||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2010)|
|Navies of Russia|
Soviet Navy (1918–1991)
The Red Banner Northern Fleet (Russian: Северный флот, Severnyy Flot) is a unit of the Russian Navy responsible for the defense of northwestern Russia. The fleet has access to the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans from bases on the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The fleet headquarters and administrative center are located at the main base at Severomorsk with secondary bases elsewhere in the Kola Bay. The fleet was established as part of the Soviet Navy in 1937. The fleet operated more than 200 submarines ranging from diesel-electric attack (SS) to nuclear-powered ballistic missile (SSBN) classes during the Soviet Era. A civilian Northern Fleet also existed prior to the Second World War.
The Arctic Sea and White Sea Flotillas 
On June 19, 1916, the Russian Empire formed the Arctic Sea Flotilla (Флотилия Северного Ледовитого океана, or Flotiliya Severnogo Ledovitogo okeana) to safeguard Allied transportation routes through the Barents Sea from German naval forces. After the October Revolution, the Soviet Navy formed the White Sea Flotilla (Беломорская флотилия, or Belomorskaya flotiliya) in March 1920, based in Arkhangelsk. The White Sea Flotilla was renamed as the "Naval Forces of the North Sea" and disbanded in January 1923.
The Northern Flotilla 
The Northern Flotilla was formed in early 1933 by transferring patrol boats Smerch and Uragan, D-class submarines Dekabrist (D-1) and Narodovolyets (D-2) and two destroyers from the Baltic Fleet. These ships departed from Kronstadt on 18 May 1933 and arrived at Murmansk on 5 August. Another destroyer, another patrol boat, another submarine, and two minesweepers joined the flotilla at Soroka in September 1933. Polyarny became the flotilla's main base; and a flight of MBR-2 flying boats joined the unit at Murmansk in September 1935.
The Northern Fleet 
The Northern Flotilla received new ships, airfields, coastal and air defense artillery, and was designated the Northern Fleet on May 11, 1937. The Northern fleet blocked the Finnish military base at Petsamo through the Winter War of 1939 and 1940. By June 1941, the fleet included 8 destroyers, 15 submarines, 2 torpedo boats, 7 patrol boats, 2 minesweepers, and 116 airplanes.
In August 1940, the Soviets created the White Sea Military Base to defend the coastline, bases, ports, and other installations. The "White Sea Flotilla" was established in August 1941 under the command of Rear-Admiral M. Dolinin. Subsequent commanders were Vice Admiral G. Stepanov (in October), Rear-Admiral Stepan Kucherov, and Vice-Admiral Yuri Panteleyev.
World War II 
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945, the Northern Fleet defended the coastlines of the Rybachiy and Sredniy peninsulas, secured internal and external transportation routes, and provided support to the maritime flank of the 14th Army. Marines and up to 10,000 Northern Fleet personnel participated in land warfare including the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation of 1944. Northern Fleet Naval Infantry units caused tens of thousands of Nazi casualties fighting during the Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad, and North Caucasus campaigns.
Among the air units of the Northern Fleet was the 121st Fighter Aviation Regiment. The Northern Fleet was reinforced with naval aircraft and ships from the Pacific Ocean and Caspian Sea. Great Britain and the United States temporarily provided HMS Royal Sovereign and USS Milwaukee to the USSR in exchange for the Italian ships captured during the war and destined to be divided among the allies. During the war, the Northern Fleet secured safe passage for 1,463 ships in external convoys and 2,568 ships in internal convoys. Its submarines, torpedo boats, and aviation sank 192 enemy transport ships and 70 other hostile military ships. The Northern Fleet also damaged a total of 118 transport, military, and auxiliary ships. Soviet submarine K-21, under the command of Captain Nikolai Lunin, attacked the German battleship Tirpitz at 71° 22' 2"N, 24° 34' 3"E. The К-21 logbook reports observation of two torpedo explosions, but no damage is reported by German sources.
