History of Russian military ranks

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Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. Most of the rank names were borrowed from existing German/Prussian, French, English, Dutch, and Polish ranks upon the formation of Russian regular army in late 17th century.

Muscovy[edit]

The rulers of the Kievan Rus entities had no standing army apart from their permanent groups of personal guards, druzhina (дружи́на); with an individual member of such a unit called a druzhinnik (дружи́нник). In case of emergency, rulers raised a militia comprising volunteers from the peasantry, and the druzhina served as the core of the troops. The local knyaz (prince) served as the military leader of the troops. Such arrangements had no need for permanent ranks or positions; they were created ad hoc, based on the task(s) in hand.

Upon the formation of Strelets troops in the mid-16th century, the low-level commanding officers were appointed to one of the following ranks:

  • strelets (стреле́ц), a basic soldier
  • desyatnik (деся́тник, 'of ten men'), acting as sergeant/corporal
  • sotnik (со́тник, 'of hundred men'), acting as captain

These were not personal ranks and were retained only as long as the officer held the position. For battles, the troops were organized[by whom?] into temporary high-level units, usually a polk (полк, Old Slavonic for group of troops), a regiment commanded by a golova (голова́, head) or voyevoda (воево́да, war leader); these commanding positions were not permanent and did not persist after the battle. The cossack cavalry units had their own ranks of Kazak (коза́к), yesaul (есау́л) and ataman (атама́н); they were not comparable to the strelets ranks.

Upon the formation of standing regiments (prikaz, later polk), new ranks insinuated themselves into the hierarchy between the existing grades: pyatidesyatnik (пятидеся́тник, of fifty men) acting as lieutenant, golova acting as colonel of the regiment (also, tysyatskiy (ты́сяцкий, 'of thousand men'). Later, a polugolova (полуголова́. half-golova) rank appeared; eventually golova was renamed polkovnik (полко́вник, regimental commander), and polugolova was renamed podpolkovnik (sub-polkovnik). As usual, voyevoda was simply a commander of a large military group and not a rank of any kind.

At the same time,[when?] the companies of foreign mercenaries were formed; these incorporated foreign ranks of Lieutenant and Rittmeister. They were later changed into New Regiments of the Streltsy Troops and more Western ranks were adopted, including General. Finally, by 1680 the ranks of the New Regiments were unified with Strelets Troops.

Category Foreign regiments Streltsy Equivalent Western rank
Privates Soldat (солда́т), Reiter (рейта́р), Dragoon (драгу́н) Strelets (стреле́ц) Private/Soldier
Line Officers (low grades) Kapral (капра́л) Desyatnik (деся́тник) Corporal
Podpraporshchik (подпра́порщик, a rank of sub-ensign) Sergeant
Line officers (middle grade) Praporshchik (пра́порщик, Flag Bearer basing on Old Slavonic prapor (прапор), flag) Master Sergeant/Ensign
Leytenant, Poruchik (лейтена́нт, пору́чик; the latter is based on Polish porucznik) Pyatidesyatnik (пятидеся́тник) Lieutenant
Kapitan, Rotmistr (капита́н, ро́тмистр; the latter is adaptation of German Rittmeister) Sotnik (со́тник) Captain
Line officers (high grade) Mayor (майо́р) Major
Podpolkovnik, also polupolkovnik (подполко́вник, полуполко́вник, a sub-polkovnik) Polugolova, also pyatisotenny golova (полуголова́, пятисо́тенный голова́) Lieutenant Colonel
Polkovnik (полко́вник, from Russian polk for regiment) Golova, also polkovnik ( голова́, полко́вник) Colonel
Generals General-Mayor (генера́л-майо́р) Major General
General-Poruchik (генера́л-пору́чик) Lieutenant General

Russian Empire[edit]

During the beginning of 18th century, military ranks were frequently changed by the tsar during efforts to reform the army and create a strong Navy. These many changes were routinely documented into Army's Rules of engagement since 1716, until they were finally incorporated into the first variant of Table of Ranks in 1722. Comparing to Strelets Troops, a few more non-commissioned ranks were added, the soldier rank was replaced with many speciality ranks and a few more General ranks were added. The naval ranks were created from scratch, ranks for the naval infantry and engineers would only come in the 19th century.

The officers were styled according to their rank as defined by the Table.

1722-1917: Army[edit]

By 1722, the ranks of both enlisted staff and commissioned/non-commissioned officers were somewhat settled; these ranks survived until the Russian Revolution with only minor adjustments.

Captain-Poruchik rank is comparable to Lieutenant Captain. Note that Poruchik can sometimes be styled as Porutchik, as it was originally written by the tsar himself.

Commissioned officers of artillery, engineers enjoyed a handicap of 1 grade, and the Leib Guards units enjoyed a handicap of 2 grades, ending in Life Guards Colonel.

In the 1798–1884 timeline, the General ranks were streamlined and the Brigadier rank was abolished. The Captain-Poruchik rank was reestablished again, this time as Staff-Captain. The Second Major and First Major ranks were united. In 1826, Russian Army adopted shoulder insignia and distinct Cossack cavalry ranks.

In 1884, Major and Captain-Lieutenant ranks were abolished again and the ranks below were shifted several grades up. The latter was not reintroduced until 1907, but then again abolished in 1911.

Ranks of the Imperial Russian Army
Grade Category Army, Infantry Cavalry, (since 1731) Artillery, Engineer
I Generals Generalissimo (Генерали́ссимус)

General-Fieldmarshal of Russia (генерал-фельдмаршал)

II Général en Chef (генера́л-анше́ф) (1730—1796)

General of the Infantry (генера́л от инфанте́рии ) (since 1796)
Adjutant General (генера́л-адъюта́нт ) (1701–1917)
Quartermaster General (генера́л-квартирме́йстер) (1701–1916)

General of the Cavalry (генера́л от кавале́рии) General of the Artillery (генера́л от артилле́рии) (since 1796)

General Feldzeugmeister (генера́л-фельдцейхме́йстер) until 1796
Engineer-General (инжене́р-генера́л) (since 1802)
General Provisionsmeister (генера́л-провиантме́йстер) until 1796

