Rwandan Genocide

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Rwandan Genocide
Ntrama Church Altar.jpg
Over 5,000 people seeking refuge in Ntrama church were killed by grenade, machete, rifle, or burnt alive
Location Rwanda
Date 7 April-15 July 1994
(3 months, 1 week and 1 day)
Target Tutsi population
Attack type
Genocide, mass murder
Deaths 500,000–1,000,000[1]
Perpetrators Hutu-led government, Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi militias

The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority. During the approximate 100-day period from April 7, 1994 to mid-July, an estimated 500,000–1,000,000 Rwandans were killed,[1] constituting as much as 20% of the country's total population and 70% of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda. The genocide was planned by members of the core political elite known as the akazu, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government. Perpetrators came from the ranks of the Rwandan army, the National Police (gendarmerie), government-backed militias including the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi, and the Hutu civilian population.

The genocide took place in the context of the Rwandan Civil War, an ongoing conflict beginning in 1990 between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which was largely composed of Tutsi refugees whose families had fled to Uganda following earlier waves of Hutu violence against the Tutsi. International pressure on the Hutu-led government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 with a roadmap to implement the Arusha Accords that would create a power-sharing government with the RPF. This agreement displeased many conservative Hutu, including members of the Akazu, who viewed it as conceding to enemy demands. Among the broader Hutu populace, the RPF military campaign had also intensified support for the so-called "Hutu Power" ideology, which portrayed the RPF as an alien force intent on reinstating the Tutsi monarchy and enslaving the Hutus, a prospect met with extreme opposition.

On April 6, 1994, an airplane carrying Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down on its descent into Kigali, killing all on board.[2] Genocidal killings began the following day: soldiers, police and militia quickly executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu leaders, then erected checkpoints and barricades and used Rwandans' national identity cards to systematically verify their ethnicity and kill Tutsi. These forces recruited or pressured Hutu civilians to arm themselves with machetes, clubs, blunt objects and other weapons to rape, maim and kill their Tutsi neighbors and destroy or steal their property. The breach of the peace agreement led the RPF to restart their offensive and rapidly seize control of the northern part of the country before capturing Kigali in mid-July, bringing an end to the genocide. During these events and in their aftermath, the United Nations (UN) and countries including the United States, Great Britain and Belgium were criticized for their inaction, including failure to strengthen the force and mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) peacekeepers, while observers criticized the government of France for alleged support of the genocidal regime after the genocide had begun.

The genocide had a lasting and profound impact on Rwanda and its neighboring countries. The pervasive use of war rape caused a spike in HIV infection, including babies born of rape to newly infected mothers; many households were headed by orphaned children or widows. The destruction of infrastructure and a severe depopulation of the country crippled the economy, challenging the nascent government to achieve rapid economic growth and stabilization. The RPF military victory and installation of an RPF-dominated government prompted many Hutus to flee to neighboring countries, particularly in the eastern portion of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) where the Hutu genocidaires began to regroup in refugee camps along the border with Rwanda. Declaring a need to avert further genocide, the RPF-led government led military incursions into Zaire, including the First (1996–97) and Second (1998–2003) Congo Wars. Armed struggles between the Rwandan government and their opponents in DRC have continued to play out through proxy militias in the Goma region, including the M23 rebellion (2003–2013). Large Rwandan Hutu and Tutsi populations continue to live as refugees throughout the region. Today, Rwanda has two public holidays commemorating the genocide. The national commemoration period begins with Genocide Memorial Day on April 7 and concludes with Liberation Day on July 4. The week following April 7 is designated an official week of mourning. The Rwandan Genocide served as the impetus for creating the International Criminal Court to eliminate the need for ad hoc tribunals to prosecute those accused in future incidents of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Background

Pre-colonial kingdoms and origins of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa

The earliest inhabitants of what is now Rwanda were the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who settled in the area between 8000 BC and 3000 BC and remain in Rwanda today.[3][4] Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, and began to clear forest land for agriculture.[5][4] Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations: an older theory asserts the first settlers were Hutu, while the Tutsi migrated later and formed a distinct racial group, possibly of Cushitic origin.[6] More recent research suggests the migration was slow and steady from neighboring regions, with incoming groups bearing high genetic similarity to the established ones[7] and integrating into rather than conquering the existing society.[8][4] Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose later and was not a racial one, but principally a class or caste distinction in which the Tutsi herded cattle while the Hutu farmed the land.[9][10] The Hutu, Tutsi and Twa of Rwanda share a common language and are collectively known as the Banyarwanda.[11]

Photograph of King's palace in Nyanza, Rwanda depicting main entrance, front and conical roof
A reconstruction of the King of Rwanda's palace at Nyanza

The population coalesced, first into clans (ubwoko),[12] and then, by 1700, into around eight kingdoms.[13] One of the kingdoms, the Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan, became increasingly dominant from the mid-eighteenth century[14] and expanded through a process of conquest and assimilation,[15] achieving its greatest extent under the reign of King Kigeli Rwabugiri from 1853–95. Rwabugiri expanded the kingdom west and north[16][14] and initiated administrative reforms; these included ubuhake, in which Tutsi patrons ceded cattle, and therefore privileged status, to Hutu or Tutsi clients in exchange for economic and personal service,[17] and uburetwa, a corvée system in which Hutu were forced to work for Tutsi chiefs.[16] Rwabugiri's changes deepened the socio-economic and power divisions between the Hutu and Tutsi populations.[16]

Colonial era

The Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to Germany[18] and began a policy of ruling through the Rwandan monarchy; this system had the added benefit of enabling colonization with small European troop numbers.[19] European colonists, convinced the Tutsi had migrated to Rwanda from Ethiopia, believed the Tutsi were more Caucasian than the Hutu and were therefore racially superior and better suited to carry out colonial administrative tasks.[20] King Yuhi V Musinga[21] welcomed the Germans, who he used to strengthen his rule.[22] Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi during World War I, and the country was formally passed to Belgian control by a League of Nations mandate in 1919.[23]

The Belgians initially continued the German style of governing through the monarchy, but from 1926 began a policy of more direct colonial rule.[24][25] They simplified the chieftaincy system, reducing its numbers and concentrating it in the hands of Tutsi,[26] extended the scale and scope of uburetwa,[26] and oversaw a land reform process by the Tutsi chiefs, in which grazing areas traditionally under the control of Hutu collectives were seized and privatised, with minimal compensation.[27] In the 1930s, the Belgians introduced large-scale projects in education, health, public works, and agricultural supervision.[28] The country was thus modernised but Tutsi supremacy remained, leaving the Hutu disenfranchised and subject to large scale forced labour.[29] In 1935, Belgium introduced identity cards labelling each individual as either Tutsi, Hutu, Twa or Naturalised. While it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy Hutu to become honorary Tutsi, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the classes.[30] The Catholic Church became increasingly important in Rwanda, as the Belgian government relied on the clergy's local knowledge; many Rwandans became Catholics as a means of social advancement.[31] In the interwar period, the Catholic Church favored Tutsi enrollment in their mission schools, which taught French and other key skills required for civil service and leadership positions.