Ships were lost fighting against unequal odds. Patrol boat Tuman, a former trawler, was sunk by three Kriegsmarine destroyers at the entrance to Kola Bay on August 4, 1941. The icebreaker Sibiryakov was sunk on August 25, 1942 by the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer while defending two convoys. The patrol ship Brilliant (formerly trawler Murmanryby) was sunk by a submarine.
The Northern Fleet received the following Awards:
- Two airborne regiments, a squadron of submarine hunters, eight submarines, and the destroyer “Гремящий” (Gremyaschiy, or “rattler”) were promoted to the "Soviet Guards" status.
- Many formations, units, and ships were awarded with Order honorss.
- Eighty-five navymen of the Northern Fleet received the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union (with three of them receiving the award twice).
- More than 48,000 men were awarded with medals in total.
The Cold War 
The Northern Fleet was considered secondary to the Baltic and Black sea fleets until operational responsibility for the Atlantic Ocean was shifted in the 1950s because of more direct access. In September 1955, the Soviet navy became the first to launch a ballistic missile from a submarine. In June 1956, Northern Fleet Zulu class submarine, (NATO designation Zulu IV 1/2) “Б-67” (B-67) became the first to carry ballistic missiles.
The 2nd Cruiser Division was formed on 31 May 1956 at Severomorsk, Murmansk Oblast. Its ships included the Sverdlov class cruisers (Project 68) Murmansk, Aleksandr Nevskiy, and Molotovsk, and the 121st Destroyer Brigade, with 11 Gnevny class, Ognevoy class, and Skoryy class destroyers. On 5 June 1969, the division was reorganised with the 170th Destroyer Brigade (8 Project 56 destroyers) and the 10th Anti-Submarine Warfare Brigade (10 Project 42 and 50 ASW vessels). On 1 April 1961, the division was renamed the 2nd Anti-Submarine Warfare Division.
On 1 July 1958, the Northern Fleet raised the Soviet Navy pennant over the first Russian nuclear submarine K-3. Following the 1958 voyage of USS Nautilus, the Soviet nuclear submarine Leninsky Komsomol (named for Vladimir Lenin’s Komsomol) traveled under the Arctic ice and surfaced at the North Pole on 17 July 1962. Russian submarines have visited the North Pole region more than 300 times since then. Two nuclear submarines of the Northern Fleet made a journey under the Arctic ice cap and reached the Pacific Fleet for the first time in history in September 1963. More than 25 Soviet submarines did the same in the following years. The Northern Fleet was awarded the Order of the Red Banner on 7 May 1965. A Northern Fleet submarine made a 25,000 nautical mile journey around the world without resurfacing in 1966. The Northern Fleet had almost 50% of the Soviet Navy's submarines by 1986.
From 1968 to 30 November 2005, the 7th Operational Squadron (Russian: ru:7-я оперативная эскадра) was the main Atlantic operational force of the fleet. The Museum of the Air Forces of the Northern Fleet was opened on 20 August 1976, in the closed settlement of Safonovo, Murmansk Oblast. Aircraft carriers began entering service with the Fleet in the 1970s. The nameship of the Kiev class of heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers, Kiev, became operational in 1977, and Admiral Gorshkov was commissioned in 1987. Large nuclear-powered missile-carrying cruisers, the Kirov-class Kirov and Kalinin, also entered service from 1980. Fortification of the southern reaches of the Barents Sea during the 1980s marked a Soviet naval strategy shift to an emphasis on bastion defense. Russia has continued to employ that strategy.
After the Cold War 
The 57th Maritime Missile Aviation Division of Tu-22s and electronic warfare Tu-16s from the Baltic Fleet at Bykhov, Mogilev Oblast, in the Belorussian SSR transferred to the Northern Fleet in December 1991 as the 57th Mixed Ship Aviation Division. The division commanded the 830th and 38th Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiments and the 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment from Severomorsk-3 in Murmansk Oblast until disbanded on 1 May 1998. The 5th Maritime Missile Aviation Division commanding the 524th and 574th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiments. The 574th Regiment was based at Lakhta air base (Katunino), until disbanded in 2002.