III General-Poruchik (генера́л-пору́чик) (until 1800)
Lieutenant General (генера́л-лейтена́нт) (since 1800)
General-Poruchik (генера́л-пору́чик)
IV Major General (генера́л-майо́р)
V Staff Officers Brigadier (бригади́р) (until 1798)
VI Polkovnik/Colonel (полко́вник) Polkovnik/Colonel (полко́вник)
VII Sub-Polkovnik/Lieutenant Colonel (подполко́вник) Sub-Polkovnik/Lieutenant Colonel (подполко́вник)
VIII Premier/First Major (премье́р-майо́р)
Second Major (секу́нд-майо́р)
Major (майо́р)
Officers Captain (капита́н)
IX Captain (капита́н) Rittmeister/Ride Master (ро́тмистр) Captain-Poruchik/Captain Lieutenant (капита́н-пору́чик) (until 1731 and since 1765)
X Captain-Poruchik/Captain Lieutenant (капита́н-пору́чик) (until 1731)
Stabs-Captain/Staff Captain (штабс-капита́н)
Stabs-Rittmeister/Staff-Ritmeister/Ride Master (штабс-ро́тмистр) (until 1798) Poruchik (пору́чик)
XI Lieutenant (лейтена́нт) or Poruchik (пору́чик) (since 1765) Sub-Poruchik/Sub-lieutenant (подпору́чик) (since 1765)
XII Lieutenant (лейтена́нт) or Poruchik (пору́чик) (until 1765); Sub-Poruchik/Sub-lieutenant (подпору́чик) since 1765 Sub-Poruchik/Sub-lieutenant (подпору́чик) (until 1765)
XIII Sub-Poruchik/Sub-lieutenant (подпору́чик) (until 1765) Bayonet-Junker (штык-ю́нкер); Praporshchik/Ensign (пра́порщик) since 1765
XIV Praporshchik/Fähnrich/Senior Ensign (пра́порщик / фе́нрих / фе́ндрик) Cornet (корне́т) Deputy Praporshchik/Ensign (зауряд-пра́порщик)
Under-Officers Deputy Praporshchik/Probationary Ensign (зауряд-пра́порщик) (since 1884)

Sub-Praporshchik (подпра́порщик) (1826–1884)
Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1765–1826)
Senior Sergeant (ста́рший сержа́нт)

Wachtmeister/Watch Master (вáхмистр) (until 1884); none (since 1884) Deputy Praporshchik/Probationary Ensign (зауряд-пра́порщик) (since 1884)

Sub-Praporshchik/Junior Ensign(подпра́порщик) (1826–1884)
Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1765–1826)

Sub-Praporshchik (подпра́порщик) (since 1884)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1826–1884)
Portupey Praporshchik (портупе́й пра́порщик) (1798–1826)
Sergeant (сержа́нт) (1765–1798)
Junior Sergeant (мл́адший сержа́нт)

Wachtmeister (вáхмистр) (since 1884)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1826–1884)
Estandart Junker (эстандáрт-ю́нкер) (1798–1826)

Sub-Praporshchik/Junior Ensign (подпра́порщик) (since 1884)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1826–1884)
Portupey Junker (портупéй-ю́нкер) (1798–1826)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1884–1917)

Sergeant (сержа́нт) (1826–1884)
Sub-Praporshchik (подпра́порщик) (until 1826)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1884–1917)
Sub-Praporshchik (подпра́порщик) (1765–1826)
Gefreit-Corporal (гефре́йт-капра́л) (1731–1765)

Feldwebel (фельдфе́бель) (1884–1917)

Sub-Praporshchik (подпра́порщик) (until 1826)

Kaptenarmus (каптена́рмус); Senior Unteroffizier/Under Officer (ста́рший у́нтер-офице́р) (since 1800)
Farrier (фурье́р)
Corporal (капра́л); Unteroffizier (у́нтер-офице́р) (later Junior Unteroffizier) (младший унтер-офицер)
Privates Gefreiter (гефре́йтор)
Musketeer, Fusilier, Jaeger, Grenadier, Pikenier, Hajduk, Strelets, Archer, Rifleman etc. (мушкетёр, фузилёр, е́герь, гренадёр, пикинёр, гайду́к, стреле́ц, лу́чник и т.д.) Dragoon, Hussar, Cuirassiers, Uhlan, Lancer, Cossacks, Chevau-léger, Horse Grenadier, Carabinier, etc. (драгу́н, гуса́р, кираси́р, улáн, ланцéр, каза́к и т.д.) Cannonier, Gunner, Handlageer, Sapper, Pioneer, Miner, Pontooner etc. (канони́р, гандлаге́р, сапёр, пионе́р, минёр, понтонёр и т.д.)

1722-1917: Navy[edit]

As stated earlier, most of the naval ranks and rates were formed from scratch in the 18th century, with many changes since then. Ranks for naval infantry, shore service personnel and engineers would only come in the 19th century.

Ranks of the Imperial Russian Navy (Deck personnel)
Grade Category Rank
I Admirals General Admiral (генера́л-адмира́л)
II Admiral (адмира́л)
III Vice Admiral (ви́це-адмира́л)
IV Schout-bij-nacht (шаутбейна́хт) until 1724; Rear Admiral or Counter Admiral since 1724 (ко́нтр-адмира́л)
V Staff Officers Captain-Commodore (капита́н-командо́р) (until 1764) and (1798–1826); Captain of Brigadier rank (капита́н брагади́рского ра́нга) (1764–1798)
VI Captain 1st rank (капита́н 1-го ра́нга) (from 1751 onward), Ship-of-the-line captain (Капитан корабля) (1701 – 1713 and 1732 – 1751)
VII Captain 2nd rank (капита́н 2-го ра́нга)
VIII Captain 3rd rank (капита́н 3-го ра́нга) (until 1730); Captain-Poruchik (капита́н-поручи́к) (until 1784); Captain Lieutenant (капита́н-лейтена́нт) (since 1784)
IX Officers Senior Lieutenant (Старший лейтенант) (1909–17),
Lieutenant (лейтена́нт) or Poruchik (пору́чик) (since 1884)
X Under-Lieutenant (ýнтер лейтена́нт) (until 1724); Poruchik (пору́чик) (until 1884); Midshipman (ми́чман) (since 1884)
XI Ship Secretary (корабе́льный секрета́рь) (until 1834); Podporuchik (подпору́чик) (until 1884)
XII Midshipman (ми́чман) (1864–1884)
XIII Midshipman (ми́чман) (1758–1864), Brevet Midshipman/Garde-Marine (гардемарин) (1827-1883)
XIV
Under-Officers Senior Boatswain (Старший боцман)
Stuurman (шту́рман); Senior Unteroffizier (ста́рший у́нтер-офице́р); Conductor (кондукто́р)
Skipper (шки́пер)
Midshipman (ми́чман) (until 1758); Unteroffizier (у́нтер-офице́р) (since 1758); Konstapel (конста́пель)
Bootsmann (Bosun) (бо́цман); Shipman, (Schoonerman) (шхи́ман)
Sub Skipper (подшхи́ман); Sub Stuurman, (подшту́рман); Bootsmannmaat (боцманма́т); Shchiemanmaat (шхиманма́т)
Quartermaster (квартирмéйстер)
Seamen 1st rank Seaman (матро́с 1-й статьи́)
2nd rank Seaman (матро́с 2-й статьи́)