Revolution and Hutu-Tutsi relations after independence

Main article: Rwandan Revolution

After World War II, a Hutu emancipation movement began to grow in Rwanda,[32] fuelled by increasing resentment of the inter-war social reforms, and also an increasing sympathy for the Hutu within the Catholic Church.[33] Catholic missionaries increasingly viewed themselves as responsible for empowering the underprivileged Hutu rather than the Tutsi elite, leading rapidly to the formation of a sizeable Hutu clergy and educated elite that provided a new counterbalance to the established Tutsi political order.[33] The monarchy and prominent Tutsi sensed the growing influence of the Hutu and began to agitate for immediate independence on their own terms.[32] In 1957, a group of Hutu scholars wrote the "Bahutu Manifesto". This was the first document to label the Tutsi and Hutu as separate races, and called for the transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu based on what it termed "statistical law".[34] On 1 November 1959 a Hutu sub-chief, Dominique Mbonyumutwa, was attacked in Kigali by supporters of the pro-Tutsi party. Mbonyumutwa survived, but rumours began spreading that he had been killed.[35] Hutu activists responded by killing Tutsi, both the elite and ordinary civilians, marking the beginning of the Rwandan Revolution.[36] The Tutsi responded with attacks of their own, but by this stage the Hutu had full backing from the Belgian administration who wanted to overturn the Tutsi domination.[37][38] In early 1960, the Belgians replaced most Tutsi chiefs with Hutu and organised mid-year commune elections which returned an overwhelming Hutu majority.[37] The king was deposed, a Hutu dominated republic created, and the country became independent in 1962.[39]

As the revolution progressed, Tutsi began leaving the country to escape the Hutu purges, settling in the four neighbouring countries Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania and Zaire.[40] These exiles, unlike the Banyarwanda who migrated during the pre-colonial and colonial era, were regarded as refugees in their host countries,[41] and began almost immediately to agitate for a return to Rwanda.[42] They formed armed groups, known as inyenzi (cockroaches), who launched attacks into Rwanda; these were largely unsuccessful, and led to further reprisal killings of Tutsi and further Tutsi exiles.[42] By 1964, more than 300,000 Tutsi had fled, and were forced to remain in exile for the next three decades.[43] Pro-Hutu discrimination continued in Rwanda itself, although the indiscriminate violence against the Tutsi did reduce somewhat following a coup in 1973, which brought President Juvenal Habyarimana to power.[44]

At 408 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,060/sq mi), Rwanda's population density is amongst the highest in Africa. Rwanda's population had increased from 1.6 million people in 1934 to 7.1 million in 1989, leading to competition for land. Historians such as Gérard Prunier believe that the 1994 genocide can be partly attributed to the population density.[45]

Rwandan Civil War

Main article: Rwandan Civil War
Close up profile picture of Paul Kagame, seated at the 2009 World Economic Forum
Paul Kagame, commander of the Rwandan Patriotic Front for most of the Civil War

In the 1980s, a group of 500 Rwandan refugees in Uganda, led by Fred Rwigyema, fought with the rebel National Resistance Army (NRA) in the Ugandan Bush War, which saw Yoweri Museveni overthrow Milton Obote.[46] These soldiers remained in the Ugandan army following Museveni's inauguration as Ugandan president, but simultaneously began planning an invasion of Rwanda through a covert network within the army's ranks.[47] In October 1990, Rwigyema led a force of over 4,000[48] rebels from Uganda, advancing 60 km (37 mi) into Rwanda under the banner of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).[49] Rwigyema was killed on the third day of the attack,[50] and France and Zaire deployed forces in support of the Rwandan army, allowing them to repel the invasion.[51] Rwigyema's deputy, Paul Kagame took command of the RPF forces,[52] organising a tactical retreat through Uganda to the Virunga Mountains, a rugged area of northern Rwanda.[53] From there he rearmed and reorganised the army, and carried out fundraising and recruitment from the Tutsi diaspora.[54]

Kagame restarted the war in January 1991, with a surprise attack on the northern town of Ruhengeri. The RPF captured the town, benefiting from the element of surprise, and held it for one day before retreating back to the forests.[55] For the next year, the RPF waged a classic hit-and-run style guerrilla war, capturing some border areas but not making significant gains in the war against the Rwandan army.[56] In June 1992, following the formation of a multiparty coalition government in Kigali, the RPF announced a ceasefire and began negotiations with the Rwandan government in Arusha, Tanzania.[57] In early 1993, several extremist Hutu groups formed and began campaigns of large scale violence against the Tutsi.[58] The RPF responded by suspending peace talks and launching a major attack, gaining a large swathe of land across the north of the country.[59] Peace negotiations eventually resumed in Arusha; the resulting set of agreements, known as the Arusha Accords, were signed in August 1993 and gave the RPF positions in a Broad-Based Transitional Government (BBTG) and in the national army.[60][61] The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), a peacekeeping force, arrived in the country and the RPF were given a base in the national parliament building in Kigali, for use during the setting up of the BBTG.[62]

Hutu Power movement

In the early years of Habyarimana's regime there was greater economic prosperity and a reduced amount of violence against Tutsi.[44] Many hardline anti-Tutsi figures remained, however, including the family of the first lady Agathe Habyarimana, who were known as the akazu or clan de Madame,[63] and the president relied on them to maintain his regime.[64] When the RPF invaded in 1990, Habyarimana and the hardliners exploited the fear of the population to advance an anti-Tutsi agenda[65] which became known as Hutu Power.[66] A group of military officers and government members founded a magazine called Kangura, which became popular throughout the country.[67] This published anti-Tutsi propaganda, including the Hutu Ten Commandments, an explicit set of racist guidelines including labelling Hutu who married Tutsi as "traitors".[68] In 1992, the hardliners created the Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR) party, which was linked to the ruling party but more right wing and promoted an agenda critical of the president's alleged "softness" towards the RPF.[69]

Following the 1992 ceasefire agreement between Habyarimana and the RPF, a number of the extremists in the Rwandan government and army began actively plotting against the president, worried about the possibility of Tutsi being included in government.[70] Habyarimana attempted to remove the hardliners from senior army positions, but was only partially successful; akazu affiliates Augustin Ndindiliyimana and Theoneste Bagosora remained in powerful posts, providing the hardline family with a link to power.[71] Throughout 1992, the hardliners carried out campaigns of localised killings of Tutsi, culminating in January 1993, in which extremists and local Hutu murdered around 300 people.[58] When the RPF resumed hostilities in February 1993, it cited these killings as the primary motive,[72] but its effect was to increase support for the extremists amongst the Hutu population.[73]

From mid-1993, the Hutu Power movement represented a third major force in Rwandan politics in addition to Habyarimana's government and the traditional moderate opposition.[66] Apart from the CDR, there was no party that was exclusively part of the Power movement.[74] Instead, almost every party was split into "moderate" and "Power" wings, with the members of each camp both claiming to represent the legitimate leadership of that party.[74] Even the ruling party contained a Power wing, consisting of those who opposed Habyarimana's intention to sign a peace deal with the RPF.[75] Several radical youth militia groups emerged, attached to the Power wings of the parties; these included the Interahamwe, which was attached to the ruling party,[76] and the CDR's Impuzamugambi.[77] The youth militia began actively carrying out massacres across the country.[78] The army trained the militias, sometimes in conjunction with the French, who were unaware of their true purpose.[77]

Prelude

Preparation for genocide

Historians do not agree on the precise date on which the idea of a "final solution" to kill every Tutsi in Rwanda was first mooted. Gerard Prunier dates it to 1992, when Habyarimana began negotiating with the RPF,[79] while journalist Linda Melvern dates it back to 1990, following the initial RPF invasion.[80] The army began arming civilians with hand weapons such as machetes from 1990, and training the Hutu youth in combat; the official reason for this was a programme of "civil defence" to the RPF threat,[81] but the same weapons were later used in carrying out the genocide.[82] Rwanda also purchased large numbers of grenades and munitions from late 1990; in one deal, future UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in his role as Egyptian foreign minister, facilitated a large sale of arms from Egypt.[83] The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) expanded rapidly at this time, growing from less than 10,000 troops to almost 30,000 in one year.[81] The new recruits were often poorly disciplined;[81] a divide grew between the elite Presidential Guard and Gendarmerie units, who were well trained and battle ready, and the ordinary rank and file.[84]

In March 1993, the Hutu Power began compiling lists of "traitors" whom they planned to kill, and it is possible that Habyarimana's name was on that list;[75] the CDR were publicly accusing the president of treason.[75] The Power groups also believed that the national radio station, Radio Rwanda, had become too liberal and supportive of the opposition; they therefore founded a new radio station, Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLMC), which broadcast a mixture of racist propaganda, obscene jokes and music, becoming very popular throughout the country.[85] During 1993 the hardliners imported machetes on a scale far larger than that required for agriculture, as well as other tools which could be used as weapons, such as razor blades, saws and scissors.[86] These tools were distributed around the country, ostensibly as part of the civil defence network.[86]

In October 1993 the President of Burundi, Melchior Ndadaye, who had been elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu president, was assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers.[87] The assassination caused shockwaves in Rwanda, reinforcing the notion amongst the Hutu population that the Tutsi were their enemy and could not be trusted.[88] The CDR and the Power wings of the other parties realised they could use this situation to their advantage.[88] The idea of a "final solution," which had first been suggested in 1992 but had remained a fringe viewpoint, was now top of their agenda, and they began actively planning it.[88] They were confident of persuading the Hutu population to carry out killings, given the public anger at Ndadaye's murder as well as the hate messages of RTLM and the traditional obedience of Rwandans to authority.[88] The Power leaders began arming the interahamwe and other militia groups with AK-47s and other weapons; previously they had possessed only machetes and traditional hand weapons.[89]

Assassination of Habyarimana

Juvénal Habyarimana in 1980

On April 6, 1994, the airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of Burundi, was shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali, killing everyone on board. Responsibility for the attack was disputed, with both the RPF and Hutu extremists being blamed. A later investigation by the Rwandan government blamed Hutu extremists in the Rwandan army.[90] In January 2012, a French investigation confirmed that the missile fire which brought down the Rwandan president's plane 'could not have come from a military base occupied by Kagame's [Tutsi] supporters.'[91] In spite of disagreements about the identities of its perpetrators, many observers believe the attack and deaths of the two Hutu presidents served as the catalyst for the genocide.

