|Prime Minister of the Netherlands|
4 November 1982 – 22 August 1994
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Wim Kok|
|United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees|
1 January 2001 – 20 February 2005
|Preceded by||Sadako Ogata|
|Succeeded by||António Guterres|
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal|
6 November 1982 – 29 January 1994
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Elco Brinkman|
|Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives of the Netherlands|
7 September 1989 – 7 November 1989
|Preceded by||Bert de Vries|
|Succeeded by||Elco Brinkman|
22 May 1986 – 14 July 1986
|Preceded by||Bert de Vries|
|Succeeded by||Bert de Vries|
2 September 1981 – 4 November 1982
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Bert de Vries|
7 November 1978 – 27 May 1981
|Preceded by||Wim Aantjes|
|Succeeded by||Dries van Agt|
|Member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands|
14 September 1989 – 7 November 1989
3 June 1986 – 14 July 1986
22 December 1977 – 4 November 1982
8 June 1977 – 8 September 1977
|Minister of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands|
11 May 1973 – 19 December 1977
|Prime Minister||Joop den Uyl|
|Preceded by||Harry Langman|
|Succeeded by||Gijs van Aardenne|
|Born||Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers
7 May 1939
|Political party||Christian Democratic Appeal
|Catholic People's Party
|Spouse(s)||Ria Lubbers-Hoogeweegen (m. 1962)|
|Alma mater||Erasmus University
(Master of Arts)
Rudolphus Franciscus Marie "Ruud" Lubbers (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈryt ˈlʏbərs] ( listen); born 7 May 1939) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 November 1982 until 22 August 1994.
A businessman and economist by occupation, Lubbers was a corporate director with Hollandia Corporate from 1965 until 1973 when he left to become Minister of Economic Affairs from 11 May 1973 until 19 December 1977 in the Cabinet den Uyl. He became a Member of the House of Representatives from 22 December 1977 until 4 November 1982. Originally a member of the Catholic People's Party, since 1980 he has been a member of the CDA. When CDA parliamentary leader Wim Aantjes resigned due to a World War II controversy, Lubbers succeed him and served from 7 November 1978 until 4 November 1982. When CDA party leader and sitting Prime Minister Dries van Agt announced his retirement, Lubbers was chosen to succeed him and became Prime Minister. The longest-tenured Prime Minister in Dutch history, he headed the Cabinets Lubbers I, II and III. Lubbers was regarded by many during his time in office as an ideological heir to Margaret Thatcher. One of his campaign slogans was: "meer markt, minder overheid" (more market, less government).
After his premiership, Lubbers semi-retired from active politics and became a Professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard and Tilburg University from 1995 until 2001. He became the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on 1 January 2001 and served until his resignation on 20 February 2005. Lubbers acted as informateur for two cabinet formations, the Cabinet Balkenende III in 2006 and the Cabinet Rutte in 2010. Lubbers holds the records of being the youngest Prime Minister in Dutch history, as well as the longest-tenured Prime Minister in Dutch history. He is currently a member of the Club de Madrid, an organization of former democratic statesmen that works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership.
Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers was born on 7 May 1939 in Rotterdam in the Netherlands province of South Holland. He studied economics at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and was a student of the first Nobel Prize Laureate in economics Jan Tinbergen. As suggested by the title of his 1962 thesis - "The influence of differing productivity trends in various countries on the current account of the balance of payments" - his main interest was in monetary affairs. He originally planned an academic career, but was compelled by family circumstances to join the management of Lubbers' Construction Workshops and Machinery Fabricators Hollandia B.V.
From 11 May 1973 to 19 December 1977 Ruud Lubbers was Minister of Economic Affairs in the Den Uyl-government and a member of the Catholic People's Party (KVP). He was an effective, if sometimes somewhat bad-tempered minister. He chose to return to Parliament on the formation of the Van Agt-government in 1977, becoming Senior Deputy Parliamentary Leader of the CDA, the alliance between the KVP and the other two main Christian parties. His career got an unexpected boost when the leader of the parliamentary faction of the CDA, Willem Aantjes, had to resign in 1978 because accusations that he had served in the Germanic-SS during the Second World War. Lubbers succeeded him and suddenly found himself in a powerful political position.