Ranks of the Imperial Russian Navy (Naval Infantry and shore service personnel)
Grade Category Rank
I General Officers No equivalent
II Fleet General (Флота генерал)
III Fleet Lieutenant General (Флота генерал-лейтенант)
IV Fleet Major General (Флота генерал-майор)
V Staff Officers No equivalent
VI Admiralty Colonel (Полковник по адмиралтейству)
VII Admiralty Lieutenant Colonel(Подполковник по адмиралтейству)
VIII Admiralty Major (Майор по адмиралтейству)(1830-1884),
Admiralty Captain (Капитан по адмиралтейству)(1884-1917)
IX Officers Admiralty Captain (Капитан по адмиралтейству)(1828-1884),
Admiralty Staff Captain (Штабс-капитан по адмиралтейству) (1884-1917)
X Admiralty Staff Captain (Штабс-капитан по адмиралтейству) (until 1884)
XI Admiralty Captain Lieutenant (Капитан-пору́чик по адмиралтейству)(1907-1912),
Admiralty Lieutenant (Поручик по адмиралтейству) (1884-1917)
XII Admiralty Lieutenant (Поручик по адмиралтейству) (1829-1884),
Admiralty Sub-lieutenant (Подпоручик по адмиралтейству) (1885-1917)
XIII Admiralty Sub-lieutenant (Подпоручик по адмиралтейству) (until 1885)
XIV Admiralty Ensign (Прапорщик по адмиралтейству)
Under-Officers
Marine Acting Ensign (Морской зауряд-прапорщик) (1884-1917)
Marine Junior Ensign (Морской подпрапорщик)
Marine Feldwebel (Морской фельдфебель) (1884-1917),
Marine Sergeant (Морской сержа́нт) (1830–1884)
Marine Senior Unteroffizier (Морской старший унтер-офицер)
Marine Junior Unteroffizier (Морской малдший унтер-офицер), Marine Corporal (Морской капра́л)
Privates,
Marines
Marine Gefreiter, Marine Lance Corporal (Морской ефрейтор)
Private, Marine (Морской солдат)

RSFSR and Soviet Union[edit]

1918–1925[edit]

The October Revolution of 1917 abolished the privileges of the Russian nobility (Dvoryanstvo). The Table of Ranks was abolished and so were personal military ranks. Based on the teachings of Karl Marx to replace a regular army with the general arming of the people, the Bolsheviks abolished the Imperial army in 16 March 1918. But the need for an armed struggle against the counter-revolution, and foreign military intervention forced the CEC and the CPC, January 15, 1918 to issue a decree establishing of the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Army", very early before the disbandment of the Imperial ground forces.

At first the new army had no ranks, aside from the single rank of "RedArmyMan". However, due to a real need, first informally and then more formally (although no document on an introduction of ranks or names of commanders was issued) in official correspondence acronyms began to appear representing position-holder titles. For example, komdiv was an acronym of Division Commander; likewise kombat stood for Battalion Commander, etc. By the middle of the Civil War (January 1919), these "positional ranks" became quite formal, and since January 1920 the names of officers was fixed by the Order of the Red Army. Instead of ranks, these were officially known as "categories of the Red Army." This system was maintained until May 1924. Some of these acronyms have survived as informal position names to the present day.

During the civil war ships did not play a significant role. Many of the sailors and petty officers of the fleet went to fight on land in the Red Army. For a long time a scale of naval ranks did not exist at all. Most of the naval officers were addressed either by their position or by their tsarist rank with the addition of front abbreviation "b.", what meant "former". Since 1924, the real rehabilitation and creation of the fleet began. Personal ranks as such did not exist during this period in the Navy.

By then, the only new rank created was the Sergeant Major (Starshina) rank in the Red Army. It was first introduced in the Worker's and Peasant's Red Navy at the same time, with the old Imperial Naval rank of Bootsmann in the Navy the only old rank still used.

The Soviet Air Forces began as a committee for ex-Imperial military aviation in 1918, and was later transformed into a separate service later as the Workers and Peasants Red Air Fleet. It shared the same ranks as the Army and the naval air component shared the ranks of its mother service.

Army appointments[1] Naval appointments[2]
Categories Names of key posts Groups
Red Commanders
Краскомы
(Kraskomy)
People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs
Наркомвоенмор
(Narkomvoyenmor)
Supreme Commanders
(Высший командный и начальствующий состав)
Front Commander
Комфронта
(Komfronta)
No equivalent
Commandarm
Командарм
(Komandarm)
Chief of the Navy[2]
Начморси
(Nachmorsi)
Comcor
Комкор
(Komkor)
Ship Divizia Chief
Начальник дивизии кораблей
(Nachalnik divizii korabley)
Comdiv
Начдив
(Nachdiv)
Ship Brigade Commander
Командир бригады кораблей
(Komandir brigady korabley)
Combrig
Комбриг
(Kombrig)
Ship Divizion Commander
Командир дивизиона кораблей
(Komandir diviziona korabley)
Senior Commanders
(Старший командный и начальствующий состав)
Regimental Commander
Комполка
(Kompolka)
Ship Commander
Командир корабля
(Komandir korablya)
Combat
Комбат
(Kombat)
Senior Assistant of Ship Commander
Старший помощник командира корабля
(Starshiy pomoshchnik komandira korablya)
Assistant of Combat
Помкомбат
(Pomkombat)
Assistant of Ship Commander
Помощник командира корабля
(Pomoshchnik komandira korablya)
Company Commander
or
Escadron Commander
Комроты or Комэск
(Komroty) or (Komesk)
Combatant Commander
Командир боевой части
(Komandir boyevoy chasti)
Middleweight Commanders
(Средний командный и начальствующий состав)
Assistant of Company Commander
or
Assistant of Escadron Commander
Помкомроты or Помкомэск
(Pomkomroty) or (Pomkomesk)
Group Commander
Командир группы
(Komandir gruppy)
Platoon Commander
Комвзвода
(Komvzvoda)
Squad Commander
Командир отделения
(Komandir otdeleniya)
Starshina
Старшина
(Starshina)
No equivalent
Junior Сommanders
(Младший командный и начальствующий состав)
Assistant of Platoon Commander
Помкомвзвода
(Pomkomvzvoda)
Starshina
or
Boatswain/Bootsmann
Старшина or боцман
(Starshina) or (Botsman)
Squad Commander
Комот
(Komot)
No equivalent
Redarmymen
Красноармейцы
(Krasnoarmeytsy)
Redarmyman
Красноармеец
(Krasnoarmeyets)
Redfleetman
Краснофлотец
(Krasnoflotets)
Privates
(Рядовой состав)

1925–1935[edit]

By that year, the ranks were expanded to match the military ranks of other countries' armed forces. The Soviet Air Forces soon received its own ranks.