Following Habyarimana's death, on the evening of 6 April, a crisis committee was formed; it consisted of Major General Augustin Ndindiliyimana, Colonel Theoneste Bagosora, and a number of other senior army staff officers.[92] The committee was headed by Bagosora, despite the presence of the more senior Ndindiliyimana.[93] Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana was legally next in the line of political succession,[94] but the committee refused to recognise her authority.[94] Roméo Dallaire, the force commander of UNAMIR, met with the committee that night and insisted that Uwilingiyimana be placed in charge, but Bagosora refused, telling him that Uwilingiyimana did not "enjoy the confidence of the Rwandan people" and was "incapable of governing the nation."[94] The committee also jusitified its existence as being essential to avoid uncertainty following the president's death.[94] Bagosora sought to convince UNAMIR and the RPF[95] that the committee was acting to contain the Presidential Guard, which he described as "out of control",[96] and that it would abide by the Arusha agreement.[94]

Killing of moderate leaders

UNAMIR sent an escort of ten Belgian soldiers to Prime Minister Uwilingiyimana, with the intention of transporting her to the Radio Rwanda offices to make an address to the nation.[97] This had to be cancelled because the Presidential Guard took over the radio station shortly afterwards and would not permit Uwilingiyimana to speak on air.[97] Later in the morning, a number of soldiers and a crowd of civilians overwhelmed the Belgians guarding Uwilingiyimana, forcing them to surrender their weapons.[98] Uwilingiyimana and her husband were then killed, although their children survived by hiding behind furniture and were rescued by Senegalese UNAMIR officer Mbaye Diagne.[99] The ten Belgians were taken to the Camp Kigali military base where they were tortured and killed.[100] Major Bernard Ntuyahaga, the commanding officer of the Presidential Guard unit which carried out the murders, was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment by a court in Belgium in 2007.[101]

In addition to assassinating Uwilingiyimana, the extremists spent the night of 6–7 April moving around the houses of Kigali with lists of prominent moderate politicians and journalists, on a mission to kill them.[102][98] Fatalities that evening included President of the Constitutional Court Joseph Kavaruganda, Minister of Agriculture Frederic Nzamurambaho, Parti Liberal leader Landwald Ndasingwa and his Canadian wife, and chief Arusha negotiator Boniface Ngulinzira.[97] A few moderates survived, including prime minister-delegate Faustin Twagiramungu,[103] but the plot was largely successful. According to Dallaire, "by noon on April 7 the moderate political leadership of Rwanda was dead or in hiding, the potential for a future moderate government utterly lost."[104] The only exception to this was the new army chief of staff, Marcel Gatsinzi; Bagosora's preferred candidate Augustin Bizimungu was rejected by the crisis committee, forcing Bagosora to agree to Gatsinzi's appointment.[105] Gatsinzi attempted to keep the army out of the genocide,[106] and to negotiate a ceasefire with the RPF,[107] but he had only limited control over his troops and was replaced by the hardline Augustin Bizimungu after just ten days.[106]

Genocide

The genocide itself, the large scale killing of Tutsi on the grounds of ethnicity, began within a few hours of Habyarimana's death.[108] Military leaders in Gisenyi province, the heartland of the akazu, were initially the most organised, convening a large gathering of interahamwe and civilian Hutu; the commanders announced the president's death, blaming the RPF for the shooting of the plane, and then ordered the crowd to "begin your work" and to "spare no one", including babies.[109] The killing spread to Ruhengeri, Kibuye, Kigali, Kibungo, Gikongoro and Cyangugu provinces during 7 April;[110] in each case local officials, responding to orders from Kigali, spread rumours amongst the population that the RPF had killed the president, and then followed that with the command to begin killing Tutsi.[111] The Hutu population, which had been prepared and armed during the preceding months, and maintained the long-standing Rwandan culture of unconditional obedience to authority, carried out these orders without question.[112] There were few killings in the provinces of Gitarama and Butare during the early phase,[111] as the governors of those areas were moderates opposed to the violence; the genocide began in Gitarama on 9 April,[113] and in Butare on 19 April, following the arrest and murder of Tutsi governor Jean Baptiste Habyarimana.[114] The genocide did not affect areas already under RPF control, including parts of Byumba province and eastern Ruhengeri.[115]

During the remainder of April and early May, the Presidential Guard, gendarmerie and the youth militia, aided by local populations, continued killing at a very high rate.[115] Gerard Prunier estimates that during the first six weeks, up to 800,000 Rwandans may have been murdered,[115] which would represent a rate of killing five times higher than during the Holocaust of Nazi Germany.[115] The goal was to kill every Tutsi living in Rwanda[116] and, with the exception of the advancing RPF army, there was no opposition force to prevent or slow the killings:[115] the domestic opposition had already been eliminated, while UNAMIR were expressly forbidden to use any force except in self-defence.[117] In rural areas, where Tutsi and Hutu lived side by side and families all knew each other, it was easy for Hutu to identify and target their Tutsi neighbours.[115] In urban areas, where residents were more anonymous, identification was facilitated using numerous road blocks manned by military and interahamwe; each person passing the road block was required to show the national identity card, which included ethnicity, and any with Tutsi cards were slaughtered immediately.[115] Many Hutu were also killed, for a variety of reasons including alleged sympathy for the moderate opposition parties, being a journalist or simply having a "Tutsi appearance."[115]

The RPF were making slow but steady territorial gains in the north and east of the country, progressively ending the killings in each area they occupied.[115] The genocide was thus effectively ended during April in areas of Ruhengeri, Byumba, Kibungo and Kigali provinces.[115] The killings ceased during April in the akazu heartlands of western Ruhengeri and Gisenyi, as almost every Tutsi in those areas had been eliminated.[115] Large numbers of Hutu in the RPF conquered areas fled from the advancing army, fearing retribution for the genocide[118] 500,000 Kibungo residents walked over the bridge at Rusumo Falls, into Tanzania, in a few days at the end of April,[119] and were accommodated in United Nations camps which were effectively controlled by the ousted leaders of the Hutu regime,[120] with the former governor of Kibungo province in overall control.[121]

In the remaining provinces, killings continued throughout May and June although they became increasingly low key and sporadic;[115] most of the Tutsi were already eliminated at this point, and the interim government wished to rein in the growing anarchy and engage the population in defending the country against the RPF.[122] On 23 June, around 2,500 soldiers entered south-western Rwanda as part of the French-led United Nations Operation Turquoise.[123] This was intended as a humanitarian mission, but the soldiers were not able to save significant numbers of lives.[124] The genocidal authorities were overtly welcoming of the French, displaying the French flag on their own vehicles, but slaughtering Tutsi who came out of hiding seeking protection from Turquoise.[124] In July, the RPF finally completed their conquest of the country, with the exception of the zone occupied by Operation Turquoise. The RPF took Kigali on 4 July,[125] and Gisenyi and the rest of the north west on 18 July.[126] The genocide was over, but as had previously occurred in Kibungo, the Hutu population fled en masse across the border, this time into Zaire, with Bagosora and the other leaders accompanying them.[127]

Planning and organization

Over 5,000 people seeking refuge in Ntrama church were killed by grenade, machete, rifle, or burnt alive.

