Russians in China

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Russians in China
俄罗斯族
Pусские
Beijing-NiuJie-Oroqen-Russian-Derung-Zu-3655.jpg
Ethnic Russians, flanked by the Oroqen (left) and the Derung (right), a poster in Niujie, Beijing
Total population
15,631
Regions with significant populations
Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and other areas.
Languages
Chinese, Russian
Religion
Eastern Orthodox
Related ethnic groups
Russian people

Ethnic Russians (Russian: Pусские; simplified Chinese: 俄罗斯族; traditional Chinese: 俄羅斯族; pinyin: Éluósī-zú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, according to the ethnicity classification as applied in mainland China.[1] Those in mainland China are the descendants of Russians who settled there since the 17th century, and hold PRC rather than Russian citizenship.

There are currently over 15,000 ethnic Russians in China holding PRC citizenship; however, at least 70,000 Russians are residing in China while keeping their Russian or other nationality.

History[edit]

Russian migration[edit]

Immigrants in Manchuria and Beijing[edit]

During the 17th century, the Russian Empire launched several military actions against Qing China. In 1644, a group of Russian army was defeated by Qing army, part of the captives were incorporated into the Eight Banners. During the Battle of Yagsi, nearly 100 Russians surrendered to the Qing authorities, Emperor Kangxi authorized them to join the Bordered Yellow Banner. Their descendants exists to this day and are known as Albazinians. From 1860 to 1884, lots of Russians came to Hulun Buir panning for gold, and in 1900, Russian troops entered China, destroyed several sentries, before 1907 there were already 1000 households of Russian settlers in Ergun Right Banner.[2]

The Jirjak people[edit]

The earliest Russian immigrants who came to Xinjiang were the Jirjaks, who were persecuted under the reign of Czar Peter because of refusing to convert to the Russian Orthodox Church. They sent four heralds to negotiate with the Kazakh chief Kala Usman, and were allowed to settle down in Burqin. After several years they also pioneered some settlements in Kanas, Chuguchak and Ili. In 1861, 160 Jirjaks entered the area of Lop Nur to settle down.

Almost all the Jirjaks were devout Christians; they rarely communicated with other groups. According to the census in 1943, there were 1200 Jirjaks in Bulqin and Kaba. A lot of them moved to Australia after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.[3]

Later migration to Xinjiang during the Imperial period[edit]

In 1851, the Treaty of Kulja was established, and many Russian merchants swarmed into Xinjiang. The Russian merchants killed approximately 200 mineworkers at Chuguchak, which enraged the local people, who burned the Russian trade circle down under the lead of two Hui men Xu Tianrao and An Yuxian. As a result, the Russians forced the Qing government to pay heavy war reparations. In 1871, the Russian Empire conquered the area of Ili, and many Russian merchants migrated there.[4]

Migration during the October Revolution period[edit]

When the White Army was defeated in the war against the Bolsheviks, many Cossacks and refugees fled to Xinjiang under the lead of General Ivanov. Some of them rioted in Ili and Chuguchak, but were finally suppressed by the Chinese warlord Yang Zengxin. Part of them later joined the Guihua soldiers recruited by the Xinjiang government.[5]

Migration during World War II[edit]

From 1931 to 1938, the Soviet Union government forced a lot of Chinese and their Russian relatives to move to China. More than 20,000 Russians entered China through the Crossings of Xinjiang. And after 1941, many refugees fled to Xinjiang.[6]

Russians under the reign of Yang Zengxin, Jin Shuren and Sheng Shicai[edit]

Under the reign of Yang Zengxin, the Russians in Xinjiang were mainly divided into 3 parts: some of the refugees had joined the Chinese nationality, they were called "Guihua people" (归化人 lit. Naturalised people), and had to fill out applications and write volunteer certificates. Yang ordered officials from various regions to distribute land for them, and gave them farm animals and seeds. Some had joined the USSR nationality. The others refused to join either nationalities.[7]

In 1928, when Jin Shuren came to power, he reinforced the supervision and imposition of the Russians. The freedom of movement and trade were forbidden. According to the records from Xinjiang Gazette, from 1930 to 1931 there were 207 Russians who went through the Guihua procedure in Ürümqi, and 288 in Chuguchak.

