Russian legislative election, 1993

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Russian legislative election, 1993
Russia
1990 ←
12 December 1993
→ 1995

All 450 seats to the State Duma
226 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Zhirinovsky Vladimir.jpg YegorGaidar.jpg Zuyganov portrait.jpg
Leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky Yegor Gaidar Gennady Zyuganov
Party LDPR Russia's Choice Communist Party
Seats won 70 96 65
Popular vote 12,318,562 8,339,345 6,666,402
Percentage 22.92% 15.51% 12.4%

Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 12 December 1993.[1] They included the last elections to the Federation Council of Russia.[2]

Background[edit]

The 1993 general election was taking place in the aftermath of the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, a violent confrontation on the streets of Moscow which resulted in the dissolution of the previous Russian parliament by military force. Yeltsin hoped to resolve the political turmoil by decreeing for the election to the new Russian parliament and the constitutional referendum to take place on 12 December 1993.

Electoral system[edit]

The new election law adopted for the 1993 Duma election stipulated half the 450 Duma members were elected by a party-list system of proportional representation, and half were elected as individual representatives from single-member districts. Every Russian voter thus received two different ballots. The proportional representation ballot compelled each voter to endorse an electoral organization or vote against all of them. By contrast, the single-member district ballot required a voter to endorse an individual, whose party affiliation, if any, could not be given on the ballot.

In order to nominate a list of candidates in the proportional representation ballot, a party or electoral organization had to gather 100,000 signatures from the electorate, of which no more than 15% could be from any one region or republic. The method used to calculate the number of seats won by each party was the Hare method, with a threshold of 5.0 per cent of the valid vote, including votes cast against all, but excluding invalid ballots. To secure a place on a single-member district ballot, candidates had to gather the signatures of at least 1.0 percent of the constituency electorate. The winner in each single-member districts contest was simply the candidate with plurality of votes, regardless of the number of votes cast against all.

Results[edit]

State Duma[edit]

Party PR Constituency Total
seats
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Liberal Democratic Party 12,318,562 22.9 59 1,577,400 3.0 11 70
Russia's Choice 8,339,345 15.5 40 3,630,799 6.8 56 96
Communist Party 6,666,402 12.4 32 1,848,888 3.5 33 65
Women of Russia 4,369,918 8.1 21 309,378 0.6 4 25
Agrarian Party 4,292,518 8.0 21 2,877,610 5.4 26 47
Yabloko 4,223,219 7.9 20 1,849,120 3.5 13 33
Party of Russian Unity and Accord 3,620,035 6.7 18 1,443,454 2.7 9 27
Democratic Party 2,969,533 5.5 14 1,094,066 2.1 7 21
Russian Democratic Reform Movement 2,191,505 4.1 0 1,083,063 2.0 8 8
Civic Union 1,038,193 1.9 0 1,526,115 2.9 18 18
Future of Russia–New Names 672,283 1.3 0 411,426 0.8 1 1
Cedar 406,789 0.8 0 301,266 0.6 0 0
Dignity and Charity 375,431 0.7 0 445,168 0.8 3 3
Other parties 377,863 0.7 0 0
Independents 25,961,405 48.7 30 30
Against all 2,267,963 4.2 8,509,300 16.0
Invalid/blank votes 4,248,927
Vacant seats[a] 6 6
Total 53,751,696 100 225 57,495,248 100 225 450
Registered voters/turnout 106,170,835 106,170,835 54.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, IPU

a Four seats were left vacant in Chechnya due to a boycott of the elections, whilst voting was postponed in two others.[3]

Federation Council[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
Independents 53,751,696 100 171
Invalid/blank votes 3,946,002
Vacant seats[a] 7
Total 57,697,698 100 178
Registered voters/turnout 106,170,835 54.3
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

a Five seats were elected at a later date, whilst two seats in Chechnya remained unfilled.[4]

Although the Federation Council was contested on a non-party basis,[2] 11 were members of the Communist Party, six were members of Russia's Choice and nine were members of other parties.[5]

Aftermath[edit]

The results of the polls proved to be disappointing for the Kremlin: the two competing pro-government parties, Russia's Choice and the Party of Russian Unity and Accord, gained 15.5% and 6.7% of the vote respectively and won 123 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. Neither party was able to control the parliamentary agenda nor impose the will of the president on the Duma. Lacking legislative success, both parties rapidly lost membership.

Parliamentary groups[edit]

The use of the mixed system for the election of the Duma produced a large number of deputies which were unaffiliated with any electoral bloc. By joining other parliamentary groups or forming groups of independent deputies, they could significantly influence the balance of power in the Duma. Hence, the parliamentary groups in the first two-year term of the Duma showed lack of stability and its numbers may be given only with approximation.

Parliamentary group Leader Seats
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky 53-64
Russia's Choice Yegor Gaidar 47-78
Communist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady Zyuganov 45-47
Women of Russia Yekaterina Lakhova 20-24
Agrarian Party of Russia Mikhail Lapshin 50-55
Yabloko Grigory Yavlinsky 27-28
Party of Russia's Unity and Concord Sergei Shakhrai 12-34
Democratic Party of Russia Nikolay Travkin 8-15
Liberal Democratic Union of 12 December Irina Khakamada 11-38
New Regional Politics - Duma-96 V. Medvedev 30-67
Russia I. Shichalin 34-38
Stability A. Leushkin 34-40
Russian Way (unregistered) Sergei Baburin 11-14
Strong State (Derzhava) (unregistered) V. Kobelev 4-5

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1642 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ a b Nohlen & Stöver, p1656
  3. ^ Russian Federation: Parliamentary Chamber: Gossoudarstvennaya Duma: Elections held in 1993 Inter-Parliamentary Union
  4. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1659
  5. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1658

External links[edit]