Categories Names of key posts Groups
Army appointments[3] Naval appointments[4] Aviation appointments
K-14
Front Commander
Командующий фронтом
(Komanduyushchiy frontom)
Chief of Navy of the Republic[citation needed]
Главнокомандующий флотом республики
(Glavnokomanduyushchiy flotom respubliky)
Chief of the Soviet Air Force
'Hачальник BBC CCCP
(Nachalnik VVS SSSR)
Supreme Commanders
(Высший командный и начальствующий состав)
K-13
Commandarm
Командующий армией
(Komanduyushchiy armiey)
&
Assistant of Front Commander
Помощник командующего фронтом
(Pomoshchnik komanduyushchego frontom)
Fleet Commander
Командующий флотом
(Komanduyushchiy flotom)
Deputy Chief of the Soviet Air Force
Помощник начальник BBC CCCP
(Pomoshchnik Nachalnik VVS SSSR)
K-12
Comcor
Командир корпуса
(Komandir korpusa)
&
Assistant of Army Commander
Помощник командующего армией
(Pomoshchnik komanduyushchego armiey)
Flotilla Commander
Командующий флотилией
(Komanduyushchiy flotiliey)
Air Brigade Commander
Командующий авиабригады
(Komanduyushchiy aviabrigadi)
K-11
Comdiv
Командир дивизии
(Komandir divizii)
&
Assistant of Corps Commander
Помощник командира корпуса
(Pomoshchnik komandira korpusa)
Escadre Commander
Командующий эскадрой
(Komanduyushchiy eskadroy)
K-10
Combrig
Командир бригады
(Komandir brigady)
&
Assistant of the Divizia Commander
Помощник командира дивизии
(Pomoshchnik komandira divizii)
Ship Brigade Commander
Командир бригады кораблей
(Komandir brigady korabley)
Air Squadron Commander
Командующий эскадрильи
(Komanduyushchiy eskadrily)
K-9
Regimental Commander
Командир полка
(Komandir polka)
&
Assistant of the Brigade Commander
Помощник командира бригады
(Pomoshchnik komandira brigady)
Ship Commander, 1st rank
Командир корабля 1-го ранга
(Komandir korablya 1-go ranga)
Air Park Commander
Командующий авиапарка
(Komanduyushchiy aviaparka)
Senior Commanders
(Старший командный и начальствующий состав)
K-8
Assistant of the Regimental Commander
Помощник командира полка
(Pomoshchnik komandira polka)
Senior Assistant of Ship Commander 1st rank
Старший помощник командира корабля 1-го ранга
(Starshiy pomoshchnik komandira korablya 1-ranga)
Air Flight Senior Commander
Командующий отдельного авиаотряда
(Komanduyushchiy otdelynogo aviaotryada)
K-7
Combat
Командир батальона
(Komandir bataliona)
Ship Commander, 2nd rank
Командир корабля 2-го ранга
(Komandir korablya 2-go ranga)
Air Flight Commander
Командующий авиаотряда
(Komanduyushchiy aviaotryada)
K-6
Assistant of Battalion Commander
Помощник командира батальона
(Pomoshchnik komandira bataliona)
Ship Commander, 3rd rank
Командир корабля 3-го ранга
(Komandir korablya 3-go ranga)
&
Senior Assistant of Ship Commander 2nd rank
Старший помощник командира корабля 2-го ранга
(Starshiy pomoshchnik komandira korablya 2-ranga)
Air Detail Commander
Командующий авиазвена
(Komanduyushchiy aviazvena)
Middleweight Commanders
(Средний командный и начальствующий состав)
K-5
Company Commander
Командир роты
(Komandir roty)
Ship Commander, 4th rank
Командир корабля 4-го ранга
(Komandir korablya 4-go ranga)
&
Senior Assistant of Ship Commander 3rd rank
Старший помощник командира корабля 3-го ранга
(Starshiy pomoshchnik komandira korablya 3-ranga)
Senior Pilot
Старший летчик
(Starshiy Letchik)
K-4
Assistant of Company Commander
Помощник командира роты
(Pomoshchnik komandira roty)
Senior Assistant of Ship Commander 4th rank
Старший помощник командира корабля 4-го ранга
(Starshiy pomoshchnik komandira korablya 4-ranga)
Junior Pilot
Младший летчик
(Mladshiy Letchik)
K-3
Platoon Commander
Командир взвода
(Komandir vzvoda)
Combatant Commander
Командир боевой части
(Komandir boyevoy chasti)
&
Assistant of Ship Commander 4th rank
Помощник командира корабля 4-го ранга
(Pomoshchnik komandira korablya 4-ranga)
Air Platoon Commander
Командир взвода
(Komandir vzvoda)
K-2
Starshina
Старшина
(Starshina)
Chief Starshina
Главный cтаршина
(Glavni Starshina)
,&
Chief Boatswain/Bootsmann
Главный боцман
(Glavniy botsman)
Senior Motorist
Старший моторист
(Starshiy Motorist)
Junior Сommanders
(Младший командный и начальствующий состав)
Assistant of Platoon Commander
Помощник командира взвода
(Pomoshchnik komandira vzvoda)
Senior Boatswain/Bootsmann
Старший боцман
(Starshiy botsman)
Motorist
Mоторист
(Motorist)
K-1
Squad Commander
Командир отделения
(Komandir otdeleniya)
Squad Commander
Командир отделения
(Komandir otdeleniya)
&
Boatswain/Bootsmann
Боцман
(Botsman)
Junior Motorist
Младший моторист
(Mladshiy Motorist)
Fireteam Commander
Командир звена
(Komandir zvena)
&
Assistant of Squad Commander
Помощник командира отделения
(Pomoshchnik komandira otdeleniya)
Group Commander
Командир группы
(Komandir gruppy)
&
Assistant of Squad Commander
Помощник командира отделения
(Pomoshchnik komandira otdeleniya)
-
Redarmyman
Красноармеец
(Krasnoarmeyets)
Redfleetman
Краснофлотец
(Krasnoflotets)
Redairfleetman
Красновоздухоплаватель
(Krasnoboedukhoplavately)
Privates
(Рядовой состав)

1935–1940[edit]

