Ryder Cup

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Ryder Cup
RyderCupLogo.svg
Tournament information
Location 2014: Auchterarder, Perthshire, Scotland
Established 1927
Course(s) 2014: Gleneagles Hotel
PGA Centenary Course
Par 2014: 72
Length 2014: 7,262 yd (6,640 m)
Tour(s) PGA Tour, European Tour
Format Match play
Prize fund None
Month played Usually September, rarely October
Current champion
Europe Europe
2014 Ryder Cup

The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States. The competition, which is jointly administered by the PGA of America and the PGA European Tour, is contested every two years with the venue alternating between courses in the USA and Europe. The Ryder Cup is named after the English businessman Samuel Ryder who donated the trophy.

Originally contested between Great Britain and the United States, the first official Ryder Cup took place in 1927 at Worcester Country Club, in Massachusetts, US. The home team won the first five contests, but with the competition's resumption after the Second World War, repeated American dominance eventually led to a decision to extend the representation of "Great Britain and Ireland" to include continental Europe from 1979. The inclusion of continental European golfers was partly prompted by the success of a new generation of Spanish golfers, led by Seve Ballesteros and Antonio Garrido. In 1973 the official title of the British Team had been changed from "Great Britain" to "Great Britain and Ireland", but this was simply a change of name to reflect the fact that golfers from the Republic of Ireland had been playing in the Great Britain Ryder Cup team since 1953, while Northern Irish players had competed since 1947.

Since 1979, Europe has won nine times outright and retained the Cup once in a tied match, with seven American wins over this period. The European team has included players from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden. The Ryder Cup, and its counterpart the Presidents Cup, remain exceptions within the world of professional sports because the players receive no prize money despite the contests being high-profile events that bring in large amounts of money in television and sponsorship revenue.[1]

The current holders are Europe who won at the Medinah Country Club, in Illinois in 2012 by a score of 14½ points to 13½, having overturned a four-point deficit going into the final day's play. The 2014 event will be held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Perth & Kinross, Scotland from 26–28 September. The 2016 Ryder Cup will be at Hazeltine National Golf Club in Chaska, Minnesota from September 30 to October 2.

Founding of the Cup[edit]

The Ryder Cup on display in 2008.

Gleneagles 1921[edit]

On September 27, 1920 Golf Illustrated wrote a letter to the Professional Golfers' Association of America with a suggestion that a team of 12 to 20 American professionals be chosen to play in the 1921 British Open, to be financed by popular subscription.[2] At that time no American golfer had won the British Open. The idea was that of James D. Harnett, who worked for the magazine. The PGA of America made a positive reply and the idea was announced in the November 1920 issue. The fund was called the British Open Championship Fund. By the next spring the idea had been firmed-up.[3] A team of 12 would be chosen, who would sail in time to play a warm-up tournament at Gleneagles (The Glasgow Herald 1000 Guinea Tournament) prior to the British Open at St. Andrews, two weeks later. The team of 12 was chosen by PGA President George Sargent and PGA Secretary Alec Pirie, with the assistance of USGA Vice-President Robert Gardner.[4] A team of 11 sailed from New York on the RMS Aquitania on May 24, 1921 together with James Harnett.[5] The team was later joined by James Douglas Edgar.

The idea for a 12-a-side International Match between the American and Great Britain professionals was reported in The Times on May 17.[6] The match would be played at Gleneagles on Monday June 6, the day before the start of the 1000 Guinea Tournament. With Jim Barnes indisposed, the match eventually became a 10-a-side contest, Edgar being left out of the American team. The match consisted of 5 foursomes in the morning and 10 singles in the afternoon, played on the King's Course. The match was won by Great Britain by 9 matches to 3, 3 matches being halved.[7]

A team of American amateur golfers were also in Britain in 1921, their objective being to win The Amateur Championship at Hoylake. A match between American and British amateur golfers was played on May 21, immediately before The Amateur Championship. This match was also arranged at a late stage, being announced in The Times on May 10. The Times reports that the match was arranged by Gershom Stewart M.P.[8]

The 1921 Open Championship was won by Jock Hutchison, one of the American professional team. So that, despite losing the International Match, the main purpose of the team (winning the British Open) was achieved.

