Russian boot

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Woman putting a flask in her calf-length Russian boot, 1922

Russian boot is the name applied to a style of calf- or knee-length fashion boot for women that was popular in the early part of the 20th Century. Russian boots fell out of favor in the 1930s, but were the inspiration for the high-leg fashion boots that returned to popularity in the 1950s and 60s. Today the term Russian boot is sometimes applied to the style of low heeled boots worn by some folk dancers.

History[edit]

The original Russian boot was the valenki, a flat heeled, wide topped, knee-length boot worn by Russian soldiers. Designed to combat the extremely cold Russian winters, valenki were normally made of thick felt. The boots' uppers were loosely constructed for convenience and comfort, which produced the style's distinctive wrinkling effect around the ankles.[1] The term was later applied to women’s boots in leather that appeared in the second decade of the 20th Century.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, shoes with high uppers, buttoned or laced and reaching to the lower calves, were common footwear for women. Rising hemlines made longer styles of boots popular, particularly when the alternative was exposure of the leg, which was still considered shocking.[2] In 1913, Denise Poiret, wife of celebrated French couturier Paul Poiret, caused a sensation in Paris and New York by wearing knee-length boots in wrinkled Morocco leather. Designed by her husband and made by the bottier Favereau, these boots were styled with a low heel and a square toe; she had versions in red, white, green, and yellow[3][4] In 1915 the New York Times reported that, partly inspired by Mme. Poiret, these so-called "Russian boots" were becoming an outré statement by some cutting-edge fashionable women.[5] However, no boots of any kind caught on with the general public in these years, women being accustomed to traditional high-top shoes, either laced or buttoned. [6] Russian boots remained a forward fashion statement, however, adopted by stage and film stars, including Mary Pickford, Irene Castle, Cecile Sorel and Gloria Swanson, and endorsed by such leading designers as the London-based Lucile (Lady Duff Gordon), who also famously wore them herself.

From the mid-1910s into the early '20s, as hemlines rose from ankle length to mid-calf, high-heeled Russian boots with pointe or rounded toes, were increasingly popular.[7][8] They were available in a variety of styles, calf- or knee-length, with a Cuban or Louis heel,[9][10] which could be pull-on, or zip-fastened for a closer fit.[11] Worn with calf-length and finally knee-length skirts, they often featured decorative features such as elaborate stitching or fur trim.[12][13][14] Russian boots were stylish throughout the 1920s as the fashionable alternative to galoshes in winter. They also somehow acquired a racy reputation, as the sort of footwear worn by girls who frequented saloon bars and speakeasies.[15]

By the mid-1920s, British shoe manufacturers were reporting record orders for high-legged women’s boots [16] and they were so popular that they were being blamed for causing women to catch colds,[17] have accidents in the street,[18] and even injure themselves.[19] Initially popular in Britain, the new boot style quickly spread to Paris [20] and the United States,[21] while English women in India complained that Russian boots were not yet available in Bombay.[22] The emergence of these tall boots for women was interpreted by some contemporary writers as a consequence of women’s transition from the “leisure class” to the world of business [23]

With increasing sales, however, complaints began to be made about the poor quality of leather used in the cheaper pairs [24][25] which were not adequately waterproofed and had a tendency to sag around the ankle;[26] although manufacturers took steps to address issues of fit by introducing taller, better fitting styles [27][28] this was ultimately blamed for their decline in popularity.[29] Where protection from the elements was needed, Russian boots were increasingly replaced by fashionable variants of the rubber Wellington boot.[30] Mass popularity was also seen as a barrier to chic women adopting boots as a fashion item.[31][32] Although they were still popular as late as the beginning of the 1930s,[33] within a few years Russian boots had fallen out of favor. It was not until the 1950s that boots were again regarded as fashion items for women.[34]

Today[edit]