Personal ranks were introduced in the Red Army on September 22, 1935

Categories Ranks[5]
Privates & Commanders Political staff Technical staff Administrative staff Medical (Vet) staff Juristical staff
Ground and Air Forces Naval Forces Ground and Air Forces Naval Forces
Privates and Junior Сommanders
(Рядовой и младший командный и начальствующий состав)
Redarmyman
Красноармеец
(Krasnoarmeyets)
Redfleetman
Краснофлотец
(Krasnoflotets)
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
Squad Commander
Отделенный командир
(Otdelenniy komandir)
Squad Commander
Отделенный командир
(Otdelenniy komandir)
Junior Platoon Commander
Младший комвзвода
(Mladshiy komvzvoda)
No equivalent
Starshina
Старшина
(Starshina)
Starshina
Старшина
(Starshina)
Middleweight Commanders
(Средний командный и начальствующий состав)
Junior Lieutenant
Младший лейтенант
(Mladshiy leytenant)
Junior Lieutenant
Младший лейтенант
(Mladshiy leytenant)
Junior Military Technician
Младший воентехник
(Mladshiy voentehnik)
Junior Military Technician
Младший воентехник
(Mladshiy voentehnik)
Lieutenant
Лейтенант
(Leytenant)
Lieutenant
Лейтенант
(Leytenant)
Junior Politruk
Младший политрук
(Mladshiy politruk)
Military Technician 2nd rank
Воентехник 2 ранга
(Voentehnik 2 ranga)
Military Technician 2nd rank
Воентехник 2 ранга
(Voentehnik 2 ranga)
Technician-Intendant 2nd rank
Техник-интендант 2 ранга
(Tehnik-intendant 2 ranga)
Military Feldscher / Military Vet Feldscher
Военфельдшер/ветвоенфельдшер
(Voenfeldsher/vetvoenfeldsher)
Junior Military Jurist
Младший военюрист
(Mladshiy voenyurist)
Senior Lieutenant
Старший лейтенант
(Starshiy leytenant)
Senior Lieutenant
Старший лейтенант
(Starshiy leytenant)
Politruk
Политрук
(Politruk)
Military Technician 1st rank
Воентехник 1 ранга
(Voentehnik 1 ranga)
Military Technician 1st rank
Воентехник 1 ранга
(Voentehnik 1 ranga)
Technician-Intendant 1st rank
Техник-интендант 1 ранга
(Tehnik-intendant 1 ranga)
Senior Military Feldscher / Senior Military Vet Feldscher
Старший военфельдшер / Старший ветвоенфельдшер
(Starshiy voenfeldsher/Starshiy vetvoenfeldsher)
Military Jurist
Военюрист
(Voenyurist)
Senior Commanders
(Старший командный и начальствующий состав)
Captain
Капитан
(Kapitan)
Captain-Lieutenant
Капитан-лейтенант
(Kapitan-leytenant)
Senior Politruk
Старший политрук
(Starshiy politruk)
Military Engineer 3rd rank
Военинженер 3 ранга
(Voeninzhener 3 ranga)
Military Engineer 3rd rank
Военинженер 3 ранга
(Voeninzhener 3 ranga)
Intendant 3 rank
Интендант 3 ранга
(Intendant 3 ranga)
Military Medic 3rd rank / Military Veterinarian 3rd rank
Военврач 3 ранга / Ветвоенврач 3 ранга
(Voenvrach 3 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 3 ranga)
Military Jurist 3rd rank
Военюрист 3 ранга
(Voenyurist 3 ranga)
Major
Майор
(Mayor)
Captain, 3rd rank
Капитан 3 ранга
(Kapitan 3 ranga)
Battalion Commissar
Батальонный комиссар
(Batalionniy komissar)
Military Engineer 2nd rank
Военинженер 2 ранга
(Voeninzhener 2 ranga)
Military Engineer 2nd rank
Военинженер 2 ранга
(Voeninzhener 2 ranga)
Intendant 2nd rank
Интендант 2 ранга
(Intendant 2 ranga)
Military Medic 2nd rank / Military Veterinarian 2nd rank
Военврач 2 ранга / Ветвоенврач 2 ранга
(Voenvrach 2 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 2 ranga)
Military Jurist 2nd rank
Военюрист 2 ранга
(Voenyurist 2 ranga)
Colonel
Полковник
(Polkovnik)
Captain, 2nd rank
Капитан 2 ранга
(Kapitan 2 ranga)
Regimental Commissar
Полковой комиссар
(Polkovoy komissar)
Military Engineer 1st rank
Военинженер 1 ранга
(Voeninzhener 1 ranga)
Military Engineer 1st rank
Военинженер 1 ранга
(Voeninzhener 1 ranga)
Intendant 1st rank
Интендант 1 ранга
(Intendant 1 ranga)
Military Medic 1st rank / Military Veterinarian 1st rank
Военврач 1 ранга / Ветвоенврач 1 ранга
(Voenvrach 1 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 1 ranga)
Military Jurist 1st rank
Военюрист 1 ранга
(Voenyurist 1 ranga)
Supreme Commanders
(Высший командный и начальствующий состав)
Combrig
Комбриг
(Kombrig)
Captain, 1st rank
Капитан 1 ранга
(Kapitan 1 ranga)
Brigade Commissar
Бригадный комиссар
(Brigadniy komissar)
Brigengineer
Бригинженер
(Briginzhener)
Engineer-Flag officer 3rd rank
Инженер-флагман 3 ранга
(Inzhener-flagman 3 ranga)
Brigintendant
Бригинтендант
(Brigintendant)
Brigade Medic / Brigade Veterinarian
Бригврач/Ветбригврач
(Brigvrach/Vetbrigvrach)
Brigade Military Jurist
Бригвоенюрист
(Brigvoenyurist)
Comdiv
Комдив
(Komdiv)
Flag officer 2nd rank
Флагман 2 ранга
(Flagman 2 ranga)
Divisional Commissar
Дивизионный комиссар
(Divizionniy komissar)
Divengineer
Дивинженер
(Divinzhener)
Engineer-Flag officer 2nd rank
Инженер-флагман 2 ранга
(Inzhener-flagman 2 ranga)
Divintendant
Дивинтендант
(Divintendant)
Divisional Medic / Divisional Veterinarian
Дивврач/Ветдивврач
(Divvrach/Vetdivvrach)
Divisional Military Jurist
Диввоенюрист
(Divvoenyurist)
Comcor
Комкор
(Komkor)
Flag officer 1st rank
Флагман 1 ранга
(Flagman 1 ranga)
Corps Commissar
Корпусной комиссар
(Korpusnoy komissar)
Corengineer
Коринженер
(Korinzhener)
Engineer-Flag officer 1st rank
Инженер-флагман 1 ранга
(Inzhener-flagman 1 ranga)
Corintendant
Коринтендант
(Korintendant)
Corps Medic / Corps Veterinarian
Корврач/Веткорврач
(Korvrach/Vetkorvrach)
Corps Military Jurist
Корвоенюрист
(Korvoenyurist)
2nd rank Commandarm
Командарм 2 ранга
(Komandarm 2 ranga)
Fleet Flag officer 2nd rank
Флагман флота 2 ранга
(Flagman flota 2 ranga)
2nd Rank Army Commissar
Армейский комиссар 2 ранга
(Armeyskiy komissar 2 ranga)
Armengineer
Арминженер
(Arminzhener)
Fleet Engineer-Flag officer
Инженер-флагман флота
(Inzhener-flagman flota)
Armintendant
Арминтендант
(Armintendant)
Army Medic / Army Veterinarian
Армврач/Ветармврач
(Armvrach/Vetarmvrach)
Army Military Jurist
Армвоенюрист
(Armvoenyurist)
1st rank Commandarm
Командарм 1 ранга
(Komandarm 1 ranga)
Fleet Flag officer 1st rank
Флагман флота 1 ранга
(Flagman flota 1 ranga)
1st Rank Army Commissar
Армейский комиссар 1 ранга
(Armeyskiy komissar 1 ranga)
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
Marshal of the Soviet Union
Маршал Советского Союза
(Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza)
No equivalent

