISPs, but not to the general public.
In Russian, the blacklist is officially called Единый реестр доменных имён, указателей страниц сайтов в сети «Интернет» и сетевых адресов, позволяющих идентифицировать сайты в сети «Интернет», содержащие информацию, распространение которой в Российской Федерации запрещено, which translates to Common register of domain names, Internet website page locators, and network addresses that allow identifying Internet websites which contain information that is prohibited for distribution in the Russian Federation. Russian sources generally shorten the official name, for example to Common register of prohibited websites (Единый реестр запрещённых сайтов) or Common register of websites with prohibited information (Единый реестр сайтов с запрещённой информацией). English-language sources for the most part simply refer to it as the country's Internet blacklist.
Known sites blocked by the blacklist
- On 8 April 2012, it was confirmed by Roskomnadzor that several Russian and English Wikipedia articles had been blacklisted. On 5 April 2013, a spokesperson for Roskomnadzor confirmed that the Russian Wikipedia had been blacklisted over the article "Cannabis smoking". Several articles have been blacklisted as containing information on suicide methods, including the articles on self-immolation and lethal injection (as capital punishment).
- The Russian Uncyclopedia was blocked on 8 November 2012 for a satirical article titled "How to correctly: Commit suicide" (absurdopedia.wikia.com/wiki/Как_правильно:Совершить_суицид); the article was then removed. All other content hosted at the same IP address was also blocked, including all the wikis on Wikia. Wikia's IP address remained blocked as of 16 November 2012.
- The IP address of Lurkmore.to (Lurkomorye) was blocked on 11 November 2012 by decision of the Federal Drug Control Service of Russia; the Lurkmore.to owner told journalists that he did not receive any communication from Roskomnadzor or the Federal Drug Control Service before the IP address was blacklisted. Lurkmore.to was removed from the blacklist on 13 November 2012 after the website administrators deleted two marijuana-related articles.
- The IP address of the Librusec online library was blacklisted on 11 November 2012. According to a leaked copy of the blacklist, it was blocked for a description of marijuana soup in a Russian translation of The Anarchist Cookbook. The IP address was unblocked on 13 November after The Anarchist Cookbook was removed by Librusec administrators.
- On 12 November 2012, the leaked list of blacklisted websites was published by a LiveJournal user.
- In 2014, during the Crimea Crisis, Roskomnadzor has blocked a number of websites criticising Russian policy in Ukraine, including blog of Alexei Navalny, Kasparov.ru and Grani.ru.
Reporters Without Borders criticized the procedure by which entries are added to the blacklist as "extremely opaque", and viewed it as part of an attack on the freedom of information in Russia. Some human rights activists have expressed fear that the blacklist may be used to censor democracy-oriented websites. And a Lenta.ru editorial noted that the criteria for prohibited content are so broad that even the website of the ruling United Russia party could in theory be blacklisted. However, the idea of an Internet blacklist is generally supported by the Russian public: in a September 2012 Levada Center survey, 63% of respondents had expressed support for "Internet censorship", though any kind of censorship is banned under the Constitution of Russia.
Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized the blacklist, stating: "EFF is profoundly opposed to government censorship of the Internet, which violates its citizens right to freedom of expression... We are especially concerned about the censorship of independent news and opposing political views, which are essential to a thriving civil society. Russians who wish to circumvent government censorship can continue to read these websites via the Tor Browser."
- "Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 26 октября 2012 г. N 1101 г. Москва" [Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation no. 1101 of 26 October 2012 in the city of Moscow] (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Russian ‘internet blacklist’ goes online". RT. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Russia's New Internet Blacklist". The Atlantic. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Единый реестр запрещённых сайтов начинает свою работу" (in Russian). Channel One. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Единый реестр сайтов с запрещенной информацией начнет свою работу" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Russia internet blacklist law takes effect". BBC. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Russia launches internet blacklist to protect the kiddies". The Register. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Стал известен полный список статей, на данный момент внесённый в реестр Роскомнадзора (ru, en)" ("He became known for a complete list of articles, currently entered in the register Roskomnadzora (ru, en)"), Wikimedia RU. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Russia May Block Wikipedia Access Over Narcotics Article", RIA Novosti, 5 April 2013
- "Russian media regulator confirms Wikipedia blacklisted", Interfax News, 5 April 2013
- "Википедию хотят закрыть за смертельные инъекции". Russian Wikinews. 28 November 2012.
- "Интернет-энциклопедию "Луркоморье" внесли в реестр запрещенных сайтов" [The "Lurkomorye" Internet encyclopedia has been added to the register of prohibited websites] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Stas Kozlovsky (executive director of Wikimedia Russia) (10 November 2012). "Twitter update" (in Russian). Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- ""Закрыть можно что угодно по произвольному набору критериев" Владелец Lurkmore о блокировке сайта" ["Anything can be banned using an arbitrary set of criteria." The owner of Lurkmore talks about the website being blocked] (in Russian). Afisha. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- ""Луркоморье" исключили из реестра запрещенных сайтов" [Lurkomorye has been removed from the register of prohibited websites] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "Заблокирован IP Либрусека. Госорганы добрались до библиотек" [The Librusec IP is blocked. The authorities have started targeting libraries.] (in Russian). RuBlackList. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Список запрещенных сайтов утек в интернет" [The list of prohibited websites has been leaked on the Internet] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ""Либрусек" и Rutracker исключили из реестра сайтов с запрещенной информацией" (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Библиотека "Либрусек" удалила "Поваренную книгу анархиста"" (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Нас блокируют. Что делать?". Grani.ru. 2014.
- "Internet access barred as wave of new legislation threatens freedom of information". Reporters Without Borders. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Подсудный день" (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Россияне поддерживают цензуру в Интернете" ("Russians support censorship of the Internet"), Levada Center, 10 October 2012. (Russian). (English translation).
- "Over 60% of Russians want Internet censorship - poll", Interfax News, 11 October 2012
- "Russia Blocks Access to Major Independent News Sites | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-03-17.