|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (May 2013)|
|133–150 million (2003)|
|Regions with significant populations|
| Russia: 111,016,896
|Related ethnic groups|
The Russians (Russian: русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. They are the most numerous indigenous people of the Russian Federation (more than 80% of the population, according to the census of 2010 ), and the most numerous people in Europe.
There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians": "русские" (russkiye), which means "ethnic Russians" and "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia". The first word refers to all ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in (Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, USA etc.) and irrespective of whether or not they hold Russian Federation citizenship, and does not include members of Russia's ethnic minorities. The second word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, and does not include ethnic Russians living outside of Russia. English translations do not always distinguish these two words.
The modern Russian is formed from two groups, Northern and Southern, which were made up of Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Radimichs, Vyatiches and Severians East Slavic tribes. Genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ significantly from Poles or Slovenians or Ukrainians. Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians and Ukrainians than southern Russians to northern Russians. Russians in northern European Russia share moderate genetic similarities with Uralic peoples, who lived in modern north central European Russia and were partly assimilated by the Slavs as the Slavs migrated northeastwards. Among those peoples were Merya and Muromian.
Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts. It is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches. The eastern branch was settled between the Southern Bug and the Dnieper Rivers in what is now Ukraine; from the 1st century AD through almost the millennium, they spread peacefully northward to the Baltic region, assimilating indigents and forming the Dregovich, Radimich and Vyatich Slavic tribes on the Baltic substratum, therefore having language features such as vowel reduction. Later, both Belarusians and South Russians formed themselves on this ethnic linguistic ground.
Since the 6th century, another group of Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod. The same Slavic ethnic population also settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. With the Uralic substratum, they formed Krivichs and Ilmen Slavs.
Anthropology of Russian 
Anthropologic signs of Russian studied in detail. Russian populations are quite homogeneous in anthropological terms. Average anthropological indicators are equal to the average Western European values, or deviate from them, remaining, however, within the oscillation western groups. It is possible to note the following features that distinguish the Russian population from the Western: The proportion of light and medium shades of hair and eyes is increased, the proportion of dark hairs and eyes - reduced; Reduced growth of eyebrows and beard; Moderate width of the face; The predominance of medium and medium-high horizontal profile of the nose bridge; Smaller slope of the forehead and weaker development of brow. The Russian population is characterized by an extremely rare occurrence of epicanthus. Among more than 8,500 surveyed Russian male epicanthus found only in 12 times and its infancy only. Such an extremely rare occurrence of epicanthus observed in the German population only. According to the researches, there are two groups of Russian populations. In particular, the northern Russian on the Y-chromosome markers have a stronger resemblance to the distant Baltic States, than with more than close the Finno-Ugric peoples. On the northern Russian mtDNA resemble the gene pools of Western and Central Europe. In this case, the gene pool of the Finnish people as distant from the northern Russian. The study of autosomal markers also brings the northern Russian with other European nations, and calls into question the Finno-Ugric reservoir in the northern Russian gene pool. These data allow us to hypothesize about saving in these areas of the ancient paleoeuropean substrate that has experienced intense migration of ancient Slavic tribes. According to the research of Y-chromosome markers South central group to which the overwhelming majority of the Russian population belongs, has common cluster with Belarusians, Ukrainians and Poles. According to the researches of mtDNA markers and autosomal markers Russian similar to other populations of Central and Eastern Europe found higher unity by autosomal markers of East Slavic populations and significant differences from the neighboring Finno-Ugric, and Turkic peoples and from the North Caucasus peoples. In the Russian population there is a very low frequency of genetic characteristics of Mongoloid populations. Easteuropean frequency markers in Russian correspond to the average in Europe.
Genetics data 
Russians show the characteristic R1a genes of paternal descent from a single male at 33.4% in North Russia to 49% in rest of Russia. Such large frequencies of R1a have been found only in Eastern Europe (Sorbs, Poles and Ukrainians at about 50 to 65%), and in parts of India.
Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) – 19.8% to 62.7%, with an average of 46.7%
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) – 0% to 26.8%, with an average of 17.6% (All regions), and 23.5% (Central and South Russia)
Haplogroup N (Y-DNA) – 5.4% to 53.7%, with averages of 21.6% (All regions), and 10% (Central and South Russia)
Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) – 0% to 14%, with an average of 5.8%
Autosomally, Russians are generally similar to populations in central-eastern Europe
Emergence of Russian ethnicity 
Ethnic origin of the first carriers of the ethnonym Rus is still being discussed. Russian ethnic group mainly was formed of the descendants of such East Slavic tribes like Krivichi, Sloveny,Vyatichi, Severiane, as well as a significant number of immigrants from the Middle Dnieper in XII-XIII centuries. To a lesser extent on the formation of the Russian people affected assimilation of few Finno-Ugric tribes (Meria, Mereschi, Muroma), which territories were colonized by Slavs who lived on the north-eastern territories. It should be noted that the assimilation of the Finno-Ugric tribes who lived on the Russian plain, almost had no effect on the physical type of Slavic settlers. This may be due to the proximity of the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian plain to the rest of the population in Eastern Europe. Notable Finno-Ugric component observed in the northern Russian, in particular, the coast-dwellers. In addition, the East Slavs, mainly Vyatichi was supposedly assimilated Balto-Slavice Golyad tribe.
Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe and one of the largest in the world with a population of about 140 million people worldwide. Roughly 116 million ethnic Russians live in Russia and about 16 million more live in the neighboring countries. A significant number of Russians, around 4,6 million, live elsewhere in the world, mostly in the Americas and Western Europe, but also in other places of Eastern Europe, Asia and elsewhere.
Russian culture started from that of East Slavs, who were largely polytheists, and had a specific way of life in the wooden areas of Eastern Europe. The Scandinavian Vikings, or Varangians, also took part in the forming of Russian identity and state in the early Kievan Rus' period of the late 1st millennium AD. Rus' had accepted the Christianity from the East Roman Empire in 988, and this largely defined the Russian culture of next millennium as the synthesis of Slavic and Byzantine cultures. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Russia remained the largest Orthodox nation in the world and claimed succession to the Byzantine legacy in the form of the Third Rome idea. At different points of its history, the country also was strongly influenced by the European Culture, and since Peter the Great reforms Russian culture largely developed in the context of the Western culture. For most of the 20th century, the Marxist ideology shaped the culture of the Soviet Union, where Russia, or Russian SFSR, was the largest and leading part.
Russian culture is extremely various and unique in many aspects. It has a rich history and can boast a long tradition of excellence in every aspect of arts, especially when it comes to literature and philosophy, classical music and ballet, architecture and painting, cinema and animation, which all had considerable influence on the world culture.
Russian literature is known for such notable writers as Aleksandr Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Anton Chekhov, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Boris Pasternak, Anna Akhmatova, Joseph Brodsky, Maxim Gorky, Vladimir Nabokov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Mikhail Bulgakov, Andrei Platonov, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and Varlam Shalamov. Russians also gave the classical music world some very famous composers, including Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and his contemporaries, the Mighty Handful, including Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. In the 20th century Russian music was credited with such influential composers as Dmitri Shostakovich, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Igor Stravinski, Georgy Sviridov, and Alfred Schnittke. Many more famous Russian people are associated with different aspects of culture.
Russian philosophy 
According to Lossky, the characteristic features of Russian philosophy are: Space Art, sophiology (the doctrine of Sophia), collegiality, metaphysical, religious, intuitionism, positivism, ontologism. The subjects of philosophical search for Russian thinkers were: The problem of man; Space Art (perception of space as a single whole organism); Issues of morality and ethics; The problem of choosing the historical path of Russia - between East and West (specific problem of Russian philosophy, which led to a confrontation Russian intelligentsia in the middle of the XIX century: see Slavophilism, Westernism); The problem of power; The problem of the state; The problem of social justice; The problem of an ideal society; The problem of the future.
Russian (transliteration: Russkiy yazyk, [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk]) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of three (or, according to some authorities[who?], four) living members of the East Slavic languages, the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian.,
Examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onwards, and while Russian preserves much of East Slavonic grammar and a Common Slavonic word base, modern Russian exhibits a large stock of borrowed international vocabulary for politics, science, and technology. Due to the status of the Soviet Union as a super power, Russian had great political importance in the 20th century, and is one of the official languages of the United Nations.
Russian has palatal secondary articulation of consonants, the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found in almost all consonant phonemes and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels, not entirely unlike a similar process present in most forms of English. Stress in Russian is generally quite unpredictable and can be placed on almost any syllable, one of the most difficult aspects for foreign language learners.