The crisis committee, headed by Theoneste Bagosora, took power in the country following Habyarimana's death,[128] and was the principal authority coordinating the implementation of the genocide.[129] Bagosora immediately began issuing orders to kill Tutsi, addressing groups of interahamwe in person in Kigali,[130] and making telephone calls to leaders in the provinces.[131] Other leading organisers on a national level were defence minister Augustin Bizimana, commander of the paratroopers Aloys Ntabakuze, and the head of the Presidential Guard, Protais Mpiranya.[129] Businessman Felicien Kabuga funded the RTLM and the Interahamwe, while Pascal Musabe and Joseph Nzirorera were responsible for coordinating the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi militia activities nationally.[129]

In Kigali, the genocide was led by the Presidential Guard, the well trained elite unit of the army.[132] They were assisted by the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi,[82] who set up numerous road blocks throughout the capital; each person passing the road block was required to show the national identity card, which included ethnicity, and any with Tutsi cards were slaughtered immediately.[115] The militias also initiated searches of houses in the city, slaughtering Tutsi and looting their property.[82] Kigali governor Tharcisse Renzaho played a leading role, touring the road blocks to ensure their effectiveness and using his position at the top of the Kigali provincial government to disseminate orders and dismiss officials who were not sufficiently active in the killings.[133]

In rural areas, the local government hierarchy was also in most cases the chain of command for the execution of the genocide.[134] The governor of each province, acting on orders from Kigali, disseminated instructions to the district leaders (bourgmestres), who in turn issued directions to the leaders of the sectors, cells and villages within their districts.[134] The majority of the actual killings in the countryside were carried out by ordinary civilians, under orders from the leaders.[135] Tutsi and Hutu lived side by side in their villages, and families all knew each other, making it easy for Hutu to identify and target their Tutsi neighbours.[115] Gerard Prunier ascribes this mass complicity of the population to a combination of the "democratic majority" ideology,[135] in which Hutu had been taught to regard Tutsi as dangerous enemies,[135] the culture of unbending obedience to authority,[136] and the duress factor – villagers who refused to carry out orders to kill were often branded as Tutsi sympathisers and killed themselves.[135]

The crisis committee appointed an interim government on 8 April; using the terms of the 1991 constitution instead of the Arusha Accords, the committee designated Theodore Sindikubwabo as interim president of Rwanda, while Jean Kambanda was the new prime minister.[137] All political parties were represented in the government, but most members were from the "Hutu Power" wings of their respective parties.[138] The interim government was sworn in on 9 April, but immediately relocated from Kigali to Gitarama to avoid fighting between the RPF and the Rwandan army in the capital.[139] The crisis committee was officially dissolved, but Bagosora and the senior officers remained the de facto rulers of the country.[140] The government played its part in mobilising the population, giving the regime an air of legitimacy, but was effectively a puppet regime with no ability to halt the army or the Interahamwe's activities.[141][140] When Romeo Dallaire visited the government's headquarters a week after its formation, he found most officials at leisure, describing their activities as "sorting out the seating plan for a meeting that was not about to convene any time soon."[142]

Means of killing

On April 9, UN observers witnessed the massacre of children at a Polish church in Gikondo. The same day, 1,000 heavily armed and trained European troops arrived to escort European civilian personnel out of the country. The troops did not stay to assist UNAMIR. Media coverage picked up on the 9th, as the Washington Post reported the execution of Rwandan employees of relief agencies in front of their expatriate colleagues. On April 9–10, US Ambassador Rawson and 250 Americans were evacuated.

Butare Province was an exception to the local violence. Jean-Baptiste Habyarimana was the only Tutsi prefect, and the province was the only one dominated by an opposition party.[143] Opposing the genocide, Habyarimana was able to keep relative calm in the province, until he was deposed by the extremist Sylvain Ndikumana.[143] Finding the population of Butare resistant to murdering their fellow citizens, the government flew in militia from Kigali by helicopter, and they readily killed the Tutsi.[143]

Most of the victims were killed in their own villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagers. The militia typically murdered victims by machetes, although some army units used rifles. The Hutu gangs searched out victims hiding in churches and school buildings, and massacred them. Local officials and government-sponsored radio incited ordinary citizens to kill their neighbors, and those who refused to kill were often murdered on the spot. "Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself."[144][page needed]

One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye. On April 12, more than 1,500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange, then in Kivumu commune. Local Interahamwe, acting in concert with the authorities, used bulldozers to knock down the church building.[145] The militia used machetes and rifles to kill every person who tried to escape. Local priest Athanase Seromba was later found guilty and sentenced to life in prison by the ICTR for his role in the demolition of his church; he was convicted of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity.[145][146][147] In another case, thousands sought refuge in the Official Technical School (École Technique Officielle) in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed. On April 11, the Belgian soldiers withdrew, and Rwandan armed forces and militia killed all the Tutsi.[148]

Several individuals were active in attempting to halt the Rwandan genocide, or to shelter vulnerable Tutsi, as it was taking place. Among them there are Romeo Dallaire (Lieutenant-General of UNAMIR), Pierantonio Costa (Italian diplomat who rescued many lives), Antonia Locatelli (Italian volunteer who tried to save 300 or 400 Tutsis by calling officials in the international community and was later murdered by the Interahamwe), Jacqueline Mukansonera (Hutu woman who saved a Tutsi during the genocide), Paul Rusesabagina (Academy Award nominated film Hotel Rwanda is based on his story), Carl Wilkens (the only American who chose to remain in Rwanda during the genocide), André Sibomana (Hutu priest and journalist who saved many lives) and Captain Mbaye Diagne (Senegalese army officer of UNAMIR who saved many lives before he was killed).

Gender-targeted crimes

Photographs of genocide victims displayed at the Genocide Memorial Center in Kigali

Rape was used as a tool by the Interahamwe, the chief perpetrators, to permanently separate the already conscious heterogeneous population and to drastically exhaust the opposing group.[149] The use of propaganda played an important role in both the genocide, and the gender specific violence. The Hutu propaganda depicted Tutsi women as "a sexually seductive ‘fifth column’ in league with the Hutus’ enemies". The exceptional brutality of the sexual violence, as well as the complicity of Hutu women in the attacks, suggests that the use of propaganda had been effective in the exploitation of gendered needs which had mobilized both female, and males to participate in the genocide.[150] Soldiers of the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda and the Rwandan Defence Forces, including the Presidential Guard, and civilians also committed rape against mostly Tutsi women.[151] Although Tutsi women were the main targets, moderate Hutu women were also raped during the genocide.[151] Along with the Hutu moderates, Hutu women who were married to Tutsis and Hutu women who hid Tutsis were targeted.[152] In his 1996 report on Rwanda, the UN Special Rapporteur Rene Degni-Segui stated, "Rape was the rule and its absence the exception."[153] He also noted, "Rape was systematic and was used as a weapon" by the perpetrators of the massacres. With this thought and using methods of force and threat, the genocidaires forced others to stand by while women were raped. A testimonial by a woman of the name Maria Louise Niyobuhungiro recalls seeing local peoples, other generals and Hutu men watching her get raped about 5 times per day. Even when she was kept under watch of a woman, she would give no sympathy or help and furthermore, forced her to farm land in between rapes.[153]

Many of the survivors were also infected with the HIV virus transmitted from the HIV-infected men who were recruited by the genocidaires.[154] During the conflict Hutu extremists released hundreds of patients from hospitals, who were suffering from AIDS, and formed them into "rape squads". The intent was to infect and cause a "slow, inexorable death".[155] Tutsi women were also targeted with the intent of destroying their reproductive capabilities. Sexual mutilation sometimes occurred after the rape and included mutilation of the vagina with machetes, knives, sharpened sticks, boiling water, and acid.[152] Men were seldom the victims of war rape,[151] but sexual violence against men included mutilation of the genitals, then displayed as trophies in public.[151] Disabling the reproductive capabilities of the women would prevent future generations of the Tutsi population.[156]

Death toll

Because of the chaotic situation, there is no consensus on the number of people killed between April 6 and mid-July. Unlike the genocides carried out by Nazi Germany and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, authorities made no attempts to record deaths. The succeeding RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of whom were Hutu. The journalist Philip Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one million, while the UN estimates the toll as 800,000. Alex de Waal and Rakiya Omar of African Rights estimate the number as "around 750,000," while Alison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch stated that it was "at least 500,000." James Smith of Aegis Trust notes, "What's important to remember is that there was a genocide. There was an attempt to eliminate Tutsis – men, women, and children – and to erase any memory of their existence."[157]