Wentworth 1926[edit]

The match played at Hoylake in 1921 between British and American amateur golfers was followed by the creation of the Walker Cup, which was played in 1922, 1923, 1924 and then (for financial reasons) on a biennial basis from 1926.[9] However the Gleneagles match did not immediately lead to a corresponding match between the professionals.

It was common at this time for a small number of professionals to travel to compete in each other's national championship. In 1926, a larger than usual contingent of American professionals were travelling to Britain to compete in the Open Championship, two weeks before their own Championship. In February it was announced that Walter Hagen would select a team of four American professionals (including himself) to play four British professionals in a match before the Open Championship.[10] The match would be a stroke play competition with each playing the four opposing golfers over 18 holes.[11] In April it was announced that Samuel Ryder would be presenting a trophy "for annual competition between British and American professionals." with the first match to be played on June 4 and 5 "but the details are not yet decided",[12] and then in May it was announced that the match would be a match-play competition, 8-a-side, foursomes on the first day, singles on the second.[13] Eventually, at Hagen's request, 10 players competed for each team.[14] Samuel Ryder (and his brother James) had been a major sponsor of British professional golf for a number of years.[11]

The match resulted in 13-1 victory for the British team (1 match was halved). The match was widely reported as being for the "Ryder Cup". However Golf Illustrated for June 11 states that because of uncertainty following the general strike in May, which lead to uncertainty about how many Americans would be visiting Britain, Samuel Ryder had decided to withhold the cup for a year. It has also been suggested that the fact that the Ryder Cup itself was not in existence at the time, that Walter Hagen chose the American team rather than the American PGA, that only those Americans who had travelled to Britain to play in the British Open were available for selection and that it contained four players born outside the United States, also contributed to the feeling that the match ought to be regarded as unofficial.[11] In addition the Americans "had only just landed in England and were not yet in full practice."[15]

Worcester 1927[edit]

Main article: 1927 Ryder Cup

The 1927 competition was organised on a much more formal basis. A Ryder Cup "Deed of Trust" was drawn up formalising the rules of the contest, while each of the PGA organisations had a selection process. In Britain Golf Illustrated launched a fund to raise £3,000 to fund professional golfers to play in the U.S. Open and the Ryder Cup. Ryder contributed £100 and, when the fund closed with a shortfall of £300, he made up the outstanding balance himself. Although not in the official rules of the contest at that time, the American PGA restricted their team to those born and resident in the United States.[11]

In early 1928 it became clear that an annual contest was not practical and so it was decided that the second contest should be in 1929 and then every two years thereafter.[11]

In 1927 and 1929 the American PGA decided to only select American born and resident players but the original Ryder Cup "Deed of Trust" made no such provision. In late 1929 the Deed of Trust was revised requiring players to be born in and resident in their respective countries, as well as being members of their respective Professional Golfers' Association.[11]

Inclusion of continental European golfers[edit]

The most significant change to the Ryder Cup has been the inclusion of continental European golfers since 1979. Up until 1977, the matches featured teams representing the United States and Great Britain and Ireland. From 1979 players from continental Europe have been eligible to join what is now known as Team Europe. The change to include continental Europeans arose from discussion in 1977 between Jack Nicklaus and the Earl of Derby, who was serving as the President of the Professional Golfers' Association; it was suggested by Nicklaus as a means to make the matches more competitive, since the Americans almost always won, often by lopsided margins.[16] The change worked, as the contests immediately became much more competitive, with talented young Europeans such as Seve Ballesteros and Bernhard Langer bolstering the European side. The present-day popularity of the Ryder Cup, which now generates enormous media attention, can be said to date from that change in eligibility.