Russian language - one of the six official languages of the UN. According to data published in the journal «Language Monthly» (№ 3, 1997), approximately 300 million people around the world at the time owned the Russian language (which puts this language in 5th place on prevalence in the World). 160 million considered Russian as native language (7th in the world). The total number of Russian speakers in the world on the 1999 assessment - about 167 million, about 110 million people speak Russian as a second language. In a sociological study of Gallup (Gallup, Inc), dedicated to the Russian language in the post-Soviet states, 92% of the population in Belarus, 83% in Ukraine, 68% in Kazakhstan and 38% in Kyrgyzstan, Russian language chosen to complete the questionnaire for the survey . Institute designated this section of the study as «Russian as the Mother Tongue». In the U.S. state of New York in 2009, an amendment to the electoral law, according to which in all cities in the state, home to over a million people, all related to the election process documents should be translated into Russian. Russian language has become one of the eight foreign languages in New York, which must be printed on all official materials of the campaign. Previously been included in the list of Spanish, Korean, Filipino, Creole languages and three dialects of Chinese. Prior to 1991, Russian was the language of international communication of the USSR, the de facto fulfilling the functions of the state language. Continues to be used in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, as a mother for a significant portion of the population and as a language of international communication. In places of compact residence of immigrants from the former USSR countries (Israel, Germany, Canada, the U.S., Australia, etc.) are available Russian-language periodicals, work stations and television channels, are opened Russian-language schools, where actively taught Russian. In Israel, the Russian language is taught in high school, some schools as a second language. In the countries of Eastern Europe before the end of the 80-ies of XX century Russian language was the main foreign language taught in schools. All austronauts working in International Space Station, should speak spoken Russian language.
Around 63% of the Russia's population identify themselves with Orthodox Christianity, most of whom belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, which played a vital role in the development of Russian national identity. In other countries Russian faithful usually belong to the local Orthodox congregations which either have a direct connection (like the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, autonomous from the Moscow Patriarchate) or historical origin (like the Orthodox Church in America or a Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia) with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Non-religious Russians may associate themselves with the Orthodox faith for cultural reasons. Some Russian people are Old Believers: a relatively small schismatic group of the Russian Orthodoxy that rejected the liturgical reforms introduced in the 17th century. Other schisms from Orthodoxy include Doukhobors which in the 18th century rejected secular government, the Russian Orthodox priests, icons, all church ritual, the Bible as the supreme source of divine revelation and the divinity of Jesus, and later emigrated into Canada. An even earlier sect were Molokans which formed in 1550 and rejected Czar's divine right to rule, icons, the Trinity as outlined by the Nicene Creed, Orthodox fasts, military service, and practices including water baptism.
Other world religions have negligible representation among ethnic Russians. The most prominent are Islam with over 100,000 ethnic Russian followers, Baptists with over 85,000 Russian adherents. Others are mostly Pentecostals, Evangelicals, Seventh-day Adventists, Lutherans and Jehovah's Witnesses.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union various new religious movements have sprung up and gathered a following among ethnic Russians. The most prominent of these are Rodnovery, the revival of the Slavic native religion also common to other Slavic nations, Another movement, very small in comparison to other new religions, is Vissarionism, a syncretic group with an Orthodox Christian background.
Russians outside of Russia 
Ethnic Russians historically migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by Tsarist and later Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing the central authority.
After the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, and millions became refugees. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement, although the term is broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regime.
Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside of Russia live in former Soviet states such as Ukraine (about 8 million), Kazakhstan (about 3.8 million), Belarus (about 785,000), Latvia (about 556,000) with the most Russian settlement out of the Baltic States which includes Lithuania and Estonia, Uzbekistan (about 650,000) and Kyrgyzstan (about 419,000).
Over a million Russian Jews emigrated to Israel during and after the Refusenik movements; some brought ethnic Russian relatives along with them. Out of more than one million Russian-speaking immigrants in Israel, about 300,000 are considered not Jewish according to the rabbinical commandments (but not all of them are ethnic Russians). There are also small Russian communities in the Balkans, Eastern and Central European nations such as Germany and Poland, as well Russians settled in China, Japan, South Korea, Latin America (i.e. Mexico, Brazil and Argentina) and Australia. These communities may identify themselves either as Russians or citizens of these countries, or both, to varying degrees.