In 1982 after the general election won by Prime Minister Dries van Agt, a similar thing happened when Van Agt suddenly announced he would not be available for a third term. Lubbers took over the post. He was the youngest prime minister in Dutch history; he'd only turned 43 six months earlier. Major aspects of his time in office:
- Extensive cutbacks in public spending
- The launch of far-reaching deregulation and privatization programs
- A massive demonstration in The Hague (1983) against the planned installation in the Netherlands of nuclear-armed US cruise missiles (which was cancelled after all due to arms reduction talks between the US and the Soviet Union)
After leaving office, was put forward as a candidate for the head of NATO, but the US vetoed his appointment. Also, he is on the advisory board of OMFIF where he is regularly involved in meetings regarding the financial and monetary system.
In the follow-up of the Earth Summit in 1992, Lubbers engaged with the Earth Charter Initiative in cooperation with Mikhail Gorbachev and Maurice Strong. The Earth Charter document was launched in the Peace Palace in The Hague in June 2000. Lubbers is an active member of the international Earth Charter Commission and reaches out, especially to youth in the Netherland, with the message of the Earth Charter for a sustainable and peaceful world.
From 1995 to 2000, he taught Globalization Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in the United States. He was also vice-chairman of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans and chair of Globus, the Institute for Globalization and Development based in Tilburg.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
At the end of the year 2000, Lubbers was appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, to succeed Mrs. Sadako Ogata as UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Lubbers was appointed 1 January 2001 to head an organization which was concerned with an estimated 21 million refugees and internally displaced in over 120 countries world wide. He led a UN agency that comprised over 5,000 employees who work across the globe. During his tenure, the number of refugees worldwide decreased by almost 22% from 21.8 million in 2001 to close to 17.1 million at the beginning of 2004.
Lubbers also favoured a generous refugee policy for the Netherlands and he was critical of the Foreign Citizens Law (Vreemdelingenwet). Part of his achievement is that since he took on his duties as High Commissioner, the persistent criticism of UNHCR dating from before that time, subsided. He also managed to stabilise UNHCR’s financial situation and to greatly increase the financial means for the sheltering of refugees.
He annually donated some $300,000 to the refugee agency since he assumed his post in 2001, thereby covering his own $167,000 annual salary and travel expenses.
Sexual harassment complaint
In May 2004, Lubbers was accused by Cynthia Brzak, an American UNHCR employee, of sexual harassment following a meeting in his office that was attended by two other UNHCR staff members. The complaint was reported in the media, prompting Lubbers to inform UNHCR staff about the accusation. On this occasion, he denied any wrongdoing and rejected the allegation against him. On 2 June 2004, the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) which was tasked with investigating the accusation, sent its report to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. In its public annual report to the UN secretary general (presented to the UN General Assembly), the OIOS reported concerning the case that it had “submitted a report to the Secretary-General supporting the allegations and recommended that appropriate actions be taken accordingly.”
Lubbers responded to the OIOS report in a letter setting out to (a) deny acts of sexual harassment or abuse took place; (b) establish that such evidence of the alleged misconduct as is said to exist is insufficient and flawed; and (c) conclude that the report itself would appear to be based on an irregular statutory basis and also flawed by errors of law and reasoning."
Lubbers asked Max van der Stoel, former Dutch high commissioner for minorities, to comment on the confidential report. He concluded that: "the OIOS report is deficient in objectivity and impartiality." He added “that the only two other persons in the room did not provide evidence confirming the version given by the complainant.” Furthermore he accused UN officials of leaking information to the press and recommended that an investigation of the leaks be undertaken.
The Secretary-General reviewed the report and the responses of the High Commissioner and the senior manager to the report, and decided that the complaint could not be substantiated by the evidence and therefore closed the matter." He is also reported to have consulted with Stephen Schwebel, an American judge and former President of the International Court of Justice. The Secretary-General failed to order an investigation of the deliberate leaking by OIOS itself to the media as recommended by Max van der Stoel.
