Russian diaspora

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The term Russian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Russians, usually more specifically those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Russian national identity within a local community.

The term "Russian speaking (Russophone) diaspora" (русскоговорящая диаспора, russkogovoryaschaya diaspora) is used to describe people for whom Russian language is the native language regardless whether they are ethnic Russians or Ukrainians, Tatars, Jews, Chechens, etc.

History[edit]

The earliest significant ethnic Russian emigration took place in the wake of the Old Believer schism in the 17th century (see, for example, Lipovans). On some occasions later ethnic Russian communities, such as Doukhobors, also emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing the central authority.

Ethnic Russians migrated from Russia proper throughout the extent of the Russian Empire, and later the Soviet Union, sometimes at the encouragement of the government. After the Belavezha Accords, many ethnic Russians found themselves in newly independent states outside of Russia, notably the Baltic states, Ukraine, and in Central Asia. They represent the largest number of ethnic Russians living outside Russia. Russians distinguish these migrations, however, from several bursts of emigration in the twentieth century.

A sizable "wave" of ethnic Russians emigrated during a short time period in the wake of the October Revolution and Civil War, known collectively as the White émigrés. It is also referred to as the "first wave," even though previous emigrations took place, as it is the first wave to have come in the wake of the communist revolution and it exhibited a heavily political character.

A smaller group of Russians, often referred to by Russians as the "second wave" of Russian emigration, left during World War II. They were refugees, Soviet POWs, eastern workers, or surviving veterans of the Russian Liberation Army and other anti-communist armed units who had served under the German command and evaded forced repatriation. In the immediate postwar period, the largest Russian communities in the emigration were to be found in Germany, Canada, the U.S., United Kingdom and Australia.

In the 1970s a number of Russian-speaking Soviet citizens (predominantly Jews) emigrated to Israel and the U.S. due to political and economic reasons, and also to escape antisemitism. Some Soviet dissidents were forced to emigrate by the KGB, which threatened them with arrest. This group is often called the "third wave" of Russian emigration.

In the beginning of the 1990s, Russia passed through one of the most dramatic tumbles in its history; as a result, the former administrative republic of the Soviet Union has become a separate sovereign State. The USSR collapse has resulted in an upsurge of international migrations to and from Russia, and the overwhelming number of them are population movements between Russia and other post-Soviet states.[1] Israel and Germany have received the largest shares of Russian speaking immigrants (Israel, predominantly Jews; Germany, predominantly ethnic Germans and Jews) in the 1990s, because of incentives institutionalized by the governments of both countries.

Statistics[edit]

Continent/Country Russian diaspora Population
Europe 11,564,754
 Ukraine 8,334,000[2]
 Belarus 785,000[3]
 Latvia 556,434[4]
 Estonia 344,280[5]
 United Kingdom 300,000[6]
 Lithuania 220,000[7]
 Moldova 202,000[8]
 Germany 178,600 - 2,000,000[9]
 Italy 132,120[10]
 France 115,000[11]
 Spain 52,832[12]
 Finland 51,683[13]
 Belgium 50,000[14]
 Romania 30,000[15]
 Bulgaria 15,595[16]
 Norway 13,914[17]
 Greece 13,635[18]
 Poland 10,244[19]
 Sweden 8,900[20]
 Austria 5,466[21]
 Portugal 5,114 (2007 census)[22]
 Czech Republic 5,062[23]
 Serbia 2,588[24]
 Cyprus 10,000[25]
 Luxembourg 943[26]
Asia 8,435,084
 Kazakhstan 4,480,000[27]
 Israel >1,000,000[28]
 Uzbekistan 1,653,478[29]
 Kyrgyzstan 604,000[30][31]
 Turkmenistan 314,000[32]
 Turkey 3,514 (2002)[33]
 Georgia 67,671[34][35]
 Azerbaijan 144,000[36][37]
 Tajikistan 68,200[38]
 United Arab Emirates 56,600[39]
 Lebanon 40,000[40]
 China 15,600[41]
 Armenia 14,660[42]
 North Korea and  South Korea 9,622[43]
 Japan 6,000[44]
 Syria 4,811[45]
 Mongolia 4,100[46]
 Jordan 3,033[42]
 Afghanistan 1,500[47]
 Philippines 1000[48]
 Pakistan 680[49]
 Bangladesh 350[50]
 India 140[51]
Americas 6,952,026
 United States 3,163,084[52]
 Canada 500,600[53]
 Brazil 980,000[54]
 Cuba 55,000[55]
 Argentina 370,000[56]
 Chile 25,000[57]
 Puerto Rico 269[58]
 Venezuela 34,600[59]
 Uruguay 131,680[60]
 Mexico 1,293[61]
 Peru 1,000[62]
Oceania 77,785
 Australia 67,550[63]
 New Zealand 10,235[64]
Africa 1,819
 South Africa 1,300[65]
 Nigeria 950[65]
 Ethiopia 319[66]
 Egypt 200[26]
Total 27,031,468