People who had arrived in Latvia and Estonia during the Soviet era, including their descendants born in these countries, mostly Russians, became stateless after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and were provided only with an option to acquire naturalised citizenship. The language issue is still contentious, particularly in Latvia, where ethnic Russians have protested against plans to liquidate education in minority languages, including Russian. Since 1992, Estonia has naturalized some 137,000 residents of undefined citizenship, mainly ethnic Russians. 136,000, or 10 percent of the total population, remain without citizenship.
Both the European Union and the Council of Europe, as well as the Russian government, expressed their concern during the 1990s about minority rights in several countries, most notably Latvia and Estonia. In Moldova, the Transnistria region (where 30.4% of population is Russian) broke away from government control amid fears the country would soon reunite with Romania. In June 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the plan to introduce a national policy aiming at encouraging ethnic Russians to immigrate to Russia.
Significant numbers of Russians emigrated to Canada, Australia and the United States. Brighton Beach, Brooklyn and South Beach, Staten Island in New York City is an example of a large community of recent Russian and Jewish Russian immigrants. Other examples are Sunny Isles Beach, a northern suburb of Miami, and "Little Moscow" in Hollywood of the Los Angeles area.
At the same time, many ethnic Russians from former Soviet territories have emigrated to Russia itself since the 1990s. Many of them became refugees from a number of states of Central Asia and Caucasus (as well as from the separatist Chechen Republic), forced to flee during political unrest and hostilities towards Russians.
After the Russian Revolution in 1917, many Russians who were identified with the White army moved to China — most of them settling in Harbin and Shanghai. By the 1930s Harbin had 100,000 Russians. Many of these Russians had to move back to the Soviet Union after World War II. Today, a large group of people in northern China can still speak Russian as a second language.
Russians (eluosizu) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China (as the Russ); there are approximately 15,600 Russian Chinese living mostly in northern Xinjiang, and also in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang.
Notable achievements 
Various Russians have greatly contributed to the world of music, sports, science, technology and arts. Notable Russian scientists include Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolay Bogolyubov, Andrei Kolmogorov, Ivan Pavlov, Nikolai Semyonov, Dmitri Ivanenko, Nikolai Lobachevsky, Alexander Lodygin, Alexander Popov (one of inventors of radio), Nikolai Zhukovsky, Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolay Basov (co-inventors of laser), Georgiy Gamov, Vladimir Zworykin, Lev Pontryagin, Sergei Sobolev, Pavel Yablochkov, Aleksandr Butlerov, Andrei Sakharov, Dmitry Ivanovsky, Sergey Korolyov and Mstislav Keldysh (creators of the Soviet space program), Aleksandr Lyapunov, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Andrei Tupolev, Yuri Denisyuk (the first practicable method of holography), Mikhail Lomonosov, Vladimir Vernadsky, Pyotr Kapitsa, Igor Sikorsky, Ludvig Faddeev, Zhores Alferov, Konstantin Novoselov, Fyodor Shcherbatskoy, Nikolai Trubetzkoy etc.
The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, was Russian, and the first artificial satellite to be put into outer space, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union and was developed mainly by Sergey Korolyov who had a Russian father (his mother was Ukrainian).
Russian Literature representatives like Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Lev Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev, Anton Chekhov, Alexander Pushkin, and many more, reached a high status in world literature. In the field of the novel, Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, in particular, were important figures and have remained internationally renowned. Some scholars have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever.
Russian composers who reached a high status in the world of music include Igor Stravinsky, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Dmitri Shostakovich, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Sergei Prokofiev, and Sergei Rachmaninoff.
Russian people played a crucial role in the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II. Russia's casualties in this war were the highest of all nations, and numbered more than 20 million dead (Russians composed 80% of the 26.6 million people lost by the USSR), which is about half of all World War II casualties and the vast majority of Allied casualties. According to the British historian Richard Overy, the Eastern Front included more combat than all the other European fronts combined. The Wehrmacht suffered 80% to 93% of all of its total World War II combat casualties on the Eastern Front.
See also 
- List of Russians
- List of Russian artists
- List of Russian inventors
- Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
- Russian culture
- Russian diaspora
- European ethnic groups
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