Russian Guards

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Guards (Russian: гвардия) or Guards units (Russian: гвардейские части, gvardeyskiye chasti) were and still are elite military units of Imperial Russia, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. The tradition goes back to the a chieftain's druzhina of medieval Kievan Rus' and the Marksman Troops (Стрелецкое Войско), the Muscovite harquebusiers formed by Ivan the Terrible by 1550. The exact meaning of the term "Guards" varied over time.

Imperial Russian Guard[edit]

Badge of the Imperial Russian Guard Izmaylovsky Regiment.

In the Russian Empire, Imperial Russian Guard units ("Leib-Guards", лейб-гвардия, leyb-gvardiya), derived from German 'Leibwächter' (body-guards), were intended to ensure the security of the sovereign, initially, that of Peter the Great in the 1690s. These were based on the Prussian Royal Life Guards. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Imperial Guards consisted of 13 infantry, 4 rifles and 14 cavalry regiments and a few other support units, they were abolished in 1918. During the Brusilov Offensive the 1st and 2nd Guards' numbers were supplemented with line army corp and from September 1916 were known as the 'Special Army'.[1]

The Imperial Russian Guard units were not exclusively composed of Russian troops, they also included Lithuanian, Finnish and Ukrainian personnel.

Russian Revolution[edit]

The Red Guards (Russian: Krasnaya Gvardiya) were armed groups of workers formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917. They were the main strike force of the Bolsheviks, and were created in March 1917 at industrial enterprises by Factory and Plant Committees and by Bolshevik party cells. When the Soviet Red Army was formed in 1918, the Red Guards became the Army Reserve and the basis for the formation of regular military detachments.

The White Guard (Russian: Belaya Gvardiya) or White Army (Belaya Armiya, whose members were called belogvardeytsy), comprised both the political and military forces of the Russian White Movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.

Soviet Guards[edit]

Main article: Guards unit
Badge of the Soviet Guards (1941).

The Guards units (Russian: Гвардия, Gvardiya) were again awarded to units and formations which distinguishing themselves during the second world war by the order of People's Commissar for Defence of USSR No.303 on the 18 September 1941, and were considered to have elite status. However, the Guards badge was not introduced until 21 May 1943.

There were total 11 Guard Armies and 6 Guard Tank Armies:

Russian Federation Guards[edit]

The Guards distinction was retained as designations of units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nik Cornish The Russian Army 1914-18 2001 page 16 "These corps were to be known, from 21 July 1916, as the Guards Army. ... by the Guards during the Brusilov Offensive their numbers were supplemented with line army corps and the whole became in September 1916 the 'Special Army'."