Rutgers University

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Rutgers
The State University of New Jersey
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey logo.png
Official Seal of the State University
Motto Sol iustitiae et occidentem illustra
Motto in English Sun of righteousness, shine upon the West also.
Established November 10, 1766
Type Public
multiple campus
Research
Land-grant university
Endowment $783.5 million (2013)[1]
Budget $3.6 billion (2013–14) [2]
President Robert L. Barchi
Academic staff 2,937[3]
Admin. staff 6,757[3]
Students 65,000 [4]
Undergraduates 45,000 [4]
Postgraduates 20,000 [4]
Location New Brunswick-Piscataway
Newark
Camden
,
New Jersey
, United States
Campus Urban/Suburban
New Brunswick-
Piscataway:
2,688 acres(11 km²)
Newark: 38 acres(0.15 km²)
Camden: 40 acres(0.16 km²)
Former names Queen's College (1766–1825)
Rutgers College (1825–1925)
Rutgers University (1925-1945)
Alma Mater On the Banks of the Old Raritan
Colors      Scarlet[5]
Athletics NCAA Division I, FBS
Big Ten Conference (New Brunswick)
NCAA Division III, NJAC (Newark and Camden)
Sports 27 varsity teams (New Brunswick)
14 varsity teams (Newark)
18 varsity teams (Camden)
Nickname Scarlet Knights (New Brunswick)
Scarlet Raiders (Newark)
Scarlet Raptors (Camden)
Affiliations
Website www.rutgers.edu
Rutgers University with the state university logo.svg

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, /ˈrʌtɡərz/, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey.

Originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, Rutgers is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine "Colonial Colleges" founded before the American Revolution.[6][7] The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825[8] in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830), a New York City landowner, philanthropist and former military officer, whose generous donation to the school allowed it reopen after years of financial difficulty. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering, and science when it was named as the state's sole land-grant college in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862.[9] It gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion.[9] However, Rutgers evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956.[10] It is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities.[a]

Rutgers has three major campuses, located in the City of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway Township, Newark and Camden, with additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey.[11] Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students. [4]

The Newark campus was formerly the University of Newark, which merged into the Rutgers system in 1946. The Camden campus was created in 1950 after Rutgers acquired two institutions: the College of South Jersey and the South Jersey Law School.[12] Rutgers is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools[13] and is a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation,[14] the Association of American Universities[15] and the Universities Research Association[16]

History[edit]

Early 19th-century drawing of Old Queen's (1809), the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Colonial period[edit]

Two decades after the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church.[17][18] Through several years of effort by Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691–1747) and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh (1736–1790), later the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin (1730–1813), the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin.[17] The original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818), and created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.[18] The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959.[18][19] The location of New Brunswick was chosen over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population as well, making the royal charter easier to obtain.

The original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, liberal, the divinity, and useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church[18][19][20] The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt.[18][19] Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion.[21] When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes.[18][19]

Financial troubles and a benefactor[edit]

Oil painting of Revolutionary War hero and philanthropist, Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830), early benefactor and namesake of Rutgers University.

In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton (the measure failed by one vote) and later considered relocating to New York City.[18][19] In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, affectionately called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr.[22] The college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queen's College (and the Queen's College Grammar School, as all three institutions were then overseen by the Reformed Church in America).[18][19] During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre (28,000 m2) tract less than one-half mile (800 m) away.[18][19]

After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed Rutgers College in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830). According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received 2 donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing.

Land-grant college[edit]

Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry.[18][19] The Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (1880) and divide into the College of Engineering (1914) and the College of Agriculture (1921).[18][19] Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, and the School of Education in 1924.[18][19] With the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924.[19] Rutgers College continued as a liberal arts college within the university. Later, University College (1945) was founded to serve part-time, commuting students and Livingston College (1969) was created by the Rutgers Trustees, ensuring that the interests of ethnically diverse New Jersey students were met.[18][19]

State University[edit]

Shrubbery trimmed to form the letter R.

Rutgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[23] Shortly after, the University of Newark (1935) was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950. These two institutions became Rutgers–Newark and Rutgers–Camden. On September 10, 1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers College.[18][19]

Growth of the University was not without setbacks. In 1967 Rutgers Physics Department had a Centers of Excellence Grant from the NSF which allowed the Physics Department to hire several faculty each year and become a more prominent institution. These faculty were to be paid by the grant for three years, but after that time any faculty hired with the Associate or Full Professor designation would become tenured. The Governor and the Chancellor forced Rutgers to lose this grant by rejecting these faculty as tenured.

In 1970 the newly formed Rutgers Medical School had achieved a great deal of fame with major faculty members coming from other institutions to be part of this new enterprise. But in 1971 the Governor's Office separated Rutgers Medical School from Rutgers University and made it part of New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, and many faculty left the Medical School, including the dean of the Medical School, Dr. Dewitt Stetten, who later became the Director of the National Institutes of Health. As a result of the separation of the Medical School from Rutgers University, graduate PhD programs that had been started in the medical center were lost, and students had to seek other institutions to finish their degrees.

