Born in Colmar to Algerian parents, Boudebouz grew up in the 'Europe' district of the city. At age 10, he joined the junior ranks of local side SR Colmar where he stayed until age 14 when he joined the FC Sochaux-Montbéliard Academy. Boudebouz made his debut for the club's reserve side at the age of 16. On 15 May 2008, Boudebouz signed his first professional contract with the club agreeing to a three-year deal tying him to the club until 2011.
On 4 October 2008, Boudebouz made his first team debut for Sochaux, starting in a league match against Nice. On 8 November 2008, he scored his first career goal, the winner in a 2–1 victory against Le Mans.
On 2 September 2013 - the last day of the 2013-14 summer transfer window - Boudebouz signed a three-years contract with Corsica-based club SC Bastia, for a reported fee of €1 million.
On 4 May 2010, Boudebouz was named to the Algeria national team2010 World Cup preliminary squad. Boudebouz had been in the process of acquiring a passport to represent the nation of his parents since 2009. On 28 May 2010, Boudebouz made his debut for Algeria in a friendly against the Republic of Ireland. Starting the game on the bench, he was substituted in at the 65th minute. He was included in the final 23-man squad for the World Cup.