|- City -|
View of Ryazan
Location of Ryazan Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of July 2012)|
|Federal subject||Ryazan Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Ryazan|
|Administrative center of||Ryazan Oblast, Ryazansky District, city of oblast significance of Ryazan|
|Municipal status (as of July 2008)|
|Urban okrug||Ryazan Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Ryazan Urban Okrug, Ryazansky Municipal District|
|Mayor||Vitaly Artyomov|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||524,927 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||31st|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|First mentioned||1095|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4912|
|Ryazan on WikiCommons|
Ryazan (Russian: Рязань, IPA: [rʲɪˈzanʲ] ( )) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River 196 kilometers (122 mi) southeast of Moscow. Population: 524,927 (2010 Census); 521,560 (2002 Census); 514,638 (1989 Census).
It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory previously populated by Finnic peoples. Initially it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the kremlin dates back to the 12th century.
However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom (cities of Kievan Rus').
The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but particularly the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal. By the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237, it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers (34 mi) to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan (Old Ryazan), close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
In 1380, during the Battle of Kulikovo, the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tatar Golden Horde, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitry Donskoy.
Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, which is known as Ryazan from the 16th century (officially renamed in 1778). The principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521.
In September 1999, Ryazan was one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though did not actually experience a successful bomb attack.
Administrative and municipal status
Ryazan is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ryazansky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Ryazan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Ryazan is incorporated as Ryazan Urban Okrug.
Major industries in the city include electronics and oil refining.
Ryazan has a reputation of being one Russia's electronics hubs. Around a quarter of the city's population is affected by the electronics industry. The most notable company in this sector is Plazma (company), which produces plasma screens for products including tanks and locomotives. In 1994, the company created a 50-50 research and development joint-venture with the South Korean company Orion PDP. Plazma's expertise helped Orion PDP become one of the world's leading manufacturers of plasma television panels. In addition to plasma technology, Plazma produces LCD screens, industrial gas lasers and medical lasers. The company exports its products to foreign countries, including to the United States, China and Israel.
The economy of Ryazan benefits from a large number of skilled engineers graduating from the State Radiotechnical University, and from the city's close proximity to Moscow, which can be reached in 90 minutes by car.
Since 1864, there is a railway connection between Ryazan and Moscow. The city has two train stations, Ryazan I(ru) and Ryazan II(ru), both of which are part of the Ryazan transit system within the city.
An economically important educational institution in the city is the State Radiotechnical University. The Higher Paratrooper Command Academy used to be Russia's only military school training officers for the airborne forces, giving Ryazan the reputation as the "paratrooper capital". However, in 2010 the institution discontinued enrollment to its paratrooper program, and now focuses on training professional sergeants for the armed forces. The Gorky Library serves Ryazan as well as Ryazan Oblast. It is the largest library in the region.
Ryazan is one of the leading hubs for high-tech innovation and development in Russia. Thousands of students learn mathematics and engineering at Ryazan State University and Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. It is home to iAGE , whose solutions and technologies help companies automate their digital marketing data-driven campaigns. Software engineering company EPAM Systems has an office in Ryazan . In 2012 Russian search giant Yandex launched the 40MW data center in Sasovo; it's expected to accommodate 100,000 servers by 2019.
- Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov, composer
- Alexander Pirogov, bass opera singer
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, writer
- Andrey Markov, mathematician
- Erast Garin, comic actor
- Irina Meleshina, a Russian long jumper
- Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, biologist
- Ivan Nifontov, judoka
- Ivan Pavlov, physiologist
- Kirill Sosunov, long jumper
- Konstantin Paustovsky, writer
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, engineer
- Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, satirist
- Sergei Yesenin, poet
- Yakov Polonsky, writer
- Sergei Panov, basketball player
Twin towns and sister cities
Ryazan is twinned with:
- Law #128-OZ
- Law #75-OZ
- Law #74-OZ
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Anatoly Medetsky (26 Jun 2011). "Ryazan: Plasma Screens and Pavlov's Dogs". The Moscow Times.
- Train Station in Ryazan (Russian)
- Oleg Kovalyov at Yandex's data center (Russian)
- "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №128-ОЗ от 12 сентября 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области», в ред. Закона №56-ОЗ от 27 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 7 Закона Рязанской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №273, 20 сентября 2007 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #128-OZ of September 12, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ryazan Oblast, as amended by the Law #56-OZ of July 27, 2012 On Amending Article 7 of the Law of Ryazan Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ryazan Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication.).
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №75-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — город Рязань статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №77-ОЗ от 9 июля 2008 г «Об утверждении границы муниципального образования — городской округ город Рязань». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213, 14 октября 2004 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #75-OZ of October 7, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Ryazan and on Establishing Its Borders, as amended by the Law #77-OZ of July 9, 2008 On Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation—the Urban Okrug of the City of Ryazan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №74-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — Рязанский район статусом муниципального района, об установлении его границ и границ муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №45-ОЗ от 9 апреля 2008 г «Об утверждении границы муниципального образования — Рязанский муниципальный район и границ муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213 (без приложений), 14 октября 2004 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #74-OZ of October 7, 2004 On Granting the Municipal Formation of Ryazansky District the Status of a Municipal District, on Establishing Its Borders and the Borders of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #45-OZ of April 9, 2008 On Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of Ryazansky Munipal Districts and the Borders of the Municipal Formations It Comprises. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- "Riazan". Hand-book for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland (2nd ed.). London: John Murray. 1868.
- "Ryazan". The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424.
- (Russian) Official website of Ryazan
- (Russian) Unofficial website of Ryazan
- Photos of Ryazan
- (Russian) Photos of Ryazan
- The Uspensky cathedral (inside the Ryazan kremlin)
- Konstantinovo (motherland of the Sergei Yesenin) and other photos.
- Photos of historical part of Ryazan
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ryazan.|