Statistics compiled using local country statistics or best available estimates.

Former USSR[edit]

Ethnic Russians in former Soviet Union states in 1994

Today largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside of Russia live in former Soviet states such as Ukraine (about 8 million), Kazakhstan (about 4.5 million),[67] Belarus (about 1.2 million), Latvia (about 620,000), Uzbekistan (about 650, 000)[68] and Kyrgyzstan (about 600,000).[69]

Their situation varied widely, from no perceivable change in status, as in Belarus, to becoming foreigners or non-citizens as in Estonia and Latvia[70] if none of their ancestors had been a citizen of these countries before Soviet occupation and if they did not request Russian Federation citizenship during the period it was available.

East Asia[edit]

Russians (eluosizu) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. There are approximately 15,600, living mostly in northern Xinjiang, and also in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. In the 1920s Harbin was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian White émigrés fleeing from Russia. Some Harbin Russians moved to other cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin. By the 1930s, Shanghai's Russian community had grown to more than 25,000.[71]

There are also smaller numbers of Russians in Japan and in Korea. The Japanese government disputes Russia's claim to the Kuril Islands, which were annexed by the USSR in 1945 after Japan's surrender in World War II. The Red Army expelled all Japanese from the island chain, which was resettled by Russians and other Soviet nationalities.[citation needed] A few Russians also settled in the Korean peninsula in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[72] The population of Russians in Singapore was estimated at no more than a thousand by the local Russian embassy in 2008; they are a largely professional and business-oriented expatriate community, and count among their numbers more than a hundred company owners or local heads of branches of large Russian multinationals.[73]

Americas[edit]

Russian settlement in Mexico was minimal but well documented in the 19th and early 20th centuries. A breakaway sect of Old Believers of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Molokans arrived in Baja California in the 1880s-1920s to escape persecution from Tsarist Russia. The Molokans received a land grant in the Guadalupe Valley south of Ensenada to establish a few villages and held onto a Russian culture for a few decades before they were abandoned; cemeteries bearing Cyrillic letters remain.[citation needed] Dissenters of the official Soviet Communist party like the Trotskyites along with leader Leon Trotsky found refuge in Mexico in the 1930s, where Trotsky himself was assassinated by Ramon Mercader in 1940.