Today[edit]

Place on the western end of Voorhees Mall, a bronze statute of William the Silent commemorates the university's Dutch heritage and is said to whistle should a virgin happen to pass by.[24]

Prior to 1982, separate liberal arts faculties existed in the several "residential colleges", (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, University, and Cook colleges) at Rutgers–New Brunswick. In 1982, under president Edward J. Bloustein, the liberal arts faculties were centralized into one college, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, but the residential colleges persisted for students, along with separate standards for admission, good standing, and graduation. Finally in the fall of 2007, the liberal arts residential colleges (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, and University) and Faculty of Arts and Sciences were merged into the new School of Arts and Sciences with one set of admissions criteria, curriculum and graduation requirements. Cook College, the residential science college, changed its name to the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences. The merger ended the 241 year history of Rutgers College as a distinct institution.

In 2013, most of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey was integrated with Rutgers University and, along with several existing Rutgers units, was reformed as Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences.[25][26] This merger attached New Jersey Medical School and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School to Rutgers University.

On June 20, 2012, the outgoing president of Rutgers University, Richard L. McCormick announced that Rutgers will "...integrate five acres along George Street between Seminary Place and Bishop Place into the College Avenue Campus.".[27] Much of this is land currently occupied by the New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

In 2013, Rutgers changed part of its alma mater, “On the Banks of the Old Raritan.” Where the lyrics had formerly stated, “My father sent me to old Rutgers, and resolved that I should be a man,” now they state, "From far and near we came to Rutgers, and resolved to learn all that we can.”[28]

Organization and administration[edit]

Winter at Old Queens, the oldest building at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, built between 1809–1825. Old Queens currently houses much of the Rutgers University administration.

University president[edit]

Since 1785, twenty men have served as the institution's president, beginning with the Reverend Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh, a Dutch Reformed clergyman who was responsible for establishing the college.[29][30] Before 1930, most of the university's presidents were clergymen affiliated with Christian denominations in the Reformed tradition (either Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, or German Reformed).[30][31] Two presidents were alumni of Rutgers College—the Rev. William H. S. Demarest (Class of 1883) and Philip Milledoler Brett (Class of 1892).[32][33]

The current president is Robert L. Barchi, M.D., Ph.D. (b. 1946), an accomplished neuroscientist and board-certified physician.[34][35][36] Dr. Barchi previously served as president of the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia and as provost of the University of Pennsylvania[37] before being appointed by the university's two governing boards on April 11, 2012 to succeed outgoing president Richard L. McCormick (b. 1947), the son of popular Rutgers history professor and college dean Richard P. McCormick. Barchi assumed the office on September 1, 2012[38][39] and his tenure has so far involved overseeing the university's acquisition of a medical school and related research and clinical facilities after a merger with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, a redevelopment of the College Avenue Campus, and a transition of the university's main campus athletic program to the Big Ten Conference (beginning in 2014).

The president serves in an ex officio capacity as a presiding officer within the University's 59-member Board of Trustees and its eleven-member Board of Governors,[40] and is appointed by these boards to oversee day-to-day operations of the University across its campuses. He is charged with implementing "board policies with the help and advice of senior administrators and other members of the university community."[41] The president is responsible only to those two governing boards—there is no oversight by state officials. Frequently, the president also occupies a professorship in his academic discipline and engages in instructing students.

Governing boards[edit]

Bishop House on the College Avenue campus in New Brunswick.

Governance at Rutgers University rests with a Board of Trustees consisting currently of 59 members and a Board of Governors consisting of 11 members: 6 appointed by the Governor of New Jersey and 5 chosen by the Board of Trustees.[42][43][44] The trustees constitute chiefly an advisory body to the Board of Governors and are the fiduciary overseers of the property and assets of the University that existed before the institution became the State University of New Jersey in 1945. The initial reluctance of the trustees (still acting as a private corporate body) to cede control of certain business affairs to the state government for direction and oversight caused the state to establish the Board of Governors in 1956.[45] Today, the Board of Governors maintains much of the corporate control of the University.

The members of the Board of Trustees are voted upon by different constituencies or appointed. "Two faculty and two students are elected by the University Senate as nonvoting representatives. The 59 voting members are chosen in the following way as mandated by state law: 28 charter members (of whom at least three shall be women), 20 alumni members nominated by the Nominating Committee of the Board of Trustees, and five public members appointed by the governor of the state with confirmation by the New Jersey State Senate. The six members of the Board of Governors appointed by the governor also serve as members of the Board of Trustees. Of the 28 charter seats, three are reserved for students with full voting rights."[46]

Affiliations[edit]

Campuses and divisions[edit]

Rutgers University has three regional campuses across the state of New Jersey; the New Brunswick Campus located in the city of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway Township, the Newark Campus in Newark, and the Camden Campus in Camden.[47] These campuses comprise 33 degree-granting schools and colleges, offering undergraduate, graduate and professional levels of study.[47] The university is centrally administered from New Brunswick, although Chancellors at the Newark and Camden campuses hold significant autonomy for some academic issues. Rutgers Fact Book at the Wayback Machine (archived December 23, 2007)

Rutgers–New Brunswick[edit]

Bishop House, which dates to 1852, has served various academic purposes on the Rutgers University campus since 1925.