In 1933, Jin abdicated. In 1935, the 2nd People's Congress was held, and the Guihua people were officially recognized as a minority group of Xinjiang.[8]

Formation of the Guihua Army[edit]

In 1931, the Kumul Rebellion broke out in Xinjiang, and the Province Army was defeated by Ma Zhongying's troops. So Jin Shuren ordered Zhang Peiyuan to form the Guihua army. The conscripted Russians were organized as the 1st Guihua Cavalry under the regimental commander Mogutnov. Later the cavalry were expanded into two groups, with Antonov and Bapingut as the commanders. Zhang Peiyuan commanded the Guihua Army and the Province Army finally defeated Ma's army, reoccupied Zhenxi and raised the siege of Hami. In 1932, the peasants of Turpan rebelled under the lead of Makhsut, but were beaten down by Guihua Army.[9] Near the Chinese New Year Eve of 1933, the capital Ürümqi was besieged by Ma Shimin's units during the Battle of Urumqi (1933), Jin Shuren formed the 2nd Guihua Cavalry and repulsed them.[10]

Guihua Army under the reign of Sheng Shicai[edit]

The Guihua soldiers were dissatisfied with Jin's arrears of military expenditures. Several dissenters of Jin persuaded Bupingut (Colonel Pappengut) and Antonov to launch a coup d'état, and they occupied the city defense command on the afternoon of April 12. Later Jin Shuren fled to the outskirts. At the same night, they established the Interim Sustain Committee, and sent liaison officers to contact Sheng Shicai. Later that night Jin's troops fought back, but were finally defeated, and Jin had to return to give up his office, more than 70 Russians died in that battle.[11]

Ma Zhongying heard the coup took place in Xinjiang, led the army to the west promptly, and sent his general Ma Heying to Altay. In May 1933, the Russian and Kazakh peasants of Bulqin armed themselves to fight against Ma's army, but was forced to give ground. Sheng ordered Guihua colonel Helovsky to reinforce them, and defeated Ma Heying after two days. In June 1933, Sheng Shicai and Ma Zhongying fought a decisive battle at Ziniquan, Ma was defeated, and was forced to flee to Turpan.[12]

Zhang Peiyuan then defected to and joined forces with Ma Zhongying. Together, they almost defeated Sheng Shicai at the Battle of Urumqi (1933–34), however the during the Soviet invasion of Xinjiang the Soviets intervened on the side of the Provincial government and the Guihua White Russians, and Ma Zhongying ended up in control of southern Xinjiang while the provincial government controlled the north.

In the summer of 1934, when the war ended pro tempore, Sheng retracted the Guihua Headquarters, and selected about 500 Russians to form the 6th Cavalry to quarter at Ürümqi. In 1937, the Cavalry and the Red Army finally defeated Ma Hushan's troops during the Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang (1937). And later it was disbanded, all the Guihua soldiers became ordinary people.[13] The White Russians again sided with the Soviets during the Ili Rebellion in 1944.

People's Republic of China[edit]

The 1957 census counted 9,000 ethnic Russians in China, while the 1978 census counted just 600. That number rose again to 2,935 in the 1982 census and 13,504 in the 1990 census. There continues to be disagreement over the number of ethnic Russians living in China.[14]

Demography[edit]

Statistics as of the 2002 Census.[15] Pink designates native region.

