|Type||Federal unitary enterprise|
|Industry||Postal services, courier|
|Founded||2002 (current form)|
|Headquarters||Varshavskoye shosse 37, Moscow, Russia|
|Key people||Dmitry Strashnov (CEO)|
|Services||Letter post, parcel service, EMS, delivery, freight forwarding, third-party logistics, deposit accounts|
|Owner(s)||Government of Russia (100%)|
|Parent||Ministry of Communications and Mass Media|
Russian Post (Russian: Почта России, Pochta Rossii), is a unitary enterprise which is a national postal operator of Russia. The company is responsible for the delivery of mail in Russia, and the issuing of postage stamps. Russian Post employs about 390,000 people and has over 42,000 post offices, with its headquarters in Moscow.
Russian Post is a founding member of the Universal Postal Union created in 1874. In 1902 Chief Postal Service was made part of the Internal Affairs Ministry and in 1917 under the Provisional Government it became part of Ministry of Post and Telegraph. During the Second World War Soviet postal service part of People's Commissariat of communications was delivering up to 70 million parcels per month to the Soviet army front from the rear under extremely difficult and often very dangerous conditions.
In the postwar years-mail has undergone quantitative and qualitative changes. In 1946, the People's Commissariat of Communications of the USSR was transformed into the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. Leaders postal service has been carried out the Post Office, which was part of the Ministry of Communications, along with other offices telecommunications industries. By 1950, the post industry, destroyed by the war, was restored and brought to the pre-war level.
In subsequent years, significantly expanded network of communication enterprises, especially in rural areas. In the cities and a network of liaison offices, post offices and subordinate communication centers. Most businesses became combine the post, telegraph and telephone. These communications are typically located in the same building and under single management. A huge network was established of mailboxes was that were installed not only in cities but also in rural areas, stations, railway sidings, at the forks of freeways.
Further development of the postal service followed the path of mechanization and automation of mail processing, improving the organization of its transportation and delivery. For this the old postal equipment was modernized and developing the production of its brand new designs - mail processing and handling machines and equipment for container transport, means of mechanization and post inventory, as well as equipment for customer service.
In 1993 Russian Post became a part of Ministry of Communications. In 1995, the Office was reorganized into the Federal Service of the Russian Federation postal service, and in 1996 it was reorganized into the Department of Post in the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation. Russian postal enterprises were operating and commercial independence, but with it the strong competition posed by former partners Telecommunication companies. Thus, despite the separation of industries, a unique postal network, established in prior periods and covering almost all localities in the country, has been preserved.
Given the role of the Russian post in the historical development of the state, in 1994, Russian President Boris Yeltsin established the professional holiday of postal workers - "Day of the Russian Post", which is celebrated annually on the second July 2. Another presidential decree in 1997 restored the heraldic traditions of Russian Post with the adding of the emblem and flag.
Loss of monopoly
In 1996, the Ministry of Communications for the first time decided to violate the state postal monopoly on some postal services, resulting in Russia have commercial mailing companies.
In accordance with the concept of restructuring the federal postal service, adopted by the Government Decree on 28 June 2002, the postal industry in the Russian Federation carried out the reorganization, aimed at creating a single, highly efficient and competitive company able to make a significant contribution to the solution of urgent problems on the accelerated development of the economy. Federal Unitary Enterprise "Russian Post" was created by Government on September 5, 2002 by combining and separating of the postal units from the Ministry of Communication.
Growing inefficiency in the 2010s
The early 2010s saw a rise in complaints. The number of parcels from foreign online retailers had been rising steadily for several years and was certain to rise further. According to Russian Post’s own estimates, orders from Internet shops are delivered to Russia mostly in ordinary or registered parcels; in 2009 there were 2.3 million, in 2012 the amount soared to 17 million. On March 6, 2012, five trucks from Germany were in queue to be unloaded at Vnukovo. At the International Post Office there had piled up 12,300 parcels, 5,300 EMS packages, and 36,000 minor incoming parcels. And two thousand parcels were waiting for customs clearance at Sheremetyevo International Airport.
2012 saw the creating of a new resource called "anti-Russianpost.ru" emerged in the world web. The users highlight all instances of Russian Post’s bad work. In the middle of March the clients of on-line retailers launched a massive spam attack on the Moscow office of the Roskomnadzor watchdog. In this period the company received up to 1,000 messages from individuals with complaints about delayed deliveries of purchases made at Internet shops.
On March 2013 Russian Post reported the unfavorable state of affairs to the authorities of higher instance. In a special message Russian Post’s deputy general director, Nina Fetisova, told the Federal Communications Agency Rossvyaz and the Federal Customs Service the processing of international mail was in a critical situation at the customs posts Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo International Airport and also at the Central International Post Office in Moscow.