The New Brunswick Campus (or Rutgers–New Brunswick) is the largest campus of Rutgers; it is the site of the original Rutgers College. It is spread across six municipalities in Middlesex County, New Jersey, chiefly in the City of New Brunswick and Piscataway Township. It is composed of five smaller campuses, and a few buildings in downtown New Brunswick. The original and historic College Avenue Campus is adjacent to downtown New Brunswick, and includes the seat of the University, Old Queens and other nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century buildings that constitute the Queens Campus and Voorhees Mall. On the other side of the city, Douglass Campus and Cook Campus are adjacent and intertwined with each other, and are often referred to collectively as the Cook/Douglass Campus. Cook Campus has extensive farms and woods that reach into North Brunswick and East Brunswick Townships. Separated by the Raritan river are Busch Campus, in Piscataway, and Livingston Campus, also mainly in Piscataway but including remote sections of land extending into Edison Township and the Borough of Highland Park. The Rutgers Campus Buses transports students between the various campuses.[48]

As of the Fall 2010, the New Brunswick-Piscataway campuses include 19 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Communication and Information, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, the School of Engineering, the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, the Graduate School of Education, the School of Management and Labor Relations, Mason Gross School of the Arts, the College of Nursing, the Rutgers Business School and the School of Social Work. As of 2012, 31,593 undergraduates and 8,841 graduate students (total 40,434) are enrolled at the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus.[3] The New Brunswick- Piscataway campus will include a Business School that is currently being built on the Livingston Campus in order to accommodate the rising interest of students wanting to receive a business degree.

Rutgers–Newark[edit]

Rutgers-Newark aerial view at dusk.
Main article: Rutgers–Newark

The Newark Campus (or Rutgers–Newark), consists of 8 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Newark College of Arts and Sciences, University College, School of Criminal Justice, Graduate School, College of Nursing, School of Public Affairs and Administration, Rutgers Business School and Rutgers School of Law - Newark. As of 2012, 7,666 undergraduates and 4,345 graduate students (total 12,011 are enrolled at the Newark campus.[3]

Rutgers–Camden[edit]

Rutgers-Camden School of Law entrance.
Main article: Rutgers–Camden

The Camden Campus (or Rutgers–Camden) consists of five undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Camden College of Arts and Sciences, University College, Graduate School, Rutgers School of Business – Camden and Rutgers School of Law - Camden. As of 2012, 4,708 undergraduates and 1,635 graduate students (total 6,343) are enrolled at the Camden campus.[3]

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences[edit]

The Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS) is a division of the university that serves as an umbrella organization for schools, centers, and institutes from Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. The organization was incorporated into the university following the 2013 merger of Rutgers and the UMDNJ.[49] While its various facilities are spread across several locations statewide, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences is considered a "campus" for certain organizational purposes, such as the appointment of a separate Chancellor.[50][51][52][53]

RHBS comprises nine schools and other research centers and institutes including; Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, New Jersey Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, College of Nursing, School of Nursing, School of Dental Medicine, School of Health Related Professions, the School of Public Health, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Environmental and the Occupational Health Sciences Institute The programs are offered at different location sites across New Jersey in New Brunswick, Newark, Camden, Stratford, and Scotch Plains.

Off-campus[edit]

Rutgers offers classes at several off-campus sites in affiliation with community colleges and other state colleges throughout New Jersey.[54] These partnerships are designed to enable students to achieve a seamless transfer to Rutgers, and to take all of their Rutgers classes in a select number of the most popular majors at the community college campus. The collaborative effort provides access to Rutgers faculty teaching Rutgers courses, at a convenient location, but it is also one of the few programs that cater exclusively to the non-traditional student population. Rutgers' current partners include Atlantic Cape, Brookdale, Mercer, Morris, and Raritan Valley community colleges.[55]

Academics[edit]

New Jersey Hall on the New Brunswick College Avenue Campus was the home of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Biology and Chemistry faculty. It now houses the university's Department of Economics.

Profile[edit]

Established in 1766, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey is one of the nine colonial chartered colleges established before the American Revolution. In 1864, the New Jersey Legislature selected Rutgers as New Jersey's sole land-grant college which expanded the school's offerings in the fields of practical agriculture, science, military science and engineering. The state legislature designated Rutgers to be New Jersey's state university by acts passed in 1945 and 1956. It is the only university in the United States able to boast all three designations.[56] The university offers more than 100 distinct bachelor, 100 master, and 80 doctoral and professional degree programs across 175 academic departments, 29 degree-granting schools and colleges, 16 of which offer graduate programs of study.

Rutgers is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (1921), and in 1989, became a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of the 62 leading research universities in North America.[57] Rutgers–New Brunswick is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as "RU/VH", which stands for Research Intensive University, Very High research activity.[58] Rutgers–Newark is classified by the same organization as "RU/H", meaning Research Intensive University, High research activity and Rutgers–Camden is given the classification of "Master's M", signifying the university's inclusion in the Master's Colleges and Universities category as a medium-sized institution.[59]

Libraries[edit]

The Archibald S. Alexander Library is the main library at Rutgers University.
An art library on the College Avenue campus.

The Rutgers University library system consists of 26 libraries and centers located on the University's four campuses, housing a collection of over 10.5 million holdings, including 3,656,283 volumes, 4,600,902 microforms, 2,535,892 documents, and subscriptions to 91,078 periodicals and other electronic resources, and ranking among the nation's top research libraries.[60] The American Library Association ranks the Rutgers University Library system as the 44th largest library in the United States in terms of volumes held.[61]