Out of a population of 7.3 million people–84% of whom were Hutu, 15% Tutsi and 1% Twa–the official figures published by the Rwandan government estimated the number of victims of the genocide to be 1,174,000 in 100 days (10,000 murdered every day, 400 every hour, 7 every minute). It is estimated that about 300,000 Tutsi survived the genocide. Thousands of widows, many of whom were subjected to rape, are now HIV-positive. There were about 400,000 orphans and nearly 85,000 of them were forced to become heads of families.[158]

Rwandan Patriotic Front military campaign and victory

Map showing the advance of the RPF during the Rwandan Genocide of 1994

On 7 April, as the genocide got underway, RPF commander Paul Kagame warned the crisis committee and UNAMIR that he would resume the civil war if the killing did not stop.[159] The next day, the Rwandan government forces attacked the national parliament building from several directions, but the RPF troops stationed there successfully fought back;[160] The RPF then began an attack from the north on three fronts, seeking to link up quickly with the isolated troops in Kigali.[161] Kagame refused to talk to the interim government, believing that it was just a cover for Bagosora's rule and not committed to ending the genocide.[162] Over the next few days, the RPF advanced steadily south, capturing Gabiro and large areas of countryside to the north and east of Kigali.[163] They avoided attacking Kigali or Byumba at this stage, but conducted manoeuvres designed to encircle the cities and cut off supply routes.[164] The RPF also allowed Tutsi refugees from Uganda to settle behind the front line in the RPF controlled areas.[164]

Throughout April there were numerous attempts by UNAMIR to establish a ceasefire in the civil war, but Kagame insisted each time that the RPF would not stop fighting unless the killings stopped.[165] In late April the RPF secured the whole of the Tanzanian border area and began to move west from Kibungo, to the south of Kigali.[166] They encountered little resistance, except around Kigali and Ruhengeri.[162] By 16 May, they had cut the road between Kigali and Gitarama, the temporary home of the interim government, and by 13 June, they had taken Gitarama itself, following an unsuccessful attempt by the Rwandan government forces to reopen the road; the interim government was forced to relocate to Gisenyi in the far north west.[167] As well as fighting the war, Kagame was recruiting heavily to expand the army. The new recruits included Tutsi survivors of the genocide and refugees from Burundi, but were less well trained and disciplined than the earlier recruits.[168]

Having completed the encirclement of Kigali, the RPF spent the latter half of June fighting for the city itself.[169] The government forces had superior manpower and weapons, but the RPF nonetheless steadily gained territory as well as conducting raids to rescue civilians from behind enemy lines.[169] According to Dallaire, this success was due to Kagame being a "master of psychological warfare";[169] he exploited the fact that the government forces were concentrating on the genocide rather than the fight for Kigali, and capitalised on the government's loss of morale as it lost territory.[169] The RPF finally defeated the Rwandan government forces in Kigali on 4 July,[125] and on 18 July took Gisenyi and the rest of the north west, forcing the interim government into Zaire and ending the genocide.[126] At the end of July 1994, Kagame's forces held the whole of Rwanda except for the zone in the south west which had been occupied by a French-led United Nations force as part of Opération Turquoise.[170]

The Liberation Day for Rwanda would come to be marked as July 4 and is commemorated as a public holiday.[171]

International response

UNAMIR

Main article: UNAMIR
A school chalkboard in Kigali. Note the names "Dallaire", UNAMIR Force Commander, and "Marchal", UNAMIR Kigali sector commander.

The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) had been in Rwanda since October 1993,[172] with a mandate to oversee the implementation of the Arusha Accords.[173] UNAMIR commander Romeo Dallaire learned of the Hutu Power movement during the early phase of deployment;[174] in January 1994 a government informant alerted Dallaire to a group who were rapidly arming militias and planning mass extermination of Tutsi, and led UNAMIR to a secret arms cache.[175] Dallaire sent a cable directly to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in New York, requesting permission to raid the weapons caches;[176] the UN refused Dallaire's request to raid the arms, and rebuked him for exceeding his mandate.[174] Dallaire's cable also informed the DPKO of the information concerning the genocide; it said: "Since UNAMIR mandate [the informant] has been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali. He suspects it is for their extermination. Example he gave was that in 20 minutes his personnel could kill up to 1000 Tutsis."[177] Dallaire received little support from the administrative head of UNAMIR, Cameroonian Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh; the RPF accused Booh-Booh of partiality towards President Habyarimana and the Hutu elite.[178] UNAMIR operated with very limited resources,[179] and its efforts to install the transitional government were obstructed by President Habyarimana and the hardliners throughout early 1994.[180] By April, the Security Council threatened to terminate UNAMIR's mandate if it did not make progress.[181]

Following the death of Habyarimana and the start of the genocide, General Dallaire liaised repeatedly with both the Crisis Committee and the RPF, in an attempt to re-establish peace.[182] He addressed the government forces during the night of 6 April, expressing regret at Habyarimana's death but urging them to restrain the killings that had commenced;[183] he also urged Paul Kagame not to resume the civil war, to avoid esacalating the violence and to give UNAMIR a chance to rein in the killings.[184] Neither side was interested in the proposed ceasefire, the government because it was controlled by the genocidaires, and the RPF because it considered it necessary to fight to stop the killings.[159] UNAMIR's Chapter VI mandate rendered it powerless to intervene militarily,[115] and most of its Rwandan staff were killed in the early days of the genocide, severely limiting its ability to operate.[159] UNAMIR was therefore largely reduced to a bystander role, and Dallaire later labelled it a "failure."[185] Its most significant contribution was to provide refuge for thousands of Tutsi and moderate Hutu at its headquarters in Amahoro Stadium as well as other secure UN sites,[186] enabling them to survive the genocide.[187] UNAMIR also assisted with the evacuation of foreign nationals; a group of Belgian soldiers, which had been sheltering 2,000 Rwandans at the École Technique Officielle, were ordered to abandon their station at to assist in the evacuation. After the Belgians left, Hutu militants entered and massacred everyone inside.[188]

On 12 April, the Belgian government, which was one of the largest troop contributors to UNAMIR,[189] and had lost the ten soldiers protecting Prime Minister Uwilingiliyimana, announced that it was withdrawing; Belgium also favoured a complete withdrawal of UNAMIR, and lobbied for this within the United Nations.[190] Dallaire protested, arguing that the force should be strengthened and given a new mandate to protect the thousands of refugees it was protecting,[191] but the Security Council refused this, telling Dallaire that UNAMIR would be effectively withdrawn unless the belligerents agreed a ceasefire by early May.[192] According to author and journalist Philip Gourevitch, the United States, having recently suffered losses in the UN mission in Somalia, was particularly keen to "get out of Rwanda" and "leave it to its fate."[193] New Zealand, which held the rotating presidency of the Security Council, was the lone voice supporting reinforcement,[194] and in late April it persuaded the council to postpone UNAMIR's withdrawal.[195] despite continuing reluctance from the United States and United Kingdom.[196] In mid-May, the UN finally conceded that "acts of genocide may have been committed,"[197] and agreed to a reinforcement, which would be known as UNAMIR 2.[196] The new soldiers did not start arriving until June,[198] and following the end of the genocide in July, the role of UNAMIR 2 was largely confined to maintaining security and stability.[199] UNAMIR withdrew from Rwanda in 1996, following the withdrawal of support by the RPF-led government.[199]

France and Opération Turquoise

French marine parachutists stand guard at the airport, August 1994

During President Habyarimana's years in power, France maintained very close relations with him, as part of its Françafrique policy.[200] When the RPF launched the Rwandan Civil War in 1990, Habyarimana was immediately granted military assistance from the President of France, François Mitterrand,[201] who considered the RPF part of an "Anglophone plot", also involving the President of Uganda, to create an English-speaking "Tutsi-land" and increase Anglophone influence at the expense of French influence.[202] France sent 600 paratroopers, who effectively ran the government's response to the invasion and were instrumental in regaining almost all territory the RPF had gained in the first days of the war.[203] France maintained this military presence throughout the civil war, engaging Kagame's RPF forces again in February 1993 during the offensive that doubled RPF territory.[204]