The director of the federal postal services of the Vologda Oblast said "The reason for delays is not our own ineffectiveness, but the pressure of social factors. We have too many official functions: the delivery of pensions, of written correspondence, and the subscription to newspapers and magazines".
In order to improve the services, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a Government Resolution to take the Russian Post out of the sphere of competence of the Federal Communications Agency Rossvyaz, and subordinated it directly to the Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Also, On April of that year, the General Director of the Post, Alexander Kiselyov was ousted from the office. The company's new management, in October 2013, stated an ambitious goal of doubling revenues to make the company ready for an initial public offering in 2018 by allowing it to provide banking services, reducing the number of unprofitable branches and focusing on providing deliveries from online retailers. In late 2010 a new delivery method with automated terminals Postmat, came into use.
In order to handle the growth of parcels, production capacity has been expanded regional seats of international postal exchange centers, with the company opening new international mail processing centers in Moscow at the Kazan station and in Yekaterinburg and Novosibirsk. In addition, Russian Post agreed with foreign postal operators sorting international mail delivery by region even in the country of the sender (pre-sorting began in China, the largest importer), which allows to reduce the delivery of international mail. For example, after opening Exhange center in Yekaterinburg, parcel from China to residents of the Sverdlovsk Oblast is delivered in five days, including all customs clearance.
On August 2013 Russian Post had launched its first regional flight in the far eastern Russian republic of Yakutia. The company held a ceremony at Yakutsk Airport to launch its second new airmail plane under a programme to expand links to remote areas, its first being a flight in the Khabarovsk Krai territory on Russia’s east coast. Russian Post deputy director general Alexei Skatin said that "The mail must be delivered on time despite the difficult geography of the region. We are starting to improve the postal logistics in the remote regions of Russia".
2014-2018 development program
In late October 2013 Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev generally approved the Post's development program in a meeting with Minister of Communications Nikolai Nikiforov. Among its goals are to turn the Russian Post from a model of "subsidized postal operator" to "self-sustaining postal business", modernization of it's infrastructure and making it's work more efficient. Also change logistics Companies will create eight main hubs with automated sorting and direct exchange with each other. Service area of each hub will be about 700km. Number of branches in the cities will grow, while building new areas will be determined by regulations on their placement. In rural areas, there will be new formats of work: "postman plus internal transport" according to the reform. This will reduce the number of unprofitable offices from 14 thousand to about 8.5 thousand, most of whom are in rural areas.
Russian Post includes:
- central administrative apparatus, consisting of 22 units (Directorate departments, the Secretariat);
- 87 branches;
- 41,901 post office.
- Enterprise branches are divided into 82 territorial control federal postal service and 5 specialized, which include:
- The main center haul mail - FSUE "Russian Post";
- EMS Russian Post;
- Automated sorting centers - branch office of Russian Post;
- Hybrid mail centers - branch office of FSUE Russian Post;
- Russian Post - FSUE Russian Post in Berlin.
The structure of branches are separate structural subdivisions, including post offices, department of transportation of mail, mainline and regional sorting centers.
International exchange points
Russian Post operates 13 points of customs clearance of postal items. Untill 2013, the Moscow MMPO processed up to 80% of all incoming international shipments to Russia which created much stress on the Russian Post. In order to speed up the time for delivery of international parcels, the Russian Post opened two new international postal exchange points in Yekaterinburg and Novosibirsk. The latter one can process up to two thousand international EMS-daily departures, with an area more than 2,000 square meters. The Yekaterinburg Koltsovo international postal exchange point is the first international postal exchange in the Urals Federal District. It can handle up to 20,000 parcels and small packets per day in the 3,700m facility. Until the end of 2014 Russian Post expects to reduce the Moscow point of exchange share to 55%.
In 2009, a first formal cooperation agreement came between the Russia and Italy to work together to develop postal system in Russia. On late November 2013 Russian Post and Poste Italiane have signed a new agreement to cooperate further in order to improve the Russian postal system. The agreement, which was signed along with their technology supplier Selex, was sealed at a trade summit in Trieste during an official visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin, following up earlier agreements between the three companies. Along with development of e-commerce and international express mail services, the new agreement aims to develop hybrid mail in Russia for businesses, direct marketing and e-government services. This would allow mailers to send information electronically to be turned into physical mailpieces local to the recipient.
- Telecommunications in Russia
- Postage stamps and postal history of Russia
- Media of Russia
- Transport in Russia
- Ministry of Communications and Mass Media
- Russian post offices in China
- Russian post offices in the Turkish Empire
- Russian post offices in Crete
- "Based on addresses registry of Russian Federation". kontragent.info.
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- Подразделения аппарата управления
- ""Почта России" разгрузит московский узел двумя новыми ММПО". comnews.ru. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ""Почта России" открыла новые ММПО в Новосибирске и Екатеринбурге". comnews.ru. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Russian Post and Poste Italiane to develop joint e-commerce platform". Post & Parcel. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Official website (English) (Russian)