Ukrainian folk costume featuring red leather Russian boots

Russian boots were the inspiration for the modern fashion boot, some of which closely resemble styles that first appeared in the 1920s. The term “Russian boot” is usually applied to the flat-heeled, calf-length boots popular with some traditions of folk dancing, especially those from Eastern Europe. In 2009, The New York Times reported that the original felt valenki was being reinvented as a fashion item in Russia [35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cox, Caroline (2008). Vintage Shoes. New York: Harper Collins. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-06-166576-9. 
  2. ^ anon. (11 April 1915), "Short skirts, higher boots", New York Times 
  3. ^ anon. "Poiret: king of fashion". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  4. ^ anon. "inventory #2005.45.1: boots by Paul Poiret, c.1916". Museum at FIT. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  5. ^ anon. (11 April 1915), "Short skirts, higher boots", New York Times 
  6. ^ Cox, Caroline (2008). Vintage Shoes. New York: Harper Collins. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-06-166576-9. 
  7. ^ "Russian Boots", The Manchester Guardian, 19 November 1925 
  8. ^ "Russian Boots", The Irish Times, 17 September 1926 
  9. ^ Cox, Caroline (2008). Vintage Shoes. New York: Harper Collins. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-06-166576-9. 
  10. ^ anon. "black leather Russian boot, 1925". London College of Fashion Shoe Collection. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Steele, Valerie (2005). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-684-31394-8. 
  12. ^ "Russian Boots With Fur Collars", The Manchester Guardian, 9 September 1926 
  13. ^ "Russian Boots: New Fashions With Laced Tops", The Irish Times, 15 February 1926 
  14. ^ anon. (1920s). "Boots, boots, boots; latest Russian boot styles for Eve". British Pathe News. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  15. ^ Cox, Caroline (2008). Vintage Shoes. New York: Harper Collins. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-06-166576-9. 
  16. ^ "High Boots The Style For British Women", New York Times, 26 September 1925 
  17. ^ "Russian Boots Cause Colds", Los Angeles Times, 9 December 1925 
  18. ^ "Russian Boots Trap Girl", New York Times, 27 November 1925 
  19. ^ "While Taking Off Her Boots: Woman’s Tug Breaks Thigh", Times of India, 10 April 1928 
  20. ^ "Paris Fashion Turns in Favor of Boots", Washington Post, 2 May 1926 
  21. ^ "London Girls, Wearing Russian Boots, Arrive", The Boston Daily Globe, 23 December 1925 
  22. ^ "A Bombay Woman’s Causerie: X'mas Shopping: The Missing Russian Boots", Times of India, 25 December 1925 
  23. ^ "Boots for Women Sign of Changes", Los Angeles Times, 30 December 1927 
  24. ^ "Russian Boots: The Question of Cost", The Manchester Guardian, 20 February 1926 
  25. ^ ""Russian Boots:" Trade Criticism Shoddy Footwear and Ill Health", The Scotsman, 18 February 1926 
  26. ^ "The Russian Boot: Black Stockings Again", The Manchester Guardian, 11 March 1926 
  27. ^ "New Style Russian Boots: Lady Duff Gordon's Hymn of Praise", Irish Times, 9 September 1926 
  28. ^ "Advice to Boot Dealers: Styles Likely To Be In Demand This Year", The Manchester Guardian, 27 January 1926 
  29. ^ "Russian Boot is Passé: Its Place in England Now Taken By Gaiters And Spattees", New York Times, 2 January 1927 
  30. ^ "Rubber Boots", The Manchester Guardian, 29 October 1928 
  31. ^ "London Modistes’ See Russian Boot’s Doom", Washington Post, 6 December 1925 
  32. ^ Turnbull, George (15 November 1926), "The London Observer", The Spur 
  33. ^ "Puss In Boots Again", The Manchester Guardian, 14 January 1930 
  34. ^ Verin, Helene (2009). Beth Levine Shoes. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-58479-759-3. 
  35. ^ Yaffa, Joshua (4 January 2009), "Foraging: Moscow, valenki boots", New York Times