The Archibald S. Alexander Library, in New Brunswick, is the oldest and the largest library of the University.[62] It houses several million volumes focusing on an extensive humanities and social science collection.[citation needed] It mainly supports the sort of research done in the School of Arts and Sciences, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy, the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Work, and the School of Communication and Information. Alexander Library also maintains a large collection of government documents, which contains United States, New Jersey, foreign, and international government publications.[62] The Library of Science and Medicine on the Busch Campus in Piscataway houses the University's collection in behavioral, biological, earth, and pharmaceutical sciences and engineering. The LSM also serves as a designated depository library for government publication regarding science, and owns a U.S. patent collection and patent search facility.[63] It was officially established as the Library of Science and Medicine in July 1964 although the beginning of the development of a library for science started in 1962. The current character of the LSM is a university science library also serving a medical school.[64] On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, in addition to Alexander Library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including alcohol studies, art history, Chemistry, Mathematical studies, Music, and Physics. Special Collections and University Archives houses the Sinclair New Jersey Collection, manuscript collection, and rare book collection, as well as the University Archives. Although located in the Alexander Library building, Special Collections and University Archives actually comprises a distinct unit unto itself. Also located within the Alexander Library is the East Asian Library which holds a sizable collection of Chinese, Japanese and Korean monographs and periodicals. In Newark, the John Cotton Dana Library, the Institute of Jazz Studies (located within the Dana Library), and the Paul Robeson Library in Camden, serve their respective campuses with a broad collection of volumes. Individual items and collections within the Libraries can be identified using the Rutgers University Library Catalog.

Museums and collections[edit]

The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum on Hamilton Street in New Brunswick

Rutgers oversees several museums and collections that are open to the public.

Rutgers' facilities across the four campuses include a golf course, botanical gardens, working agricultural, horse, dairy, and sustainable farms, a creamery, an ecological preserve with multiple use trails, television and radio studios, theaters, museums, athletic facilities, helipads, a makerspace, and more.

Admissions and financial aid[edit]

U.S. News & World Report considers the New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University to be a "more selective" school in terms of the rigor of its admissions processes.[69] For 2006, 56% of undergraduate applicants were accepted, and average SAT scores of enrolling students ranged from 530–630 on the critical reading section, 560–670 for the mathematics section, and 530-640 for the writing section.[70]

As a state university, Rutgers charges two separate rates for tuition and fees depending on whether an enrolled student is a resident of the State of New Jersey (in-state) or not (out-of-state). The Office of Institutional Research and Academic Planning estimates that costs in-state student of attending Rutgers would amount to $25,566 for an undergraduate living on-campus and $30,069 for a graduate student. For an out-of-state student, the costs rise to $38,228 and $39,069 respectively.[3] As of the 2012-2013 academic school year, the cost of attendance for in-state students is $13,073, $26,393 for out-of-state students and $11,412 for Room and Board.[71]

In the 2010-2011 academic year, undergraduate students at Rutgers, through a combination of federal (53.5%), state (23.6%), university (18.1%), and private (4.8%) scholarship, loans, and grants, received $492,260,845 of financial aid. 81.4% of all undergraduates, or 34,473 students, received some form of financial aid. During the same period, graduate students, through a combination of federal (61.9%), state (1.8%), university (34.5%), and private (1.9%) scholarship, loans, and grants received $182,384,256 of financial aid. 81.5% of all graduate students, or 11,852 students received some form of financial aid.[3]

Rankings[edit]

University rankings
National
ARWU[72] 38
Forbes[73] 125
U.S. News & World Report[74] 68
Washington Monthly[75] 85
Global
ARWU[76] 54
QS[77] 260
Times[78] 99

Rutgers was ranked 33rd in the world and 24th in the United States for 2014 according to the Center for World University Rankings.[79]

The university was ranked 38th nationwide and 54th worldwide in the 2008 Academic Ranking of World Universities by the Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.[80] According to the Washington Monthly's 2006 rankings, Rutgers ranks 53rd in the United States.[81] The Top American Research Universities an annual statistical report by The Center at the University of Florida ranks Rutgers 39th.[82] In the 2009 U.S. News & World Report ranking of American national universities, Rutgers is ranked 64th.[83]

In 2003, the Wall Street Journal conducted a study of the undergraduate institutions that most frequently feed students placements at elite professional and graduate programs, such as Yale and Harvard; Rutgers was ranked 20th in the rankings they compiled for state universities.[84] On a side note, Forbes ranked Rutgers as being the 20th best public university in the United States for "getting rich", as judged by its students' median salaries upon graduation.[85]

Eleven of Rutgers' graduate departments are ranked by the National Research Council in the top 25 among all universities: Philosophy (2nd), Geology Ranked 9th Nationally based on NSF funding 9th, Geography (13th), Statistics (17th), English (17th), Mathematics (19th), Art History (20th), Physics (20th), History (20th) Comparative Literature (22nd), French (22nd), and Materials Science Engineering (25th).[86][87][88][89][90]

The Rutgers Business School is ranked 39th in the Wall Street Journal's Ranking of Top Business Schools.[91] The traditional full-time Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) program is ranked 61st in United States according to Businessweek, with speciality at Pharma,Biotech and Healthcare industries.[92] The Master of Quantitative Finance (M.Q.F.) program at Rutgers Business School and Master of Mathematical Finance (M.S.M.F) program at the department of Mathematics, is ranked 7th in the United States, behind Princeton University and ahead of Stanford University.[93]

The Philosophy Department ranked first in 2002–04 tied with New York University and Princeton University, and second in 2004–06 (NYU was first, Princeton 3rd, Oxford 4th) in the Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world.[94][95]

The Rutgers Quad Clock on College Avenue.