Area
Total
Population

Russians
in China
(Eluosi Zu)

Proportion of
all Russians
in China (%)

Russians as
proportion of
local minority population

Russians as
proportion of
total local population(%)

Total 1,245,110,826 15,631 100 0.0148 0.00126
31 Province area 1,242,612,226 15,609 99.86 0.0148 0.00126
Northwest China 89,258,221 9,128 58.40 0.0523 0.01023
North China 145,896,933 5,406 34.59 0.0620 0.00371
Northeast China 104,864,179 479 3.06 0.0044 0.00046
East China 358,849,244 271 1.73 0.0108 0.00008
South Central China 350,658,477 182 1.16 0.0006 0.00005
Southwest China 193,085,172 143 0.91 0.0004 0.00007
Xinjiang 18,459,511 8,935 57.16 0.0815 0.04840
Inner Mongolia 23,323,347 5,020 32.12 0.1033 0.02152
Heilongjiang 36,237,576 265 1.70 0.0150 0.00073
Beijing 13,569,194 216 1.38 0.0369 0.00159
Liaoning 41,824,412 150 0.96 0.0022 0.00036
Hebei 66,684,419 102 0.65 0.0035 0.00015
Shanghai 16,407,734 76 0.49 0.0732 0.00046
Shaanxi 35,365,072 69 0.44 0.0391 0.00020
Shandong 89,971,789 68 0.44 0.0108 0.00008
Jiangsu 73,043,577 67 0.43 0.0258 0.00009
Jilin 26,802,191 64 0.41 0.0026 0.00024
Tianjin 9,848,731 60 0.38 0.0225 0.00061
Gansu 25,124,282 55 0.35 0.0025 0.00022
Henan 91,236,854 54 0.35 0.0047 0.00006
Guangdong 85,225,007 50 0.32 0.0039 0.00006
Sichuan 82,348,296 48 0.31 0.0012 0.00006
Qinghai 4,822,963 48 0.31 0.0022 0.00100
Yunnan 42,360,089 32 0.20 0.0002 0.00008
Guizhou 35,247,695 31 0.20 0.0002 0.00009
Hubei 59,508,870 26 0.17 0.0010 0.00004
Hunan 63,274,173 25 0.16 0.0004 0.00004
Anhui 58,999,948 22 0.14 0.0055 0.00004
Zhejiang 45,930,651 21 0.13 0.0053 0.00005
Ningxia 5,486,393 21 0.13 0.0011 0.00038
Tibet Autonomous Region 2,616,329 20 0.13 0.0008 0.00076
Hainan 7,559,035 14 0.09 0.0011 0.00019
Fujian 34,097,947 13 0.08 0.0022 0.00004
Guangxi 43,854,538 13 0.08 0.0001 0.00003
Chongqing 30,512,763 12 0.08 0.0006 0.00004
Shanxi 32,471,242 8 0.05 0.0078 0.00002
Jiangxi 40,397,598 4 0.03 0.0032 0.00001
In active duty 2,498,600 22 0.14 0.0197 0.00088

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Li 2003, p. 100
  2. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, pp.7 - 8.
  3. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, pp.9 - 10.
  4. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.11.
  5. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.14.
  6. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.16.
  7. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.18.
  8. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.18.
  9. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, pp.22 - 23.
  10. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.24.
  11. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, pp.25 - 26.
  12. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.27.
  13. ^ Eluosi zu jian shi, p.30.
  14. ^ Olson 1998, p. 294
  15. ^ 国家统计局:《2000年第五次人口普查数据》表1—6 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口

Sources[edit]

  1. Eluosi zu jian shi (Brief History of Russians in China) (in Chinese). Beijing: Min zu chu ban she. 2008. ISBN 978-7-105-08688-7. OCLC 298347724. 
  2. Li, Xing (2003). China's ethnic minorities. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 978-7-119-03184-2. 
  3. Olson, James Stuart (1998). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28853-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Benson, Linda; Svanberg, Ingvar (1989), The Russians in Xinjiang: From immigrants to national minority, Central Asian Survey 8 (2): 97–129, doi:10.1080/02634938908400666 

External links[edit]