Format[edit]

The Ryder Cup involves various match play competitions between players selected from two teams of twelve. It takes place from a Friday to a Sunday with a total of 28 matches being played, all matches being over 18 holes. On Friday and Saturday there are four fourball matches and four foursomes matches each day; a session of four matches in the morning and a session of four matches in the afternoon. On Sunday, there are 12 singles matches, when all team members play. Not all players must play on Friday and Saturday; the captain can select any eight players for each of the sessions over these two days.

The winner of each match scores a point for his team, with ½ a point each for any match that is tied after the 18 holes. The winning team is determined by cumulative total points. In the event of a tie (14 points each) the Ryder Cup is retained by the team who held it before the contest.

A foursomes match is a competition between two teams of two golfers. The golfers on the same team take alternate shots throughout the match, with the same ball. Each hole is won by the team that completes the hole in the fewest shots. A fourball match is also a competition between two teams of two golfers, but all four golfers play their own ball throughout the round rather than alternating shots, and each hole is won by the team whose individual golfer has the lowest score. A singles match is a standard match play competition between two golfers.

The format of the Ryder Cup has changed over the years. From the inaugural event until 1959, the Ryder Cup was a two-day competition with 36-hole matches. In 1961 the matches were changed to 18 holes each and the number of matches doubled. In 1963 the event was expanded to three days, with fourball matches being played for the first time. This format remained until 1977, when the number of matches was reduced to 20 but in 1979, the first year continental European players participated, the format was changed to the 28-match version in use today, with 8 foursomes/four-ball matches on the first two days and 12 singles matches on the last day.[17]

Year Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total
Points
Morning Afternoon Morning Afternoon Morning Afternoon
1927–59 4 36-hole foursomes 8 36-hole singles 12
1961 4 foursomes 4 foursomes 8 singles 8 singles 24
1963–71 4 foursomes 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 4 fourballs 8 singles 8 singles 32
1973 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 8 singles 8 singles 32
1975 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 4 fourballs 4 foursomes 8 singles 8 singles 32
1977 5 foursomes 5 fourballs 10 singles 20
1979–date 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 12 singles 28
4 fourballs 4 foursomes 4 fourballs 4 foursomes

There were two singles sessions (morning and afternoon) in 1979 but no player played in both sessions. Currently the home captain decides before the contest starts whether the fourball or foursomes matches are played in the morning. He may choose a different order for the two days.

Since 1979 a player can play a maximum of 5 matches (2 foursomes, 2 fourballs and a singles match), however from 1963 to 1975 it was possible to play 6 matches (2 foursomes, 2 fourballs and 2 singles matches).

The team size was increased from 10 to 12 in 1969.

Team qualification and selection[edit]

The selection process for the Ryder Cup players has varied over the years. In the early contests the teams were generally decided by a selection committee but later qualification based on performances was introduced. The current system by which most of the team is determined by performances with a small number of players selected by the captain (known as "wild cards" or "captain's picks") gradually evolved and has been used by both sides since 1989.[18]

For the 2014 Ryder Cup each team will have 9 players qualifying based on performances with the remaining 3 players selected by the captain.

Notable Ryder Cups[edit]

1969: Nicklaus vs Jacklin[edit]

Main article: 1969 Ryder Cup

The 1969 Cup held at Royal Birkdale was perhaps one of the best and most competitive contests in terms of play (18 of the 32 matches went to the last green). It was decided in its very last match, of which United States Captain Sam Snead later said "This is the greatest golf match you have ever seen in England".[19]

With the United States and Great Britain tied at 15.5 each, Jack Nicklaus led Tony Jacklin by the score of 1 up as they played the 17th hole. Jacklin made a 35-foot eagle putt and when Nicklaus missed his own eagle try from 12-feet, the match was all square.