During the first few days of the genocide, France launched Amaryllis, a military operation involving 190 paratroopers, assisted by the Belgian army and UNAMIR, to evacuate foreign expatriates from Rwanda.[205] The operation was later described by Gerard Prunier as a "disgrace," as the French and Belgians refused to allow any Tutsi to accompany them; those who boarded the evacuation trucks were forced off at Rwandan government checkpoints, where they were killed.[206] The French also separated several expatriates and children from their Tutsi spouses, rescuing the foreigners but leaving the Rwandans to likely death.[206] The French did, however, rescue several high profile members of Habyarimana's government, as well as his wife, Agathe;[206] in some instances, French troops used UNAMIR vehicles, without the permission of General Dallaire.[207] The French abandoned their embassy in Kigali, in the process shredding hundreds of documents containing details of their relationship with the old regime.[208]

In late June 1994, France launched Opération Turquoise, a United Nations mandated mission to create safe humanitarian areas for protection of displaced persons, refugees, and civilians in danger; from bases in the Zairian cities of Goma and Bukavu, the French entered southwestern Rwanda and established the zone Turquoise, within the Cyangugu-Kibuye-Gikongoro triangle, an area occupying approximately a fifth of Rwanda.[209] Radio France International estimates that Turquoise saved around 15,000 lives,[210] but the timing of the invasion, with the genocide coming to an end and the RPF's ascendancy led many Rwandans to interpret Turquoise primarily as a mission to protect Hutu from the RPF, including some who had participated in the genocide.[211] The French remained hostile to the RPF, and their presence temporarily stalled the RPF's advance in southwestern Rwanda.[212]

A number of inquiries have been held into French involvement in Rwanda. In 1998, following pressure from French magazine Le Figaro,[213] and the former president of the organisation Survie, the French government launched the French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda.[213] The commission's report accused France of errors of judgement, including the development of "military cooperation against a background of ethnic tensions, massacres and violence,"[214] but it concluded that France did not bear direct responsibility for the genocide itself.[214] In 2006, following a report by a French judge accusing the RPF of killing President Habyarimana, and the severing of relations between Rwanda and France,[215] Rwanda launched its own inquiry into French involvement in the genocide.[216] This report, released in 2008, accused the French government of knowing of preparations for the genocide and helping to train the ethnic Hutu militia members; it accused 33 senior French military and political officials of involvement in the genocide, including then-President Francois Mitterrand, his Prime Minister Edouard Balladur, and Foreign Minister Alain Juppé.[217][218][219] Relations between the countries were restored in late 2009,[220] but as of 2014, President Kagame continues to accuse France of a "direct role in the preparation of the genocide."[210]

United States

Convoy of American military vehicles bring fresh water from Goma to Rwandan refugees located at camp Kimbumba, Zaire in August 1994

Prior to the war, the U.S. government had aligned itself with Tutsi interests, in turn raising Hutu concerns about potential U.S. support to the opposition. Paul Kagame, a Tutsi officer in exile in Uganda who had co-founded the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) in 1986 and was in open conflict with the incumbent Rwandan government, was invited to receive military training at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, home of the Command and General Staff College. In October 1990, while Kagame was at Fort Leavenworth, the RPF started an invasion of Rwanda. Only two days into the invasion, his close friend and RPF co-founder Fred Rwigyema was killed, upon which the U.S. arranged the return of Kagame to Uganda from where he became the military commander of the RPF.[221] An article in the Washington Post of August 16, 1997, written by its Southern African bureau chief Lynne Duke, indicates that the connection continued as RPF elements received counterinsurgency and combat training from U.S. Special Forces.[222][223]

In January 1994 NSC member Richard Clarke developed a formal US peacekeeping doctrine, Presidential Decision Directive 25 (PDD-25).

There were no U.S. troops officially in Rwanda at the onset of the genocide. A National Security Archive report points out five ways in which decisions made by the U.S. government contributed to the slow U.S. and worldwide response to the genocide:

  1. The U.S. lobbied the U.N. for a total withdrawal of U.N. (UNAMIR) forces in Rwanda in April 1994;
  2. Secretary of State Warren Christopher did not authorize officials to use the term "genocide" until May 21, and even then, U.S. officials waited another three weeks before using the term in public;
  3. Bureaucratic infighting slowed the U.S. response to the genocide in general;
  4. The U.S. refused to jam extremist radio broadcasts inciting the killing, citing costs and concern with international law;
  5. U.S. officials knew exactly who was leading the genocide, and actually spoke with those leaders to urge an end to the violence but did not follow up with concrete action.[224]

Intelligence reports indicate that President Clinton and his cabinet were aware before the height of the massacre that a "final solution to eliminate all Tutsis" was planned.[225]

Fear of a repeat of the events in Somalia shaped US policy in subsequent years, with many commentators identifying the graphic consequences of the Battle of Mogadishu as the key reason behind the US's failure to intervene in later conflicts such as the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. After the battle, the bodies of several US casualties of the conflict were dragged through the streets of Mogadishu by crowds of local civilians and members of Aidid's Somali National Alliance. According to the US's former deputy special envoy to Somalia, Walter Clarke: "The ghosts of Somalia continue to haunt US policy. Our lack of response in Rwanda was a fear of getting involved in something like a Somalia all over again."[226] President Clinton has referred to the failure of the U.S. government to intervene in the genocide as one of his main foreign policy failings, saying "I don't think we could have ended the violence, but I think we could have cut it down. And I regret it."[227]

Vatican

The Roman Catholic Church affirms that genocide took place but states that those who took part in it did so without the permission of the Church.[228] Though religious factors were not prominent (the event was ethnically motivated), in its 1999 report Human Rights Watch faulted a number of religious authorities in Rwanda, including Roman Catholic, Anglican, and other Protestants for failing to condemn the genocide directly – though that accusation was belied over time.[229] Some in its religious hierarchy have been brought to trial for their participation by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and convicted.[228] Bishop Misago was accused of corruption and complicity in the genocide, but he was cleared of all charges in 2000.[230] Many other Catholic and Protestant clergy, however, gave their lives to protect Tutsis from slaughter.[229] Some members of the clergy participated in the massacres. In 2006, Father Athanase Seromba was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda for his role in the massacre of 2,000 Tutsis. The court heard that Seromba lured the Tutsis to the church, where they believed they would find refuge. When they arrived, he ordered bulldozers to crush the refugees within and Hutu militias to kill any survivors.[231][232]

Aftermath

Kibumba refugee camp. Nearly 1 million refugees were camped in the area around Goma.

In anticipation of a Tutsi retaliation, approximately 2 million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, fled from Rwanda to Zaire (now called Congo), Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda. Thousands of them died in disease epidemics common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery.[233] The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps.[234] According to the Gersony Report during and after the RPF invasion between April and August 1994, tens of thousands of civilians were massacred by RPF forces. Human Rights Watch also reported large scale killing by RPF forces.[235] The most well known atrocity by RPF forces was the Kibeho Massacre on April 22, 1995.[236]

A leaked UN draft report accused Rwanda's Tutsi-led army of committing a possible genocide against the ethnic Hutus in neighboring Zaire. The report accused the Rwandan Army and allied Congolese rebels of killing tens of thousands of ethnic Hutu men, women and children (refugees from Rwanda and locals alike) in a series of systematic attacks between 1996 and 1997. The government of Rwanda rejected the accusation.[237][238]

After the victory of the RPF, the size of UNAMIR (henceforth called UNAMIR 2) was increased to its full strength, remaining in Rwanda until March 8, 1996.[239]

Rwandan refugee camp in eastern Zaire, 1994

The presence of 2 million refugees in eastern Zaire helped destabilize the already weak country, whose corrupt president, Mobutu Sese Seko, allowed Hutu extremists among the refugee population to operate with impunity. In October 1996, Mobutu's continued support of the Hutu militants led to an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire (supported politically and militarily by Rwanda), which marked the beginning of the First Congo War, and led to a return of more than 600,000 Hutu refugees to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November. This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December by the return of 500,000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government. Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in eastern DR Congo until May 22, 2009.