Ranks of Junior Lieutenant and Junior Military Technician were introduced in 1937. Also restored were most of the military officer ranks in the Army and Navy, except for the General officer ranks and the Admiral officer ranks, with the naval rank of 3rd class Captain being the new officer rank introduced.

1940–1943[edit]

General ranks were restored in May 1940. The new ranks were based on the military ranks of the Russian Empire, although they underwent some modifications; modified Imperial rank insignia were reintroduced in 1943. The new ranks also abolished the specialist ranks for the other arms and services, and they were replaced by the new ranks with the service name attached.

Categories Ranks[6]
Privates & Commanders Political staff Technical staff Administrative staff Medical (Vet) staff Juristical staff
Ground and Air Forces Naval Forces Ground and Air Forces Naval Forces
Privates
(Рядовой состав)
Redarmyman
Красноармеец
(Krasnoarmeyets)
Redfleetman
Краснофлотец
(Krasnoflotets)
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
Efreitor
Ефрейтор
(Yefreytor)
Senior Redfleetman
Старший краснофлотец
(Starshiy krasnoflotets)
Junior Сommanders
(Младший командный и начальствующий состав)
Junior Sergeant
Младший сержант
(Mladshiy serzhant)
Starshina 2nd rank
Старшина 2 статьи
(Starshina 2 stat'i)
Sergeant
Сержант
(Serzhant)
Starshina 1st rank
Старшина 1 статьи
(Starshina 1 stat'i)
Senior Sergeant
Старший сержант
(Starshiy serzhant)
Chief Starshina
Главный старшина
(Glavniy starshina)
Starshina
Старшина
(Starshina)
Midshipman
Мичман
(Michman)
Middleweight Commanders
(Средний командный и начальствующий состав)
Junior Lieutenant
Младший лейтенант
(Mladshiy leytenant)
Junior Lieutenant
Младший лейтенант
(Mladshiy leytenant)
Junior Military Technician
Младший воентехник
(Mladshiy voentehnik)
Junior Military Technician
Младший воентехник
(Mladshiy voentehnik)
Lieutenant
Лейтенант
(Leytenant)
Lieutenant
Лейтенант
(Leytenant)
Junior Politruk
Младший политрук
(Mladshiy politruk)
Military Technician 2nd rank
Воентехник 2 ранга
(Voentehnik 2 ranga)
Military Technician 2nd rank
Воентехник 2 ранга
(Voentehnik 2 ranga)
Technician-Intendant 2nd rank
Техник-интендант 2 ранга
(Tehnik-intendant 2 ranga)
Military Feldscher / Military Vet Feldscher
Военфельдшер/ветвоенфельдшер
(Voenfeldsher/vetvoenfeldsher)
Junior Military Jurist
Младший военюрист
(Mladshiy voenyurist)
Senior Lieutenant
Старший лейтенант
(Starshiy leytenant)
Senior Lieutenant
Старший лейтенант
(Starshiy leytenant)
Politruk
Политрук
(Politruk)
Military Technician 1st rank
Воентехник 1 ранга
(Voentehnik 1 ranga)
Military Technician 1st rank
Воентехник 1 ранга
(Voentehnik 1 ranga)
Technician-Intendant 1st rank
Техник-интендант 1 ранга
(Tehnik-intendant 1 ranga)
Senior Military Feldscher / Senior Military Vet Feldscher
Старший военфельдшер / Старший ветвоенфельдшер
(Starshiy voenfeldsher/Starshiy vetvoenfeldsher)
Military Jurist
Военюрист
(Voenyurist)
Senior Commanders
(Старший командный и начальствующий состав)
Captain
Капитан
(Kapitan)
Captain-Lieutenant
Капитан-лейтенант
(Kapitan-leytenant)
Senior Politruk
Старший политрук
(Starshiy politruk)
Military Engineer 3rd rank
Военинженер 3 ранга
(Voeninzhener 3 ranga)
Military Engineer 3rd rank
Военинженер 3 ранга
(Voeninzhener 3 ranga)
Intendant 3rd rank
Интендант 3 ранга
(Intendant 3 ranga)
Military Medic 3rd rank / Military Veterinarian 3 rank
Военврач 3 ранга / Ветвоенврач 3 ранга
(Voenvrach 3 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 3 ranga)
Military Jurist 3rd rank
Военюрист 3 ранга
(Voenyurist 3 ranga)
Major
Майор
(Mayor)
Captain, 3rd rank
Капитан 3 ранга
(Kapitan 3 ranga)
Battalion Commissar
Батальонный комиссар
(Batalionniy komissar)
Military Engineer 2nd rank
Военинженер 2 ранга
(Voeninzhener 2 ranga)
Military Engineer 2nd rank
Военинженер 2 ранга
(Voeninzhener 2 ranga)
Intendant 2 rank
Интендант 2 ранга
(Intendant 2 ranga)
Military Medic 2nd rank / Military Veterinarian 2 rank
Военврач 2 ранга / Ветвоенврач 2 ранга
(Voenvrach 2 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 2 ranga)
Military Jurist 2nd rank
Военюрист 2 ранга
(Voenyurist 2 ranga)
Lieutenant Colonel
Подполковник
(Podpolkovnik)
Captain, 2nd rank
Капитан 2 ранга
(Kapitan 2 ranga)
Senior Battalion Commissar
Старший батальонный комиссар
(Starshiy batalionniy komissar)
Military Engineer 1st rank
Военинженер 1 ранга
(Voeninzhener 1 ranga)
Military Engineer 1st rank
Военинженер 1 ранга
(Voeninzhener 1 ranga)
Intendant 1 rank
Интендант 1 ранга
(Intendant 1 ranga)
Military Medic 1st rank / Military Veterinarian 1 rank
Военврач 1 ранга / Ветвоенврач 1 ранга
(Voenvrach 1 ranga / Vetvoenvrach 1 ranga)
Military Jurist 1st rank
Военюрист 1 ранга
(Voenyurist 1 ranga)
Colonel
Полковник
(Polkovnik)
Captain, 1st rank
Капитан 1 ранга
(Kapitan 1 ranga)
Regimental Commissar
Полковой комиссар
(Polkovoy komissar)
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
Supreme Commanders
(Высший командный и начальствующий состав)
General-Major
Генерал-майор
(General-mayor)
Counter-Admiral
Контр-адмирал
(Kontr-admiral)
Divisional Commissar
Дивизионный комиссар
(Divizionniy komissar)
Divengineer
Дивинженер
(Divinzhener)
Engineer-Flag officer 2nd rank
Инженер-флагман 2 ранга
(Inzhener-flagman 2 ranga)
Divintendant
Дивинтендант
(Divintendant)
Divisional Medic / Divisional Veterinarian
Дивврач/Ветдивврач
(Divvrach/Vetdivvrach)
Divisional Military Jurist
Диввоенюрист
(Divvoenyurist)
General-Lieutenant
Генерал-лейтенант
(General-leytenant)
Vice-Admiral
Вице-адмирал
(Vitse-admiral)
Corps Commissar
Корпусной комиссар
(Korpusnoy komissar)
Corengineer
Коринженер
(Korinzhener)
Engineer-Flag officer 1st rank
Инженер-флагман 1 ранга
(Inzhener-flagman 1 ranga)
Corintendant
Коринтендант
(Korintendant)
Corps Medic / Corps Veterinarian
Корврач/Веткорврач
(Korvrach/Vetkorvrach)
Corps Military Jurist
Корвоенюрист
(Korvoenyurist)
General-Colonel
Генерал-полковник
(General-polkovnik)
Admiral
Адмирал
(Admiral)
Army Commissar 2nd rank
Армейский комиссар 2 ранга
(Armeyskiy komissar 2 ranga)
Armengineer
Арминженер
(Arminzhener)
Fleet Engineer-Flag Officer
Инженер-флагман флота
(Inzhener-flagman flota)
Armintendant
Арминтендант
(Armintendant)
Army Medic / Army Veterinarian
Армврач/Ветармврач
(Armvrach/Vetarmvrach)
Army Military Jurist
Армвоенюрист
(Armvoenyurist)
General of the Army
Генерал армии
(General armii)
No equivalent
Army Commissar 1st rank
Армейский комиссар 1 ранга
(Armeyskiy komissar 1 ranga)
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
No equivalent
Marshal of the Soviet Union
Маршал Советского Союза
(Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza)
No equivalent