The Northern Fleet includes about two-thirds of all the Russian Navy's nuclear-powered ships. The flagship heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser Pyotr Velikiy, is named after Peter the Great. The Fleet staged a series of major Barents Sea exercises in January 2004 involving thirteen ships and seven submarines including Pyotr Velikiy, Admiral Kuznetsov and President Vladimir Putin was aboard the Typhoon class ballistic missile submarine Arkhangelsk. The exercise was marred by two RSM-54 SLBM launch failures aboard Novomoskovsk and Karelia.
The Bellona Foundation indicates the Northern Fleet main base is Severomorsk with six more naval bases at Polyarnyy, Olenya Bay, Gadzhiyevo (Yagelnaya/Sayda), Vidyayevo (Ura Bay and Ara Bay), Bolshaya Lopatka (Litsa Guba), and Gremikha. Arktika nuclear-powered icebreakers are based at Murmansk. Shipyards are located in Murmansk, Severodvinsk, Roslyakovo, Polyarnyy, Nerpa, and Malaya Lopatka. Spent fuel storage sites include Murmansk, Gremikha, Severodvinsk and Andreyeva Bay.
Order of battle 
The following is a partial list of Northern Fleet submarines, ships, and air units currently in service. Among previous units was the 1st Submarine Flotilla including the 7th Submarine Division of nuclear attack submarines. The 6th and 3rd Submarine Divisions were disbanded in 1994 and 1995.
- 11th Squadron, Zaozersk
- 7th Division, Vidyaevo 
- other submarines
- 12th Squadron, Gadzhiyevo
- RADM Sergey Farkov 
- 31st Submarine Division (Yagelnaya Bay, Sayda Inlet)
- Captain 1st Rank Aleksandr Moiseyev 
- Delta class submarine IV-class SSBN Verkhoturye (K-51)
- Delta IV-class SSBN Ekaterinburg (K-84)
- Delta IV-class SSBN Tula (K-114)
- Delta IV-class SSBN Bryansk (K-117)
- Delta IV-class SSBN Kareliya (K-18)
- Delta IV-class SSBN Novomoskovsk (K-407)
- Borei class SSBN K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy
- 24th Submarine Division (Yagelnaya Bay, Sayda Inlet)
- Jul 1985-Oct 1987 VADM Vladimir Mikhaylovich Monastyrshin
- Oct 1987-Dec 1989 VADM Nikolay Ivanovich Mazin
- Dec 1989-Jun 1992 RADM Boris Sergeyevich Bogdanov
- Sep 1992-Jun 1996 RADM Sergey Anatolyevich Bliznyuk
- Jun 1996-Sep 1998 RADM Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bukin
- Sep 1998-Aug 2000 RADM Aleksey Vitalyevich Burilichev
- Aug 2000-xxx 200x RADM Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev
- xxx 200x-present RADM Anatoliy Minakov
- Akula class submarine I-class SSN Pantera (K-317)
- AKULA I-class SSN Volk (K-461)
- AKULA I-class SSN Leopard (K-328)
- AKULA I-class SSN Tigr (K-154) 
- AKULA II-class SSN Vepr (K-157)
- AKULA II-class SSN Gepard (K-335)
- 43rd Missile Ship Division
- 2nd Anti-Submarine Ship Division 
- UDALOY-I Class DD Vice Admiral Kulakov - post-overhaul trials
- UDALOY-I Class DD Severomorsk
- UDALOY-I Class DD Admiral Levchenko
- UDALOY-I Class DD Admiral Kharlamov
- UDALOY-II Class DD Admiral Chabanenko
- 4th Submarine Flotilla (Polyarnyy) 
- Captain 1st Rank Aleksandr Gorbunov
- Kilo class submarine-class SS Novosibirsk (B-401)
- KILO-class SS Vologda" (B-402)
- KILO-class SS Yaroslavl (B-808)
- KILO-class SS Kaluga (B-800)
- KILO-class SS Vladikavkaz (B-459)
- KILO-class SS Magnitogorsk (B-471)
- KILO-class SS Lipetsk (B-177)
- 4th Submarine Flotilla (Polyarnyy) 
- Aviation Forces
- 924th Independent Maritime Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment - HQ at Olenegorsk/Olenya - Tu-22M3;