Mobutu was overthrown in May 1997, and Zaire's new leader, Laurent Kabila, renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila's relationship with his Rwandan allies quickly turned sour, and in August 1998 Tutsi rebel forces, supported by Rwanda and Uganda, launched another rebellion. This led to the Second Congo War, killing 5 million people from 1998 to 2004.

Political development

After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandan Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1994. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND party was outlawed. Political organizing was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held on August 25, and on September 29, 2003 respectively.[240][241]

The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race or religion. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.[240]

In March 1998, on a visit to Rwanda, US President Bill Clinton spoke to the crowd assembled on the tarmac at Kigali Airport: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.[242] He acknowledged his failure to deal effectively with the situation in Rwanda.[242] Clinton has stated that the "biggest regret" of his presidency was not acting decisively to stop the Rwandan Genocide.[243][244]

Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms, the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. In March 2000, after removing Pasteur Bizimungu, Paul Kagame became President of Rwanda. On August 25, 2003 Kagame won the first national elections since the RPF took power in 1994. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.[citation needed]

The first try at democracy in Rwanda was under Habyarimana just before his plane was shot down and the genocide began. Democratization had been prompted by French influences (international donors practically forcing the administration's hand). Because the idea of democracy had been presented as both a Tutsi imposition and a colonialist one, it remained a disdainful concept in the cultural mindset of the Hutu majority.[245]

Economic and social developments

Graph showing the population of Rwanda from 1961 to 2003. (Data from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization)

The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of the more than two million refugees, ending the insurgency among ex-soldiers and Interahamwe militia fighters and the Rwandan Patriotic Army in the north and southwest of the country, and the shift away from crisis to medium and long-term development planning.[citation needed] The prison population will continue to be an urgent problem for the foreseeable future, having swelled to around 100,000 in the three years after the war.[246] Trying this many suspects of genocide will tax Rwanda's resources sorely.[citation needed]

The long-term effects of war rape in Rwanda for the victims include social isolation (social stigma attached to rape meant some husbands left wives who were victims of war rape, or that the victims were rendered unsuitable for marriage), unwanted pregnancies and babies (some women resorted to self-induced abortions), sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV/AIDS.[247]

The Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated that between 2,000 and 5,000 pregnancies resulted from war rape (between 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandan women and girls had been raped).[248] Rwanda is a patriarchal society and children therefore take the ethnicity of the father, underlining that war rape occurred in the context of genocide.[247] The main issue involving reintegration is the fact that the violence that had occurred often involved neighbors; people lived next to rapists, murderers and torturers. It was very difficult right after the genocide for Tutsis to trust Hutus, whether or not they had any involvement in the genocide.

Justice system after genocide

With the return of the refugees, the government began the long-awaited genocide trials, which had an uncertain start at the end of 1996 and inched forward in 1997. It was not until 1996 that courts finally began trials for genocide cases with the enactment of Organic Law N° 08/96 of 30 on August 30, 1996.[249] This law initiated the prosecution of genocide crimes committed during the genocide and of crimes against humanity from October 199 [249] The systematic destruction of the judicial system during the genocide and civil war was a major problem. Government institutions, including judicial courts, were destroyed, and many judges, prosecutors, and employees were murdered. Of 750 judges, 506 did not remain after the genocide—many were murdered and most of the survivors fled Rwanda. By 1997, Rwanda only had fifty lawyers in its judicial system.[250] These barriers caused the trials to proceed very slowly: with 130,000 suspects held in Rwandan prisons after the genocide,[250] 3,343 cases were handled between 1996 and the end of 2000.[251] Of those defendants, twenty percent received death sentences, thirty-two percent received life in prison, and twenty percent were acquitted.[251] It was calculated that it would take over two hundred years to conduct the trials of the suspects in prison—not including the ones who remained at large.[252] In response to the situation, the government of Rwanda passed Organic Law N° 40/2000 in 2001.[253] This law established Gacaca Courts at all administrative levels of Rwanda and in Kigali.[249] It was mainly created to lessen the burden on normal courts and provide assistance in the justice system to run trials for those already in prison.[251] The least severe cases, according to the terms of Organic Law N° 08/96 of 30, would be handled by these Gacaca Courts.[249] With this law, the government began implementing a participatory justice system, known as Gacaca, in order to address the enormous backlog of cases.[254] The Gacaca court system traditionally dealt with conflicts within communities, but it was adapted to deal with genocide crimes. The following are the objectives of the Gacaca courts:

  • Identifying the truth about what happened during the genocide[249]
  • Speeding up of trial genocide trials[249]
  • Fighting against the culture of impunity[249]
  • Contributing to the national unity and reconciliation process[249]
  • Demonstrating the capacity of the Rwandan people to resolve their own problems[249]

Throughout the years, the Gacaca court system went through a series of modifications. It is estimated that the Gacaca court system has tried over one million cases to date.[252]

Meanwhile, the UN established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, currently based in Arusha, Tanzania. The UN Tribunal has jurisdiction over high-level members of the government and armed forces, while Rwanda is responsible for prosecuting lower-level leaders and local people.[255]

Closing of the Gacaca courts

Main article: Gacaca court

On June 18, 2012, the Gacaca court system was officially closed after facing criticism.[256]

The Gacaca court system faced many controversies and challenges; they were accused of being puppets of the RPF-dominated government.[257] The judges (known as Inyangamugayo, which means "those who detest dishonesty" in Kinyarwanda) who preside over the genocide trials were elected by the public.[257] After election, the judges received training, but there was concern that the training was not adequate for serious legal questions or complex proceedings.[257] Furthermore, many judges resigned after facing accusations of participating in the genocide;[257] 27.1% of them were so accused.[249] There was also a lack of defense counsel and protections for the accused,[257] who were denied the right to appeal to ordinary courts.[257] Most trials were open to the public, but there were issues with witness intimidation.[257] The Gacaca courts did not try those responsible for massacres of Hutu civilians committed by members of the RPF, which controlled the Gacaca Court system.[257]

Closing of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Since the ICTR was established as an ad hoc international jurisdiction,[258] the ICTR is scheduled to close by the end of 2014,[259] after it completes trials by 2009 and appeals by 2010 or 2011. Initially, the U.N. Security Council established the ICTR in 1994 with an original mandate of four years without a fixed deadline and set on addressing the crimes committed during the Rwandan Genocide.[260] As the years passed, it became apparent that the ICTR would exist long past its original mandate. However, with the announcement of its closing, there is a concern over whether the Rwandan genocide will still have an authority like that of the ICTR in prosecuting high-ranking fugitives and with access to international sources.[260]

Media and popular culture

Canadian Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire became the best-known eyewitness to the genocide after co-writing the 2003 book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda describing his experiences with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.[261] Another firsthand account of the Rwandan genocide is offered by Dr. James Orbinski in his book An Imperfect Offering: Humanitarian Action in the Twenty-first Century. Among survivors, Immaculée Ilibagiza documented her story in Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust (2006). The book recounts how Immaculée Ilibagiza survived for 91 days with seven other women during the holocaust in a damp and small bathroom, no larger than 3 feet (0.91 m) long and 4 feet (1.2 m) wide. Gil Courtemanche, a French-Canadian writer, authored Dimanche à la piscine à Kigali (A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali), which focuses on events in Kigali during the genocide.

At the Earth Made of Glass premiere, Rwandan President Paul Kagame stands with, from left, Jenna Dewan, director Deborah Scranton, documentary subject Jean Pierre Sagahutu, producer Reid Carolin and executive producer Channing Tatum.

The critically acclaimed and multiple Academy Award-nominated 2004 film Hotel Rwanda is based on the experiences of Paul Rusesabagina, a Kigali hotelier at the Hôtel des Mille Collines who sheltered over a thousand refugees during the genocide.[262] It is listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 most inspirational movies of all time. This same story is related in Rusesabagina's 2006 autobiography An Ordinary Man.

Dallaire's book was made into the movie Shake Hands with the Devil in 2007. Courtemanche's book was also made into a movie, A Sunday in Kigali (2007).