The Division of Global Affairs (DGA)[2] Ph.D. program at Rutgers University-Newark was ranked fifth in the nation in the Benchmarking Academic Excellence survey of Top Universities in Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines in the combined category of International Affairs and Development for 2006-07.[96]

According to U.S. News & World Report, Rutgers ranks in the top 25 among all US universities for the following subjects: Food Science (2nd), Library Science (6th), Drama/Theater (12th), Mathematics (16th), English (18th), History (19th, with the subspecialty of African-American History ranked 4th and Women's History ranked 1st), Applied Mathematics (21st) and Physics (24th).[42] Also in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report ranking of Computer Science Ph.D. programs, Rutgers was ranked 29th.[97]

On September 13, 2010, the Wall Street Journal ranked Rutgers University #21 in schools whose graduates are top-rated by recruiters.[98]

On June 28, 2012 the New Jersey state legislature passed the New Jersey Medical and Health Sciences Education Restructuring Act that will dissolve the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and merge most of its schools, including Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey Medical School and New Jersey Dental School, with Rutgers University forming a new Rutgers School of Biomedical and Health Sciences by July 1, 2013. Members of the Rutgers Board of Governors estimated that the takeover of UMDNJ could "elevate Rutgers’ status to among the top 25 most elite research universities in America."[99]

Research[edit]

Prof. Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915), who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for developing 22 antibiotics—most notably Streptomycin—in his laboratory at Rutgers University.

Rutgers is home to the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science, also known as RUCCS. Researchers in psychology, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, electrical engineering, and anthropology combine resources to advance the study of the mind at this state of the art institution.

It was at Rutgers that Selman Waksman (1888–1973) discovered several antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, candidin, and others. Waksman, along with graduate student Albert Schatz (1920–2005), discovered streptomycin—a versatile antibiotic that was to be the first applied to cure tuberculosis. For this discovery, Waksman received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952.

Rutgers developed water-soluble sustained release polymers, tetraploids, robotic hands, artificial bovine insemination, and the ceramic tiles for the heat shield on the Space Shuttle. In health related field, Rutgers has the Environmental & Occupational Health Science Institute (EOHSI).

Rutgers is also home to the RCSB Protein Data bank,[100] 'an information portal to Biological Macromolecular Structures' cohosted with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. This database is the authoritative research tool for bioinformaticists using protein primary, secondary and tertiary structures world wide.'

The Rutgers Tomato growing at a New Jersey greenhouse.

Rutgers is home to the Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension office, which is run by the Agricultural and Experiment Station with the support of local government. The institution provides research & education to the local farming and agro industrial community in 19 of the 21 counties of the state and educational outreach programs offered through the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Office of Continuing Professional Education.

Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR) is the largest university based repository in the world and has received awards worth more than $57.8 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). One will fund genetic studies of mental disorders and the other will support investigations into the causes of digestive, liver and kidney diseases, and diabetes.[101] RUCDR activities will enable gene discovery leading to diagnoses, treatments and, eventually, cures for these diseases. RUCDR assists researchers throughout the world by providing the highest quality biomaterials, technical consultation, and logistical support.

Rutgers–Camden is home to the nation's PhD granting Department of Childhood Studies. This department, in conjunction with the Center for Children and Childhood Studies, also on the Camden campus, conducts interdisciplinary research which combines methodologies and research practices of sociology, psychology, literature, anthropology and other disciplines into the study of childhoods internationally.

Rutgers is home to several National Science Foundation IGERT fellowships that support interdisciplinary scientific research at the graduate-level. Highly selective fellowships are available in the following areas: Perceptual Science, Stem Cell Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology for Clean Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Fuels Solutions, and Nanopharmaceutical Engineering.

Rutgers also maintains the Office of Research Alliances[102] that focuses on working with companies to increase engagement with the university's faculty members, staff and extensive resources on the four campuses.

Student life[edit]

Residential life[edit]

The Voorhees Chapel is a notable landmark on the Douglass campus at Rutgers. Douglass was originally founded as an all-women's college in 1918, but now houses co-ed dormitories.

Rutgers University offers a variety of housing options. On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, students are given the option of on-campus housing in both traditional dorms or apartments. Freshman students, however, are allowed only a dorm, while upperclassmen have a wider array of on-campus housing choices, like apartments. Despite some overcrowding, most students seeking on-campus housing will be accommodated with a space, yet in 2008/2009 students were placed in a nearby hotel. Currently Rutgers University is undergoing a series of constructions to expand residence life. Many Rutgers students opt to rent apartments or houses off-campus within the city of New Brunswick. Similar setups are to be found in Rutgers–Newark and Rutgers–Camden, however a substantial portion of the students on those campuses commute and/or are enrolled on a part-time basis.

Demarest Hall dormitory

Rutgers University's four campuses are in the culturally-diverse, redeveloping urban areas (Newark, Camden, and New Brunswick) with convenient access to New York City and Philadelphia by either automobile, Amtrak or New Jersey Transit. US News & World Report ranked Rutgers–Newark the most diverse university campus in the United States.[103] Because the area of Rutgers' New Brunswick-Piscataway campus—which is composed of several constituent colleges and professional schools—is sprawled across six municipalities, the individual campuses are connected by an inter-campus bus system. The Rutgers bus system is the second largest bus service in New Jersey, and one of the largest in the country.[104]

Security and emergency services[edit]

Services provided by the university include Rutgers Police, Emergency Medical Services, an emergency management office, bus and shuttle service, inter- and intra-campus mail, and occupational and environmental health and safety.

