Rutland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 52°39′N 0°38′W / 52.650°N 0.633°W / 52.650; -0.633

Rutland
Flag of Rutland.svg
Flag of Rutland
Motto of county council: "Multum in parvo" (“Much in little")
Rutland within England
Geography
Status Unitary district
Ceremonial county
Origin Historic
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 45th
382 km2 (147 sq mi)
Ranked 105th
Admin HQ Oakham
ISO 3166-2 GB-RUT
ONS code 00FP
NUTS 3 UKF22
Demography
Population
- Total (2011 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 47th
37,600
99 /km2 (260 /sq mi)
Ranked 323rd
Ethnicity 98.1% White
Politics

Rutland County Council
http://www.rutland.gov.uk
Executive  
Members of Parliament

Alan Duncan (C)

Districts

N/A

Oakham Castle
Rutland Water

Rutland /ˈrʌtlənd/ is a landlocked county in central England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire and southeast by Northamptonshire.

Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29 km) and its greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles (27 km). It has the smallest population of any normal unitary authority in mainland England and only the City of London is smaller in terms of area. It is 348th of the 354 districts in population. It is the smallest historic county in England and the fourth smallest in the U.K. as a whole, after West Lothian, Kinross-shire and Clackmannanshire. Because of this, the Latin motto Multum in Parvo or "much in little" was adopted by the county council in 1950.[1] Among modern ceremonial counties the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are all smaller. The former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area.

The only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. At the centre of the county is the large artificial reservoir, Rutland Water, which is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys. The town of Stamford is just over the border in a protruding part of Lincolnshire.

Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.

Etymology

The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of Notes and Queries Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, and that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, and that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland";[2] however, responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was earlier than the Norman Conquest. Its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of King Edward the Confessor; in Domesday it is "the King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella.[3]

The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in Domesday Book; the south-eastern part as the wapentake of Wicelsea in Northamptonshire. It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'. Historically it was also known as Rutlandshire, but in recent times only the shorter name is common.

Rutland may be from Old English hryþr/ hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows. However, A Dictionary of British Place-Names by A D Mills gives an alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) personal name and land land.[4] It is from the alternative interpretation of red land that the traditional nickname for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives.[5]

History

Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is Belvoir Castle.

The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559.

By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, East, Martinsley, Oakham and Wrandike.

Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts: those of Oakham, Uppingham and Stamford. The registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county.

In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, and the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District.

Oakham was split out from Oakham Rural District in 1911 as an urban district.[6]

Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, and the western part added to Leicestershire. The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire.[7]

This action was to prove only temporary, with Rutland being included in the new non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, from 1 April 1974. Under proposals for non-metropolitan districts Rutland would have been paired with what now constitutes the Melton district – the revised and implemented proposals made Rutland a standalone non-metropolitan district (breaking the 40,000 minimum population barrier).

In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, which was conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority. This was implemented on 1 April 1997, with Rutland regaining a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty as well as its council regaining control of county functions such as education and social services.

Royal Mail included Rutland in the Leicestershire postal county in 1974. After a lengthy and well-organised campaign,[8] and despite a code of practice which excludes amendments to former postal counties,[9] the Royal Mail agreed to create a postal county of Rutland in 2007. This was achieved in January 2008 by amending the former postal county for all of the Oakham (LE15) post town and a small part of the Market Harborough (LE16) post town.[10]

The council remained formally a non-metropolitan district council, with wards rather than electoral divisions, but has renamed the district to 'Rutland County Council' to allow it to use that name. This means the full legal name of the council is Rutland County Council District Council.

Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms part of the Oakham School.[11]

Politics

There are 26 councillors representing 16 wards on Rutland County Council (unitary authority).

Rutland formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918, when it became part of the Rutland and Stamford constituency, along with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the Rutland and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of Harborough district from Leicestershire.

Alan Duncan has been the Conservative Member of Parliament for Rutland and Melton since 1992.

Demographics

The population in the 2011 Census was 37,369, a rise of 8% on the 2001 total of 34,563. This is a population density of 98 people per square kilometre. 2.7% of the population are from ethnic minority backgrounds[12] compared to 9.1% nationally.

Year Population
1831 19,380
1861 21,861
1871 22,073
1881 21,434
1891 20,659
1901 19,709
1991 33,228
2001 34,560
2011 37,400[13]

In 2006 it was reported that Rutland has the highest fertility rate of any English county – the average woman having 2.81 children, compared with only 1.67 in Tyne and Wear.[14]

In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of Rutland were the 6th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.[15]

In 2012, the well-being report by the Office for National Statistics[16] found Rutland to be the "happiest county" in the mainland UK.[17]

Geography

The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland Formation which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil shells at the bottom. At the bottom of the Rutland Formation is a bed of dirty white sandy silt. Under the Rutland Formation is a formation called the Lincolnshire limestone. The best exposure of this limestone (and also the Rutland Formation) is at the Ketton Cement Works quarry just outside Ketton.[18]

Rutland is dominated by Rutland Water, a large artificial lake formerly known "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county, which is almost bisected by a large spit of land. The west part is in the Vale of Catmose. Rutland Water, when construction started in 1971, became Europe's largest man-made lake; construction was completed in 1975, and filling the lake took a further four years. This has now been voted Rutland's favourite tourist attraction.