The documentary Earth Made of Glass, an independent film, was about the personal and political costs of the Genocide, focusing on the Rwandan President Paul Kagame and genocide survivor Jean-Pierre Sagahutu premiered at the 2010 Tribeca Film Festival.[263]

In 2005, Alison Des Forges wrote that eleven years after the genocide, films for popular audiences on the subject greatly increased the "widespread realization of the horror that had taken the lives of more than half a million Tutsi".[264] In 2007, Charlie Beckett, Director of POLIS, made the following observation: "How many people saw the movie Hotel Rwanda? [it is] ironically the way that most people now relate to Rwanda."[265]

Among songs, "Rwanda" by the punk-ska band Rancid from the album Rancid is about the Rwandan genocide. So is the punk-ska band Rx Bandits's song "In All Rwanda's Glory" on their album Progress, which they say contains "overly political lyrics". Brooke Fraser wrote the song "Albertine" on her album Albertine about an eponymous orphan from the genocide which Fraser met time in Rwanda in 2005.

Revisionist accounts

The context of the 1994 Rwandan genocide continues to be a matter of historical debate.[266] There have been frequent charges of revisionism.[267]

A "double genocides" theory, accusing the Tutsis of engaging in a "counter-genocide" against the Hutus,[268] is promulgated in Black Furies, White Liars (2005), the controversial book by French investigative journalist Pierre Péan. One 2009 study of central and southern Rwanda, based on 8 months of field research in Rwanda over a period of 2 years, found, however, that the absolute number of Tutsis killed was double that for Hutus, and that the patterns of killing for the two groups differed.[269] Jean-Pierre Chrétien, a French historian whom Péan describes as an active member of the "pro-Tutsi lobby", criticized Péan's "amazing revisionist passion".[270]

Another person accused of genocide revisionism[271][272] with respect to Rwanda is the Montreal writer Robin Philpot, whom Gerald Caplan identified in a 2007 Globe and Mail article as believing that "many people were killed in 1994 by both sides making those who carried out the genocide and their enemies morally equivalent." He further charges that Philpot argued "[t]here was no one-sided conspiracy by armed Hutu forces and militias against a million defenceless Tutsi, he says."

A great deal of effort has been extended to make sure the focus stays exclusively on the Francophone Tutsi victims and their Hutu executioners. But of the estimated one million people killed, between 300,000 and 500,000 of them were Tutsi, according to best estimates. What about the other 500,000 to 700,000 people? Who is responsible for their deaths?[273]

—Christian Davenport
Professor of Peace Studies at Michigan

In 2009, Christian Davenport of the University of Michigan and Allan C. Stam, the Daniel Webster Professor of Government at Dartmouth, posed the question: "What really happened in Rwanda?" The pair do not question that an anti-Tutsi genocide took place in 1994, but their investigation led them to conclude that "conventional wisdom was only partly correct". They argue that the genocide constituted only part of the slaughter of spring and summer 1994; that the RPF was "clearly responsible" for another major portion of the killings; that the victims were "fairly evenly distributed between Tutsi and Hutu"; that the majority of the dead were actually Hutu, rather than Tutsi; and that, "among other things, it appears that there simply weren't enough Tutsi in Rwanda at the time to account for all the reported deaths." They said that the whole truth, however inconvenient it may be for the RPF-led government of Paul Kagame, must come out. Davenport and Stam have been threatened by members of the Rwandan government and individuals around the world, and—despite their repeated and explicit statements acknowledging the genocide of the Tutsis—labeled "genocide deniers".[274]

In October 2014, a BBC documentary, Rwanda: The Untold Story, was aired that featured interviews with Davenport and Stam and that suggested Kagame's RPF was involved in shooting down Habyarimana's plane. It aroused considerable controversy,[275] as well as earning the ire of the Rwandan government, which banned the BBC's Kinyarwanda-language radio broadcasts from the country.[276] The government is also currently conducting a three-week inquiry into the documentary.[277] In November 2014, Emmanuel Mughisa (also known as Emile Gafarita), a former Rwandan soldier who said he had evidence that Kagame had ordered Habyarimana's plane shot down, was abducted in Nairobi hours after he was called to testify at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.[278] As The Times noted, Mughisa "joins a long list of Mr Kagame's opponents who have disappeared or died."[278]

Revisionism and the Rwandan constitution

Under the Rwandan constitution, "revisionism, negationism and trivialisation of genocide" are criminal offences.[279] Hundreds of people have been tried and convicted for "genocide ideology", "revisionism", and other laws ostensibly related to the genocide. Of the 489 individuals convicted of "genocide revisionism and other related crimes" in 2009, five were sentenced to life imprisonment, a further five were sentenced to more than 20 years in jail, 99 were sentenced to 10–20 years in jail, 211 received a custodial sentence of 5–10 years, and the remaining 169 received jail terms of less than five years.[280] Amnesty International has criticized the Rwandan government for using these laws to "criminalize legitimate dissent and criticism of the government."[281] In 2010, even an American law professor and attorney, Peter Erlinder, was arrested in Kigali and charged with genocide denial while defending presidential candidate Victoire Ingabire against charges of genocide.[282]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), p. 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Seven out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  2. ^ http://rt.com/op-edge/real-genocide-rwanda-hutu-extremist-848/
  3. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 44.
  4. ^ a b c Mamdani 2002, p. 61.
  5. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 58.
  6. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 16.
  7. ^ Luis, J. R.; et al. (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (3): 532–544. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781. (Errata)
  8. ^ Mamdani 2002, p. 58.
  9. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 69.
  10. ^ Shyaka, pp. 10–11.
  11. ^ Mamdani 2002, p. 52.
  12. ^ Chrétien 2003, pp. 88–89.
  13. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 482.
  14. ^ a b Chrétien 2003, p. 160.
  15. ^ Dorsey 1994, p. 38.
  16. ^ a b c Mamdani 2002, p. 69.
  17. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 13–14.
  18. ^ Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 218.
  19. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 25.
  20. ^ Bruce D. Jones, Peacemaking, S. 17 f; Carsten Heeger, Die Erfindung, S. 23–25.
  21. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 23–24.
  22. ^ Chrétien 2003, pp. 217–218.
  23. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 25–26.
  24. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 26.
  25. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 260.
  26. ^ a b Prunier 1999, p. 27.
  27. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 28–29.
  28. ^ Chrétien 2003, pp. 276–277.
  29. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 35.
  30. ^ Gourevitch 2000, pp. 56–57.
  31. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 31–32.
  32. ^ a b Prunier 1999, p. 43.
  33. ^ a b Prunier 1999, pp. 43–44.
  34. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 45–46.
  35. ^ Gourevitch 2000, pp. 58–59.
  36. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 48–49.
  37. ^ a b Prunier 1999, p. 51.
  38. ^ Gourevitch 2000, p. 60.
  39. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 53.
  40. ^ Mamdani 2002, pp. 160–161.
  41. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 63–64.
  42. ^ a b Prunier 1999, pp. 55–56.
  43. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 62.
  44. ^ a b Prunier 1999, pp. 74–76.
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  47. ^ Kinzer 2008, pp. 51–52.
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  50. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 95–96.
  51. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 96.
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  53. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 114–115.
  54. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 117–118.
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  273. ^ David Peterson (17 June 2011). "Rwanda's 1991 Census". ZSpace. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  274. ^ Christian Davenport; Allan C. Stam (6 October 2009). "What Really Happened in Rwanda?". psmag.com. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  275. ^ For criticism of the documentary, see:
    Wallis, Andrew (6 October 2014). "'Rwanda: The Untold Story': questions for the BBC". openDemocracy. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
    Musoni, Edwin (26 November 2014). "BBC had an agenda to twist Rwanda history – UK expert". newtimes.co.rw. Retrieved 27 November 2014. 
  276. ^ Baird, Dugald (24 October 2014). "Rwanda bans BBC broadcasts over genocide documentary". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  277. ^ Musoni, Edwin (18 November 2014). "BBC probe team begins work tomorrow". newtimes.co.rw. Retrieved 27 November 2014. 
  278. ^ a b Starkey, Jerome (25 November 2014). "Soldier who accused Kagame of triggering genocide is abducted". thetimes.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  279. ^ Aprille Muscara (31 August 2010). "RWANDA: Genocide Ideology and Sectarianism Laws Silencing Critics?". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  280. ^ Amnesty International (2010). "Safer to Stay Silent: The chilling effect of Rwanda's laws on 'genocide ideology' and 'sectarianism' ". p. 19. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  281. ^ Amnesty International (2013). "Annual Report 2013: Rwanda". Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  282. ^ Gibson 2010.

References

External links