Ranks "Lieutenant Colonel" and "Senior Battalion Commissar" were introduced in 1940. By then the Army rank of Corporal and the Naval rank of Midshipman were revived, and the old rank of Junior Sergeant reinstated into its modern form (the rank is from the Estonian Army but has a Russian origin in the Imperial Russian Army).

In 1942, the political commissars' service in the Red Army was finally disbanded for good, and its ranks dissolved.

1943–1991[edit]

In 1943, all ranks became standardized throughout the Soviet Armed Forces, with the full inclusion of Air/Arm/Branch Marshal and Air/Arm/Branch Chief Marshal ranks. All specialist ranks remaining were replaced by the 1940 standard ranks with the service name attached to them, and Private and Seaman became the basic enlisted ranks. The new Imperial Russian Armed Forces-style shoulder rank insignia also debuted.

From 1943 to 1961, naval ranks were adjusted to match the naval ranks of other countries. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was introduced during the Great Patriotic War, and was the equivalent rank to Marshal of the Soviet Union that in 1955, it was renamed Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union. The rank was soon revived in 1962 as a General of the Army-equivalent rank in compliance to new Soviet Navy regulations for officers.

On June 27, 1945 the rank of Generalissimus Sovietskogo Soyuza (Generalissimus of the Soviet Union) was created and granted to Joseph Stalin following the tradition of the Russian Imperial Army which granted to the Tsars the military rank in their capacity as Commanders-in-Chief. Formally it existed until 1993 but it was never used after Stalin's death.

In the 1970s, the non-commissioned officers serving under contract and holding Starshina (Master Sergeant) rank were reassigned to newly created Praporshchik rank (not to be confused with similarly named Russian Empire rank of commissioned officers); starshina was reserved for conscripts only. In the Soviet Navy, however, as the Midshipman rank was formally elevated to that of a warrant officer, the NCO role of Midshipmen was replaced by the new rank of Ship Chief Master Sergeant as a result of the naval rank change. At the same time all rank insignia became uniform for the Army and Air Force plus the other services, the Navy retained theirs.

Generals of the Army and Admirals soon had their insignia changed in 1974.

The final change was in 1981 when Senior Praporshchik and Senior Midshipman ranks were added in the ranks of warrant officers.

The table of Soviet military ranks can see in Military ranks of the Soviet Union or in the section below (as they were the same as present military ranks of the Russian Federation).

Russian Federation[edit]

The independent Russia inherited the ranks of the Soviet Union, although the insignia and uniforms were altered a little. The following is a table of ranks of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Russian armed forces have two styles of ranks: deck ranks (navy style ranks) and troop ranks (army and other forces style ranks). The following table of Ranks is based on those of the Russian Federation.

Troop ranks are used by:

Deck (Navy) ranks are used by:

The highest troop rank is Marshal of the Russian Federation.

The highest Navy 'deck' rank is Admiral of the Fleet. In the Soviet era the rank Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union was equivalent to the rank of Marshal and only three persons were given that rank. Since 1991 this rank is no longer used.

Ranks can have additional descriptors according to assignment or status. For example, the rank of a serviceman of a "Guards" unit, formation or ship may be followed by the word "Guards" ("Gefreitor of Guards"); the rank of a serviceman of the legal, medical or veterinary professions is followed by "of Justice", "of the Medical service", or "of the Veterinary service" ("Captain of the Medical Service"); and the rank of a reserve or retired serviceman is followed by the words “Reserve” or “Retired,” respectively ("Major of Reserve"). The Russian Federation abolished the descriptor "of Aviation" for pilots, however, that descriptor is still in common use.