The highest point of the county is at Flitteris: Flitteriss Park (a farm east of Cold Overton Park) at 197 m (646 ft) above sea level. Grid Reference: SK8271708539 The lowest point is a section of secluded farmland near Belmesthorpe, 17 m (56 feet) above sea level. Grid Reference: TF056611122

Rivers

Economy

There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant employers include Lands' End in Oakham and the Ketton Cement Works. Other employers in Rutland include two Ministry of Defence bases – Kendrew Barracks (formerly RAF Cottesmore) and St George's Barracks (previously RAF North Luffenham), two public schools – Oakham and Uppingham – and one prison Stocken. The former Ashwell prison closed at the end of March 2011 after a serious riot and government review but, having been purchased by Rutland County Council, has now been turned into Oakham Enterprise Park. The county used to supply iron ore to Corby steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s and early 1970s resulting in the famous walk of "Sundew" (the Exton quarries' large walking dragline) from Exton to Corby, which even featured on the children's TV series Blue Peter. Agriculture thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to grow. The Ruddles Brewery was Langham's biggest industry until it was closed in 1997. Rutland bitter is one of only three UK beers to have achieved Protected Geographical Indication status; this followed an application by Ruddles. Greene King, the owners of Ruddles, closed the Langham brewery and were unable to take advantage of the registration.[19] However in 2010 a Rutland Bitter was launched by Oakham's Grainstore Brewery.[20]

It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England, showing it to be one of the least economically deprived areas in the country.[12]

In March 2007, Rutland became only the fourth Fairtrade County.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire and Rutland at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.[21]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[3] Agriculture[4] Industry[5] Services[6]
1995 6,666 145 2,763 3,758
2000 7,813 112 2,861 4,840
2003 9,509 142 3,045 6,321

^ includes hunting and forestry

^ includes energy and construction

^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

Transport

A small part of the East Coast Main Line passes through Rutland's north-east corner, near Essendine. It was on this stretch that LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard achieved the world speed record for steam locomotives on 3 July 1938, with a speed of 125.55 mph (202.05 km/h).

Rutland was the last county in England without a direct rail service to London (apart from the Isle of Wight and several administrative counties which are unitary authorities). East Midlands Trains started running a single service from Oakham railway station to London St Pancras via Corby on 27 April 2009.[22]

The Rutland Electric Car Project, run by regional partnership Uppingham First, is installing four charging points in the county in 2012, with Larkfleet Homes installing one at its showhome in Oakham, and three more located at the Falcon Hotel in Uppingham, Greetham Valley Hotel and Golf Club and Barnsdale Lodge Hotel. Rutland is the first county to offer region-wide coverage[23]

In popular culture

Traditions

Rutland has many varied traditions.

  • Letting of the Banks (Whissendine): Banks are pasture land, this traditionally occurs on the third week of March
  • Rush Bearing & Rush Strewing (Barrowden): Reeds are gathered in the church meadow on the eve of St Peter's Day and placed on the church floor (late June, early July)
  • Uppingham Market was granted by Charter in 1281 by Edward I.
  • According to tradition, any royalty or peers passing through Oakham must present a horseshoe to the Lord of the Manor of Oakham. The horseshoe has been Rutland's emblem for hundreds of years.

Education

Catmose College, Oakham, main building

Rutland County College provides post-16 education in the county. The college is operated by Casterton Business and Enterprise College.

Places of interest

See also

References

  1. ^ Scott-Giles, C Wilfrid (1953). Civic Heraldry of England and Wales, 2nd edition. London: J M Dent & Sons. p. 318. 
  2. ^ Tabor, Harriot (February 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 170. 
  3. ^ W.B.H. (April 1909). "Rutland: Origin of the Name". Notes and Queries: 294. 
  4. ^ A D Mills (2003). "Rutland". A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  5. ^ Joad, C.E.M., ed. (1948). The English Counties Illustrated. Odhams Press. p. 307. 
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ Little Rutland To Go It Alone – No Merger with Leicestershire. The Times, 2 August 1963.
  8. ^ Stamford Mercury, MP wins seven-year postal address battle, 5 November 2007.
  9. ^ Royal Mail, Postcode Address File Code of Practice, (2004)
  10. ^ AFD Software – Latest PAF Data News
  11. ^ Workhouses website
  12. ^ a b "Geographical Statistical Information". Government Office for the East Midlands. Retrieved 3 October 2006. 
  13. ^ Rutland County Council: Census and Population Information
  14. ^ [2][dead link]
  15. ^ Sports England
  16. ^ First ONS Annual Experimental Subjective Well-being Results
  17. ^ BBC News: ONS well-being report reveals UK's happiness ratings
  18. ^ "The Geology of the Peterborough Area". Peterborough RIGS. Retrieved 3 October 2006. [dead link]
  19. ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 1107/96 of 12 June 1996 on the registration of geographical indications and designations of origin under the procedure laid down in Article 17 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2081/92". EUR-LEX Access to European Law. European Commission. 12 June 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  20. ^ "Rutland Bitter resurrected" Leicester Mercury 1 Oct 2010
  21. ^ National Accounts Co-ordination Division (21 December 2005). "Regional Gross Value Added". Office for National Statistics. pp. 240–253. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  22. ^ "Corby train delays labelled 'shambolic'". Northants Evening Telegraph. 25 November 2008. 
  23. ^ "Electric car charging points". Retrieved 9 March 2012. 

Bibliography

  • Phillips, George (1912). Cambridge County Geography of Rutland. University Press. ASIN B00085ZZ5M. 
  • Rycroft, Simon; Roscoe, Barbara; Rycroft, Simon (1996). "Landscape and Identity at Ladybower Reservoir and Rutland Water". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (Blackwell Publishing) 21 (3): 534–551. doi:10.2307/622595. JSTOR 622595. 
  • Prince Yuri Galitzine (1986). Domesday book in Rutland: The Dramatis personae. Rutland Record Society. 

External links