In February 2005, the case was in the news again when the British daily the Independent obtained a copy of the OIOS report and accompanied by an article by Kate Holt published its contents. Inter alia, the report stated that:
the allegation against Lubbers is substantiated in that Lubbers did engage in unwanted physical contact with the complainant, a subordinate female staff member. New allegations that came to OIOS’ attention during the investigation, were also examined and indicate a pattern of sexual harassment by Lubbers, OIOS is also of the view that Lubbers abused his authority as High Commissioner by his intense, pervasive and intimidating attempts to influence the outcome of this Investigation.
Lubbers met with the Secretary-General on 18 February 2005, and resigned as High Commissioner on Sunday, 20 February 2005, stating to the press: "For more than four years I gave all my energy to UNHCR. To be frank, despite all my loyalty, insult has now been added to injury and therefore I resign as High Commissioner." The UN secretary general's office issued a statement the same day which stated, that the High Commissioner's resignation was in the best interests of the UNHCR. In his letter of resignation, Lubbers stated that his resignation constituted no expression of guilt, but that he had become the victim of smearing, adding that he had resigned “in the interest of the organisation”. In October 2005 Kofi Annan reiterated that he had come to the conclusion that "the evidence did not support the accusation" but that because of ongoing media-pressure Mr. Lubber's resignation was in the best interests of the UNHCR. In a letter to UNHCR staff, Kofi Annan wrote, “My decision to accept his resignation should not be interpreted as a finding of guilt”.
During a farewell meeting for Lubbers as High Commissioner for Refugees he received from Acting High Commissioner Wendy Chamberlin the first annual UNHCR Achievement Award for exceptional services to UNHCR and for the world’s refugees.
Netherlands Prime Minister Balkenende in a formal statement called the departure of Lubbers “bitter” since the complaint against him had been dismissed as unsustainable.
- After the fall of the Cabinet Balkenende II Lubbers became the Informateur for the formation of the Demissionary interim Cabinet Balkenende III.
- For the 2010 Dutch cabinet formation, after coalition meetings between People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Labour Party, Democrats 66 and GreenLeft failed to form a new Purple government Lubbers was asked again to become Informateur tho seek possibilities for a new coalition.
Honours and awards
|This section requires expansion. (July 2010)|
- Minister of State (Netherlands, January 31, 1995)
- Order of the Netherlands Lion (Netherlands)
- Knight Grand Cross (8 October 1994)
- Knight (11 April 1978)
- Varia foreign honours
- Honorary citizen of Maastricht (Netherlands, March 1994)
- Four Freedoms Award (3 April 1995)
- Van Oldenbarneveltpenning (December 2003 )
- Honorary doctorate for contributions in politics and economics, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Vila Real, Portugal, 1993)
- Honorary doctorate in Law, Georgetown University (Washington, D.C., USA, 1993)
- Honorary doctorate in Political sciences, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Seoul, South-Korea, 1993)
- Honorary doctorate, Grand Valley State University (Michigan, USA, 1994)
- Honorary doctorate, Radboud University (Nijmegen, Netherlands, 6 September 2004)
- New York Times 18 May 2004
- OIOS Investigation report
- Supreme Court Annex 1 p.35
- A/59/359* Report of the Office Internal Oversight Services to the UN General Assembly, p. 31
- Lubbers memo pp 2-4 Lubbers Memo pp 5-8Lubbers Memo p 9
- Daily Press Briefing by the Office of the Spokesman for the Secretary-General 2005-02-22
- van der Stoel memo p 1 (after Lubbers p. 9)van der Stoel memo pp 2-4
- New York Times 2004-07-16
- Independent 2005-02-18
- Washington Post 2005-02-21
- Resignation letter
- Geneva Press Conference 2005-10-10
- NewsMax.com 2005-02-23
- UNHCR News 25 February 2005 High Commissioner Lubbers departs UNHCR
- (Dutch) Koningin benoemt Lubbers tot informateur
- (Dutch) Drs. R.F.M. Lubbers
- (Dutch) Dr. R.F.M. (Ruud) Lubbers Parlement & Politiek
- (Dutch) Drs. R.F.M. Lubbers Rijksoverheid
- (Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers I Rijksoverheid
- (Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers II Rijksoverheid
- (Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers III Rijksoverheid
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