Russification of Ukraine
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||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Ukrainian Wikipedia. (December 2009)|
The Russification of Ukraine was a body of laws, decrees, and other actions undertaken by the Imperial Russian and later Soviet authorities to strengthen Russian national, political and linguistic positions in Ukraine.
In 1720 Tsar Peter I of Russia issued a decree in which he ordered the expurgation of all Ukrainian linguistic elements in theological literature printed in Ukrainian typographical establishments. Later Empress Catherine II of Russia issued a secret order to Count Aleksandr Alekseyevich Vyazemsky (the Prosecutor General of the Russian Empire from 1764 to 1792) in which she instructed him to institute a program of Russification for the provinces of Ukraine, Livonia and Finland, "using light-handed methods". In the opinion of Vladimir Vernadsky, by the 17th century, Muscovy already had a long-standing policy to absorb Ukraine and liquidate the foundation for local cultural life. In 1862, all Ukrainian Sunday schools, numbering over 100 at the time, were abolished and proscribed. In 1863, minister of internal affairs Pyotr Valuyev issued the so-called Valuev Circular, in which he stated that the Ukrainian language never existed, doesn't exist, and cannot exist. In 1867, Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued the Ems Ukaz, a secret decree banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
After World War I, Ukrainian culture was revived due to the Bolshevik policy of Korenization ("indigenisation"). While it was meant to bolster the power of the Party in local cadres, the policy was at odds with the concept of a Soviet people with a shared Russian heritage. Under Stalin, "korenization" took second stage to the idea of a united Soviet Union, where competing national cultures were no longer tolerated, and the Russian language increasingly became the only official language of Soviet socialism.
The times of restructuring of farming and the introduction of industrialization brought about a wide campaign against "nationalist deviation," which in Ukraine translated into the end of "korenization" policy and an assault on the political and cultural elite. The first wave of purges between 1929 and 1934 targeted the revolutionary generation of the party that in Ukraine included many supporters of Ukrainization. Soviet authorities specifically targeted the commissar of education in Ukraine, Mykola Skrypnyk, for promoting Ukrainian language reforms that were seen as dangerous and counterrevolutionary; Skrypnyk committed suicide in 1933. The next 1936–1938 wave of political purges eliminated much of the new political generation that replaced those who perished in the first wave. Being accused of using the "Skrypnyk alphabet" – in other words, using Ukrainian Cyrillic letters instead of Russian ones – could lead to arrest or death. The purges nearly halved the membership of the Ukrainian communist party, and purged Ukrainian political leadership was largely replaced by the cadre sent from Russia that was also largely "rotated" by Stalin's purges.
During World War II, Russification was briefly halted when Axis forces occupied large areas of Ukraine. However, Russification of Soviet-occupied Ukraine intensified in 1938 under Nikita Krushchev, then secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party. After the war ended, Western Ukraine was reabsorbed into the Soviet Union, and most prominent Ukrainian intellectuals living there were purged or exiled to Siberia. Leonid Brezhnev continued the Russification policies of Krushchev in postwar Ukraine.
In the 1960s, the Ukrainian language began to be used more widely and frequently in spite of these policies. In response, Soviet authorities increased their focus on early education in Russian. After 1980, Russian language classes were instituted from the first grade onward.
Russification policy was more intense in Ukraine than in other parts of the Soviet Union, and the country now contains the largest group of Russian speakers who are not ethnically Russian: as of 2009, there were about 5.5 million Ukrainians whose first language was Russian. Russian speakers are more prevalent in the southeastern half of the country, while both Ukrainian and Russian are used equally in the center, and Ukrainian dominates in the west. Some of these "russified Ukrainians" speak Russian, while others speak a mix of Ukrainian and Russian known as "surzhyk;" many do have some proficiency in Ukrainian. Estimates of their prevalence in the country vary, but according to different studies, "russified Ukrainians" comprise a third to a half of the total population of Ukraine.
In modern-day Ukraine
In post-Soviet Ukraine, Ukrainian remains the only official language in the country; however, in 2012, President Victor Yanukovitch introduced a bill recognizing Russian as a "regional language" that could officially be used in the predominantly Russian-speaking areas of Ukraine, in schools, courts, and government institutions. While the bill was supported by Ukrainians in the eastern and southern regions, the legislation triggered protests in Kiev, where representatives from the opposition party argued that it would further divide the Ukrainian-speaking and Russian-speaking halves of the country and tacitly make Russian an official language.
In contrast to official government policies, the Russian language is widely used on television and the circulation of Russian language newspapers and magazines is high all over the country (particularly in the eastern and southern parts of Ukraine where Russian is the prevalent language). In Ukraine (and, to a lesser extent, Kazakhstan) there have been attempts to make the titular languages the main languages for the media and the press (this is referred to as derussification in those countries), but these have had limited success.
- History of Ukraine
- Russification of Poland
- Chronology of Ukrainian language bans
- Бандурка О. М. 350 років мого життя. Харків, 2001 р. "Его Императорскому Величеству известно учинилось, что в Киевской и Черниговской типографиях книги печатают несогласно с великороссийскими, но со многою противностью к Восточной Церкви…вновь книг никаких, кроме церковных крещенных изданий, не печатать. А церковныя старыя книги, для совершенного согласия с великороссийскими, с такими же церковными книгами справливать прежде печати с теми великоросскими дабы никакой разны и особаго наречия в оных не было…
- In Russian: "Малая Россия, Лифляндия, Финляндия суть провинции, которыя правятся конфирмованными им привилегиями, нарушать ония отрешением всех вдруг весьма непристойно б было… Сии провинции, также и Смоленскую, надлежит легчайшими способами привести к тому, чтобы они обрусели и перестали бы глядеть как волки в лесу." Лизанчук В. Навічно кайдани кували. Львів, 1995 р. С.57, 60).
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- "Ukraine divided over language row". BBC News. April 22, 2005. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
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