Student organizations and activities[edit]

Shrubbery at the College Avenue campus.

Rutgers University has a student government which controls funding to student groups. The student government is made up of campus councils and professional school councils. Those councils then send representatives to the student assembly as well as the university senate. An example of these campus councils is the University College Council, which represents adult, part-time, and military veteran students.

Rutgers hosts over 700 student organizations, covering a wide range of interests. Among the first student groups was the first college newspaper in the United States of America. The Political Intelligencer and New Jersey Adviser began publication at Queen's College in 1783, and ceased operation in 1785.[19] Continuing this tradition is the university's current college newspaper, The Daily Targum, established in 1869, which is the second-oldest college newspaper currently published in the United States, after The Dartmouth (1843). Both poet Joyce Kilmer and economist Milton Friedman served as editors. Also included are The Medium, Rutgers Entertainment Weekly, Rutgers Centurion, a conservative newspaper, the Rutgers University Glee Club, a male choral singing group established in 1872 (among the oldest in the country), as well as the Rutgers University Debate Union. More recently there has been increased national exposure among Rutgers a cappella groups as they have routinely placed well in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella, including 2010 when The OrphanSporks placed second in the semifinals.[105] Governed by the Rutgers University Student Assembly and funded by student fees, students can organize groups for practically any political ideology or issue, ethnic or religious affiliation, academic subject, activity, or hobby.

Rutgers University is home to chapters of many Greek organizations, and a significant percentage of the undergraduate student body is active in Greek life. Several fraternities and sororities maintain houses for their chapters in the area of Union Street (known familiarly as "Frat Row") in New Brunswick, within blocks of Rutgers' College Avenue Campus. Chapters of Zeta Psi and Delta Phi organized at Rutgers as early as 1845. The Alpha Rho chapter of Chi Psi Fraternity, founded at Rutgers College in 1879, was the first fraternity at Rutgers to own a fraternity house, or "Lodge", purchased in 1887. The fraternity today still owns and occupies the same property at 114 College Avenue. Today, there are over 50 fraternities and sororities on the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, ranging from traditional to historically African-American, Hispanic, Multicultural, and Asian interest organizations.[106] The New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University has a chapter of the only active co-ed Pre-medical Fraternity, Phi Delta Epsilon, as of 2008.[107] Greek organizations are governed by the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs. Twelve organizations maintain chapters in New Brunswick without sanction by the University's administration.[108]

Several of the campuses are relatively new; the Busch campus (shown) was built within the last few decades and the Livingston campus is being expanded with new dormitories and facilities.

In the late 19th century, the University banned fraternities because of their unusual hazing practices. This caused them to go underground as secret societies. It also sparked the interest of some students to create their own societies. Cap and Skull was founded at Rutgers before the turn of the 20th century.

Today, Rutgers is well known for four of its vocal ensembles: Voorhees Choir (the university's women's ensemble), Kirkpatrick Choir (the university's most selective coed ensemble), Glee Club (the university's most esteemed male ensemble), and University Choir (a larger mixed choir).

In 2011, The Iota Psi chapter of Sigma Chi raised a national Greek record of $167,000 for the Children’s Miracle Network with the help of seven sororities: Alpha Chi Omega, Delta Gamma, Gamma Phi Beta, Phi Sigma Sigma, Sigma Delta Tau, Sigma Kappa, and Zeta Tau Alpha.[109]

Athletics[edit]

(Note: The Rutgers–Camden athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raptors. The Rutgers–Newark athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raiders. The Scarlet Raiders and the Scarlet Raptors both compete within NCAA Division III.)

Rutgers was among the first American institutions to engage in intercollegiate athletics, and participated in a small circle of schools that included Yale University, Columbia University and long-time rival, Princeton University (then called The College of New Jersey). The four schools met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in Manhattan on October 19, 1873 to establish a set of rules governing their intercollegiate competition, and particularly to codify the new game of football. Though invited, Harvard chose not to attend.[110] In the early years of intercollegiate athletics, the circle of schools that participated in these athletic events were located solely in the American Northeast. However, by the turn of the 20th century, colleges and universities across the United States began to participate.

The Rutgers Men's Varsity Eight rowing on the Raritain River.

In 1864, rowing became the first organized sport at Rutgers. Six mile races were held on the Raritan River among six-oared boats. In 1870, Rutgers held its first intercollegiate competition, against the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, the then top-ranked amateur crew of the time. Since the start in 1864, Rutgers has built a strong crew program consisting of heavyweight and lightweight men. Women's crew was added to the program in 1974. Financial support of the Men's crew program was discontinued by the university in 2006, though the Crew continues to compete (funded entirely by Alumni and private support) at a high level in the prestigious Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges conference. The first intercollegiate athletic event at Rutgers was a baseball game on May 2, 1866 against Princeton in which they suffered a 40-2 loss.[19]

Rutgers University is often referred to as The Birthplace of College Football as the first intercollegiate football game was held on College Field between Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1869 in New Brunswick, New Jersey on a plot of ground where the present-day College Avenue Gymnasium now stands. Rutgers won the game, with a score of 6 runs to Princeton's 4.[19][111][112] According to Parke H. Davis, the 1869 Rutgers football team shared the national title with Princeton.[113] (This game is believed to have been closer to soccer than to modern American football.)[114]

