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Russian labour legislation covers the labour relations of all individuals regardless of their citizenship, as well as all legal entities regardless of their organizational legal form, ownership pattern and the right under which they were established. The labour issues are regulated primarily through the Labour Code of the Russian Federation.
In the former Soviet Union, concluding a written employment agreement was not common. Often, no employment agreement was concluded at all. Today, concluding a written employment agreement between an employee and an employer is obligatory, and this is reflected in practice.
An employment agreement is concluded as a result of agreement between an employee and an employer. At the same time, in accordance with Article 67 of the Russian Labour Code, an individual employment agreement must be concluded with each particular employee. The legislator unambiguously stipulates that a non-written agreement is considered unduly executed. Any amendments agreed upon by the parties to an employment agreement must also be in writing according to Article 72 of the labour code.
Each employee is granted 28 calendar days of paid vacation per annum according to the employer's schedule of vacations. While scheduling vacations it is necessary to keep in mind that at least one portion of the total vacation time must not be less than 14 calendar days. In cases when labour legislation or the employment agreement establishes that total vacation time is in excess of 28 calendar days, the employee may be entitled to request payment of a cash compensation for the portion of unused vacation time that is in excess of 28 calendar days.
If total vacation time is 28 calendar days, no cash compensation for unused vacation time may be paid. For specifically protected groups of people, such as pregnant women, employees under 18 years of age, and employees involved in arduous work, replacing vacations with cash compensations is prohibited.
Under current Russian labor law, workers engaged in occupations that expose them to health hazards have the right to retire with a full pension at age 50 for women and 55 for men. Russians working as miners, lumberjacks, pilots, cosmonauts, as well as those in a dozen of other professions included in the list of hazardous works.