- 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment - HQ at Severomorsk-3 - Su-25UTG, Su-33;
- 73rd Independent Air Squadron - HQ at Kipelovo (Fedotovo) - Tu-142MK, Tu-142MR;
- 403rd Independent Mixed Aviation Regiment - HQ at Severomorsk-1 - An-12, An-26, Il-38, Tu-134;
- 830th Independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment - HQ at Severomorsk-1 - Ka-27;
- Naval Infantry and Coastal Defence
|Name||Period of command|
|Zakhar Aleksandrovich Zakupnev (Flag Officer First Rank)||29 May 1933-13 March 1935
|Konstantin Ivanovich Dushenov (Flag Officer First Rank)||13 March 1935-11 May 1937
11 May 1937-28 May 1938
|Valentin Petrovich Drozd (Vice Admiral)||28 May 1938-26 July 1940|
|Arseniy Grigoryevich Golovko (Admiral)||26 July 1940-4 August 1946|
|Vasiliy Ivanovich Platonov (Admiral)||4 August 1946-23 April 1952|
|Andrey Trofimovich Chabanenko (Admiral)||23 April 1952-28 February 1962|
|Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov (Admiral)||28 February 1962-2 June 1964|
|Semen Mikhaylovich Lobov (Fleet Admiral)||2 June 1964-3 May 1972|
|Georgiy Mikhaylovich Egorov (Fleet Admiral)||3 May 1972-1 July 1977|
|Vladimir Nikolayevich Chernavin (Fleet Admiral)||1 July 1977-16 December 1981|
|Arkadiy Petrovich Mikhaylovskiy (Admiral)||16 December 1981-25 February 1985|
|Ivan Matveyevich Kapitanets (Admiral)||25 February 1985-19 March 1988|
|Feliks Nikolayevich Gromov (Admiral)||19 March 1988-14 March 1992|
|Oleg Aleksandrovich Erofeyev (Admiral)||14 March 1992-29 January 1999|
|Vyacheslav Alekseyevich Popov (Admiral)||29 January 1999-15 December 2001|
|Gennady Aleksandrovich Suchkov (Admiral)||16 December 2001-29 May 2004|
|Mikhail Leopoldovich Abramov (Admiral)||29 May 2004-26 September 2005|
|Vladimir Sergeyevich Vysotsky (Admiral)||26 September 2005-11 September 2007|
|Nikolay Mikhaylovich Maksimov (Vice Admiral)||12 September 2007-30 March 2011|
|Andrey Olgertovich Volozhinskiy (Rear Admiral) - Acting||30 March 2011-24 June 2011|
|Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev (Admiral)||24 June 2011-|
Further reading 
- Kristian Åtland, Russia's Armed Forces and the Arctic: All Quiet on the Northern Front?, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 32, Issue 2, 2011
- (Russian) Official site at mil.ru
- (English) Bellona Foundation site about the Russian Northern Fleet
- Norman Polmar, Guide to the Soviet Navy, Fourth Edition (1986), United States Naval Institute, Annapolis Maryland, ISBN 0-87021-240-0
- Northern Fleet / / The Great Patriotic War 1941-1945: Encyclopedia / Ch. Ed. MM Kozlov. - M. Sov. Encyclopedia, 1985. - S. 641. - 832 p.
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia/Большая Советская Энциклопедия; entry: Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet.
- AG Golovko Together with the fleet. - 3rd ed. - Moscow: Finances and Statistics, 1984. - 287, ill. - C. 129-135.
- Michael Holm, 2nd Anti-Submarine Warfare Division, accessed October 2011
- "175th independent Naval Infantry Brigade". Ww2.dk. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Michael Holm, 57th Heavy Bomber Aviation Division, accessed October 2011
- Jane's Fighting Ships, 2004-05, p.29
- Michael Holm, 3rd Submarine Division, accessed October 2011
- Kommersant VLAST No.7(760), 25 Feb 2008
- Ввс Вмф
- Air Forces Monthly, August 2007 issue.
- See http://www.warfare.ru/?linkid=2233&catid=321