The Rutgers College football team in 1882

Since 1866, Rutgers remained unaffiliated with any formal athletic conference and was classified as "independent". From 1946 to 1951, the university was a member of the Middle Three Conference, and from 1958 to 1961, was a member of the Middle Atlantic Conference.[115] In 1978, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights became a member of the Atlantic 10 conference. In 1991, it joined the Big East Conference for football. All sports programs at Rutgers main campus subsequently became affiliated with the Big East in 1995.[116]

The first intercollegiate competition in Ultimate Frisbee (now called simply "Ultimate") was held between students from Rutgers main campus and Princeton on November 6, 1972 to mark the one hundred third anniversary of the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers won 29–27.[117] The Rutgers Scarlet Knights men's Basketball Team was among the "Final Four" and ended the 1976 season ranked fourth in the United States, after an 86–70 loss against the University of Michigan in the semifinals, and a 106–92 loss against UCLA in the consolation round of the 1976 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.[118]

High Point Solutions Stadium is home to Scarlet Knights football.

The Rutgers Scarlet Knights are members of the Big Ten Conference, a collegiate athletic conference consisting of 14 colleges and universities from the Midwestern and East Coast regions of the United States. The Big Ten Conference is a member of the Bowl Championship Series. Rutgers main campus currently fields 27 intercollegiate sports programs and is a Division I school as sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Rutgers fields thirty teams in NCAA Division I sanctioned sports, including Football, Baseball, Basketball, Crew, Cross Country, Fencing, Field Hockey, Golf, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball, Tennis, Track and Field, Swimming and Diving, Wrestling, Volleyball.[119]

The Scarlet Knights have won five Big East Conference tournament titles: men's soccer (1997), men's track & field (2005), baseball (2000, 2007), women's basketball (2007). Several other teams have won regular season titles but failed to win the conference's championship tournament.[120]

Most recently, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights' football team has achieved success on the gridiron after several years of losing seasons, being invited to the Insight Bowl on December 27, 2005 in which they lost 45 to 40 against Arizona State University.[121] This was Rutgers' first bowl appearance since the December 16, 1978 loss against Arizona State, 34–18, at the Garden State Bowl. The 2006 football season also saw Rutgers being ranked within the Top 25 teams in major college football polls. After the November 9, 2006 victory over the #3 ranked, undefeated Louisville Cardinals, Rutgers jumped up to seventh in the AP Poll, eighth in the USA Today/Coaches poll, seventh in the Harris Interactive Poll, and sixth in the Bowl Championship Series rankings. These were Rutgers' highest rankings in the football polls since they were ranked fifteenth in 1961. Rutgers ended the season 11–2 after winning the inaugural Texas Bowl on December 28, 2006, defeating the Wildcats of Kansas State University by a score of 37–10 and finishing the season ranked twelfth in the final Associated Press poll of sportswriters, the team's highest season-ending ranking.[122]

Under Head Coach C. Vivian Stringer, the Women's Basketball program is among the elite programs in the country as they remain consistently ranked in the Top 25, consistently making the NCAA Women's Championship Tournament, and sometimes winning the Big East regular season championship. In 2006-2007, the Scarlet Knights won their first ever Big East Conference Tournament Championship. The program has been highly competitive since its inception, winning the 1982 AIAW National Championship, reaching the 2000 Final Four, and reaching the Final Four and national championship game in 2007.

The Scarlet Knights maintain athletic rivalries with other collegiate institutions. The university has historic rivalries with Princeton University, Columbia University (formerly King's College), Lafayette College, Lehigh University and New York University originating from the early days of college football. While they maintain this rivalry in other sports, neither of them have met in football since 1980. Rutgers has a basketball rivalry with Seton Hall University,[123] and has developed a growing three-way rivalry with the University of Connecticut and Syracuse University, both fellow Big East Conference members.

In the fall of 2007, six Rutgers New Brunswick/Piscataway's NCAA Division I sports were discontinued by the University, including men's swimming and diving, men's heavyweight and lightweight crew, men's tennis, and men's and women's fencing. Some continued as club teams, while some were disbanded completely. The University claims this change was due to budget cuts, while others claim it was a politically motivated move designed to protest state's funding changes.

In November 2012, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights, along with Louisville, Connecticut, and Cincinnati left the Big East to form the American Athletic Conference. Syracuse and Pittsburgh have decided to enter the Atlantic Coast Conference, while West Virginia entered the Big 12 conference, taking effect as of the 2012-2013 season. Rutgers decided to leave the American for the Big Ten Conference, effective July 1, 2014. Rutgers will surpass Penn State as the Big Ten's easternmost school.

Notable people[edit]

Alumni[edit]

Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman received a bachelor's degree in 1932.

At Queen's College's first commencement in 1774, one graduate, Matthew Leydt, received his baccalaureate degree in a brief ceremony.[124]:p.66 In May 2013, over 14,000 students received degrees. In Rutgers' 247 years, over 450,000 alumni from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 foreign countries have attended and received degrees from the university.[125] Approximately two-thirds of the university's alumni live in New Jersey,[4] and many alumni remain active in the university community through alumni associations including the Rutgers Alumni Association (founded in 1831), annual reunions, homecomings, and other events.