Category Troop Ranks Deck Ranks
Ground Forces Insignia Rank Name Air Force Insignia Shoulder Insignia Rank Name Sleeve Insignia
Supreme Officers,
General Officers
19marshal.png
Marshal of the Russian Federation
(currently inactive[7])

Ма́ршал Росси́йской Федера́ции
Marshal of the Russian Federation
Ма́ршал Росси́йской Федера́ции[8]
RAF A F9GenArmy after2013.png
General of the Army
генера́л а́рмии
RAF AF F9GenArmy 2010.png
Admiral flota 2013.png
Admiral of the Fleet
адмира́л фло́та
RFNAVYSL-ADF.png
RAF A F8ColGen after2010.png
General-Colonel
генера́л-полко́вник
RAF AF F8ColGen 2010.png
N-16.png
Admiral
адмира́л
RFNAVYSL-ADM.png
RAF A F7LtGen after2010.png
General-Lieutenant
генера́л-лейтена́нт
RAF AF F7LtGen 2010.png
N-15.png
Vice Admiral
ви́це-адмира́л
RFNAVYSL-VAD.png
RAF A F6MajGen after 2010.png
General-Major
генера́л-майо́р
RAF AF F6MajGen 2010.png
N-14.png
Counter Admiral (Rear Admiral)
ко́нтр-адмира́л
RFNAVYSL-CAD.png
Senior Officers,
Field Grade Officers
14-polk.png
Polkovnik (Colonel)
полко́вник
RFAF - Colonel - Every day blue.png
N-13.png
Captain, 1st rank
капита́н 1-го ра́нга
RFNAVYSL-CP1.png
13-podp.png
Podpolkovnik (Lieutenant Colonel)
подполко́вник
RFAF - Lieutenant Colonel - Every day blue.png
N-12.png
Captain, 2nd rank
капита́н 2-го р́анга
RFNAVYSL-CP2.png
12-mjr.png
Major
майо́р
RAF AF F3Major 2010.png
N-11.png
Captain, 3rd rank
капита́н 3-го р́анга
RFNAVYSL-CP3.png
Junior Officers,
Company Grade Officers
11-kap.png
Captain
капита́н
RFAF - Captain - Every day blue.png
N-10.png
Captain-Lieutenant
капита́н-лейтена́нт
RFNAVYSL-CPL.png
10-stlt.png
Senior Lieutenant
ста́рший лейтена́нт
RAF AF F1FstLt 2010.png
N-9.png
Senior Lieutenant
ста́рший лейтена́нт
RFNAVYSL-SLT.png
9-lt.png
Lieutenant
лейтена́нт
RAF AF F1-2Lt 2010.png
N-8.png
Lieutenant
лейтена́нт
RFNAVYSL-LTN.png
8-lt.png
Junior Lieutenant
мла́дший лейтена́нт
RAF AF F1-3SubLt 2010.png
N-7.png
Junior Lieutenant
мла́дший лейтена́нт
RFNAVYSL-JLT.png
Under-Officers,
Master Non-Commissioned Officers
7-stpr.png
Senior Praporshchik (Senior Warrant Officer)
ста́рший пра́порщик
RAF AF W2SenPrap 2010.png
N8.svg
Senior Midshipman (Senior Warrant Officer)
ста́рший ми́чман
no sleeve insignia
6-pr.png
Praporshchik (Warrant Officer)
пра́порщик
RAF AF W1Prap 2010.png
N7.svg
Midshipman (Warrant Officer)
ми́чман
no sleeve insignia
Sergeants,
Petty Officers
P6-starsh.png
Starshina (Sergeant Major)
старшина́
RFAF - Starshina - Every day green.png
N6-starsh.svg
Chief Ship Starshina
гла́вный корабе́льный старшина́
no sleeve insignia
P5-stsg.png
Senior Sergeant
ста́рший сержа́нт
RFAF - Senior Sergeant - Every day green.png
N5-stsg.svg
Chief Starshina
гла́вный старшина́
no sleeve insignia
P4-sg.png
Sergeant
сержа́нт
RFAF - Sergeant - Every day green.png
N4-sg.svg
Starshina, 1st class
старшина́ 1-й статьи́
no sleeve insignia
P3-mlsg.png
Junior Sergeant
мла́дший сержа́нт
RFAF - Junior Sergeant - Every day green.png
N3-mlsg.svg
Starshina, 2nd class
старшина́ 2-й статьи́
no sleeve insignia
Soldiers,
Seamen,
Airmen
P2-efr.png
Efreitor
ефре́йтор
RFAF - Efreitor - Every day green.png
N2-stmatr.svg
Senior Seaman (Matros)
ста́рший матро́с
no sleeve insignia
P1-prv.png
Private
рядово́й
RFAF - Private - Every day green.png
N1-matr.svg
Seaman (Matros)
матро́с
no sleeve insignia

Note: the descriptor "of Aviation" has been officially abolished but usage is still common within the Air Forces and Naval Aviation.

On March 11, 2010, by virtue of Law No.2010-293 of the President of Russia, a new set of rank insignia debuted. Privates, Airmen and Seamen sport plain shoulder epaulettes and the chevrons removed for the ranks of senior NCOs and are now replaced by plain bars (small horizontal from Corporal/Senior Airman/Leading Seaman to Sergeant/Staff Sergeant/Petty Officer increasing by seniority, large horizontal for Staff Sergeants, Flight Sergeants and Chief Petty Officers, and vertical bars for Starshinas and Ship CPO's).

WO's and Officer ranks received updated shoulder rank epaulettes (and for the Navy, cuff rank insignia) and all General Officer and Flag Officer rank insignia now reflecting service affiliation in the duty dress uniform (the old pattern epaulettes were replaced by the army green, air force blue and navy blue epaulettes (duty dress depending on service) and gold (parade dress) epaulettes similar to those used in the mid 1970s by the Soviet Armed Forces). This was also the case for the Marshal of the Russian Federation rank epaulette, which still retained the Coat of arms of Russia and the Marshal's Star. But this change is now evident in the battle dress and duty uniforms only, in the new 2008 dress uniforms the change is evident in the enlisted and NCO epaulettes, but in the epaulettes of all warrant officers and officers the gold and black epaulettes stayed as is in the dress uniforms.

As part of the 2008 Russian military reform, the Praporshchik(Warrant Officer) rank was effectively abolished in the Russian Armed Forces, though the rank still may be used in other uniformed services of the government such as the Interior Ministry, the Police, The Ministry of Emergency Situations and the Border Guard Service.

The general and flag officer ranks changed again on February 22, 2013. Thus, for Generals of the Army and Fleet Admirals, instead of sporting 4 stars, the shoulder rank insignia for both were changed back to the Marshal's Star with additional emblems for Generals of the Army and Fleet Admiral's Star for Fleet Admirals. Some retired general and flag officers were spotted wearing the old pre-1994 rank insignia instead of the new.

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]