Russian Orthodox Church in Belgrade, Serbia

Other[edit]

There are also small Russian communities in Eastern and Central European nations such as Germany and in the Balkans. These communities may identify themselves either as Russians or citizens of these countries, or both, to varying degrees.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Uma A. Segal Professor of Social Work University of Missouri; Doreen Elliott Professor of Social Work University of Texas at Arlington; Nazneen S. Mayadas Professor Emerita University of Texas at Arlington (13 December 2009). Immigration Worldwide : Policies, Practices, and Trends: Policies, Practices, and Trends. Oxford University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-19-974167-0. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  2. ^ (2001 census)
  3. ^ (2009)
  4. ^ ISG07. PASTĀVĪGO IEDZĪVOTĀJU NACIONĀLAIS SASTĀVS GADA SĀKUMĀ. 2011.
  5. ^ (2007)
  6. ^ Russians in the United Kingdom
  7. ^ (2001)
  8. ^ (2004)
  9. ^ (2003)
  10. ^ http://demo.istat.it/str2006/index.html
  11. ^ Russians in France
  12. ^ http://www.ine.es/prodyser/pubweb/anuario06/anu06_02demog.pdf
  13. ^ Immigrants and the difficulties of integration and getting into the cultural mainstream
  14. ^ How many Russians in Belgium?
  15. ^ Informatii utile | Agentia Nationala pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii
  16. ^ (2002 census)
  17. ^ Statistics Norway
  18. ^ Demographics of Greece
  19. ^ Demographics of Poland#Russians
  20. ^ Joshua project - Ethnic groups of Sweden
  21. ^ Austria#Demographics
  22. ^ Immigration to Portugal
  23. ^ (2002 census)
  24. ^ (2002 census)
  25. ^ Russians in Cyprus
  26. ^ a b http://www.ecp.public.lu/repertoire/stats/2008/06/index.html
  27. ^ (1999 census)
  28. ^ http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/07/28/what_million_missing_israelis
  29. ^ http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_nac_89.php
  30. ^ (1999)
  31. ^ 13.5% of the population -
  32. ^ Turkmen pledge on Russian rights, BBC News
  33. ^ Date census 2002
  34. ^ (2002 census)
  35. ^ Georgia: Ethnic Russians Feel Insulated From Tensions, Radio Free Europe
  36. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  37. ^ Southern Caucasus: Facing Integration Problems, Ethnic Russians Long For Better Life
  38. ^ (2000)
  39. ^ Créditos
  40. ^ (1956 census, US govt. estimate)
  41. ^ (2000 census)
  42. ^ a b (2002 census)
  43. ^ Russians in Korea
  44. ^ Russians in Japan
  45. ^ (2009 census) []
  46. ^ [1]
  47. ^ Russians in Afghanistan
  48. ^ Population by country of citizenship, sex, and urban/rural residence; each census, 1985–2004, United Nations Statistics Division, 2005, retrieved 2011-06-15 ; figure for Russia is at line 2317
  49. ^ Russians in Pakistan
  50. ^ Russians in Bangladesh
  51. ^ Russians in India
  52. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_DP2&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-tree_id=306&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en&-search_map_config=
  53. ^ (2006)
  54. ^ (2005)
  55. ^ Russians
  56. ^ Rusos en Argentina
  57. ^ Russians in Chile
  58. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?-geo_id=04000US72&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U
  59. ^ Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Venezuela
  60. ^ Russians in Uruguay
  61. ^ (2000 census)
  62. ^ Russians in Peru
  63. ^ Category No. 2068.0 - 2006 Census Tables
  64. ^ (2006 census)
  65. ^ a b Orthodox Church of the South Africa
  66. ^ http://afraf.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/57/229/319
  67. ^ Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  68. ^ Uzbekistan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  69. ^ KYRGYZSTAN: Economic disparities driving inter-ethnic conflict
  70. ^ "Russians beyond the Limits of Russia", O.I. Vendina, Geography newspaper, no. 11, 2001 (Russian)
  71. ^ Tales of Old Shanghai - cultures - Russians
  72. ^ Clark, Donald N. (1994), "Vanished Exiles: The Prewar Russian Community in Korea", in Dae-Sook Suh, Korean Studies: New Pacific Currents, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 41–58, ISBN 0-8248-1598-X 
  73. ^ Drankina, Yekaterina (2008-03-10), "Сингапурский десант", Kommersant Den'gi 9 (664), retrieved 2009-07-30