Rutgers alumni have been influential in academia arts, letters, entertainment, business, and public service. In the 1950s and 1960s, loveable cartoon character Quincy Magoo was said to be a member of the class of 1903 and among the proudest of Rutgers' "Loyal Sons."[126] Among the first students enrolled at Rutgers (when it was Queen's College), Simeon DeWitt (A.B. 1776) became the Surveyor-General for the Continental Army (1776–1783) during the American Revolution[124]:p.67 and classmate James Schureman (A.B. 1775), served in the Continental Congress and as a United States Senator.[124]:p.66 Two alumni have been awarded Nobel prizes—Milton Friedman (A.B. 1932) in economics, and Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915, M.Sc.1916) in Medicine.[124]:p.300,422 Poet Robert Pinsky (B.A. 1962) was appointed the nation's poet laureate and novelist Junot Díaz (B.A. 1992) awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2008.

Seven alumni have served as New Jersey governor;[b] two as president of Rutgers;[c] Garret A. Hobart (A.B. 1863) as Vice President of the United States;[124]:p.137 Louis Freeh (B.A. 1971) as director of the FBI; Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (A.B. 1836) a U.S. Senator, as U.S. Secretary of State.[124]:p.88 Alumnus Joseph P. Bradley (A.B. 1836) served for two decades as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States[124]:p.87 and cast the tie-breaking vote on the bipartisan commission that decided the contested American presidential election in 1876.

Several Rutgers alumni have become recognized for achievements in their field. In business, alumni include: Bernard Marcus (B.S. 1951), founder of hardware retail store Home Depot; Ernest Mario (B.S. 1961), former chief executive officer of pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline; and Duncan MacMillan (B.S. 1966), co-founder of financial data and media company Bloomberg L.P.. In science and technology, alumni include: Peter C. Schultz (B.S. 1967), co-inventor of fiber optics; geneticist Stanley N. Cohen (B.Sc. 1956) who pioneered in the field of gene splicing; Louis Gluck (B.S. 1930) the "father of neonatology"; and computer pioneer Nathan M. Newmark (B.S. 1948). Other alumni prominent in entertainment and sports include Avery Brooks (B.A. 1973), James Gandolfini (B.A. 1983), Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson (B.A. 1927), restaurateur and television personality Mario Batali (B.A. 1982); Major League Baseball manager Jeff Torborg (B.A. 1963); former New York Jets owner Sonny Werblin (A.B. 1932); and David Stern (B.A. 1963), former commissioner of the National Basketball Association.

Faculty[edit]

Jerry Alan Fodor, a philosopher and cognitive scientist, received a Guggenheim Fellowship and the Jean Nicod Prize among many other honors.

65,000 undergraduate and graduate students currently study at Rutgers, instructed by more than 9,000 full-time and part-time faculty and supported by more than 15,000 full-time and part-time staff members.[4] Former Law professor Ruth Bader Ginsburg currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During his 20-year tenure at Rutgers, David Levering Lewis, a former history professor, was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography (1994 and 2001) for both volumes of his biography of W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963) and was also the winner of the Bancroft and Parkman prizes.Michael R. Douglas, a prominent string theorist and the director of the New High Energy Theory Center and winner of the Sackler Prize in theoretical physics in 2000. Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn and Stephen Stich were awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in philosophy and cognitive science.

Many other members of the faculty have received the highest awards in their fields, including Guggenheim and MacArthur “Genius Award” fellowships, Pulitzer Prize winners, National Medal of Science and National Medal of Technology recipients, a National Endowment for the Arts “Jazz Master,” amongst others.[4] As of 2013, 37 science, engineering and medical faculty are members of the four "National Academies"—the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.[4][127]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Of the nine colonial colleges, seven (Harvard, Yale, Pennsylvania, Princeton, Columbia, Brown and Dartmouth) remained private. Of the two remaining: The College of William and Mary was taken over by the Commonwealth of Virginia and reincorporated as a public institution in 1888, and Rutgers transitioned into the State University of New Jersey after laws passed in 1945 and 1956.[10]
  2. ^ These seven include Charles C. Stratton (A.B. 1814), William A. Newell (A.B. 1836; A.M. 1839), George C. Ludlow (A.B. 1850, A.M. 1850), Foster M. Voorhees (A.B. 1876, A.M. 1879), A. Harry Moore (J.D. 1922), Richard Hughes (J.D. 1931), and James J. Florio (J.D. 1967).[124]:pp.73,110,164,169
  3. ^ These two are William Henry Steele Demarest (A.B. 1883),[124] who served as president 1906–24;:pp.32,189 and Philip Milledoler Brett (A.B. 1892),[124]:p.210 who served as acting president 1930–31. See List of Rutgers University presidents.

Citations[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

  • H.M. Berman, J. Westbrook, Z. Feng, G. Gilliland, T.N. Bhat, H. Weissig, I.N. Shindyalov, P.E. Bourne: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Research, 28 pp. 235–242 (2000).
  • Demarest, William Henry Steele. History of Rutgers College: 1776–1924. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers College, 1924). (No ISBN)
  • History of Rutgers College: or an account of the union of Rutgers College, and the Theological Seminary of the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church. Prepared and published at the request of several trustees of the College, by a trustee. (New York: Anderson & Smith, 1833). (No ISBN)
  • Lukac, George J. (ed.), Aloud to Alma Mater. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1966), 70–73. (No ISBN)
  • McCormick, Richard P. Rutgers: a Bicentennial History. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1966). ISBN 0-8135-0521-6
  • Schmidt, George P. Princeton and Rutgers: The Two Colonial Colleges of New Jersey. (Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand, 1964). (No ISBN)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°30′6″N 74°26′53″W / 40.50167°N 74.44806°W / 40.50167; -74.44806