At the par-5 finishing hole, both Jacklin and Nicklaus got on the green in two. Nicklaus ran his eagle putt five feet past the hole, while Jacklin left his two foot short. Nicklaus then sank his birdie putt, and with a crowd of 8,000 people watching, picked up Jacklin's marker, conceding the putt Jacklin needed to tie the matches. With the United States team already holding the cup, the tie allowed it to retain the cup.[20][21] "I don't think you would have missed that putt," Nicklaus said to Jacklin afterwards, "but in these circumstances I would never give you the opportunity."

This gesture of sportsmanship by Nicklaus caused controversy on the American side, some of whom would have preferred to force Jacklin to attempt the putt for the small chance that he might miss, which would have given the United States team an outright win. "All the boys thought it was ridiculous to give him that putt," said Sam Snead. "We went over there to win, not to be good ol' boys."

1989: Azinger and Ballesteros[edit]

Main article: 1989 Ryder Cup

Held at The Belfry in Europe, the 1989 Ryder Cup saw the rising of tensions in the series. After holding the cup for more than two decades, the United States team lost both the 1985 and 1987 matches. At the 1989 matches, the pressure was on the United States team and its captain, Raymond Floyd. At a pre-match, opening celebration, Floyd slighted the European team by introducing his United States team as "the 12 greatest players in the world."

The competition saw the beginnings of a feud between Seve Ballesteros and Paul Azinger. Early in their singles match, Ballesteros sought to change a scuffed ball for a new ball under Rule of Golf 5-3. Somewhat unusually, Azinger disputed whether the ball was unfit for play. A referee was called, and sided with Azinger in ruling the ball fit for play. Ballesteros reportedly said to Azinger, "Is this the way you want to play today?" The match continued in a contentious fashion, culminating in Ballesteros unusually contesting whether Azinger took a proper drop after hitting into the water on the 18th hole.

The American team's frustration grew as the matches ended in a tie, with the European team retaining the cup.

1991: "The War on the Shore"[edit]

Main article: 1991 Ryder Cup

The overall tension between the teams and the feud between Ballesteros and Azinger escalated at the Kiawah Island Golf Resort in 1991. At the ceremonial opening dinner, the PGA of America played two videos that were seen as less than hospitable by the European team. The first video was presented as a highlight reel of past Ryder Cups, but reportedly showed only Americans. The second video was a welcoming address by then-United States President George H. W. Bush in which he closed by cheering on the American side.

On the first morning of the competition, Azinger and Chip Beck were paired against Ballesteros and José María Olazábal in a foursome match, an alternate shot event. Azinger and Beck accused Ballesteros of gamesmanship on account of his throat clearing during Beck's shots. Later in the same match, Azinger and Beck, who were playing the same brand and make of ball but each with a slightly different model, switched their balls. While this switching was unlikely to have resulted in an advantage or to have been intentional, it was in violation of the "one ball rule" which was in effect for the competition. Under that rule, a player is prohibited from changing the type of ball he uses during the course of a match. A few holes after the switch had occurred, Ballesteros called the Americans for the violation. Azinger, seeming to feel that his integrity was being questioned, said "I can tell you we're not trying to cheat." Ballesteros responded, "Oh no. Breaking the rules and cheating are two different things." As the violation was called too long after it had occurred, no penalty was assessed against the American pair. The constant goading between Ballesteros and Azinger intensified their respective desires to win. Out of that intensity, they and their playing partners produced what may be regarded as one of the best pairs matches in history, with the Spaniards winning 2 & 1. After the matches concluded, Ballesteros reportedly said, "The American team has 11 nice guys. And Paul Azinger."

The 1991 matches received the sobriquet "the War on the Shore" after some excitable advertising in the American media, and intense rooting by the American home crowds. For his part, Corey Pavin caused controversy by sporting a Desert Storm baseball cap during the event in support of the U.S. and coalition war effort in Iraq.

The matches culminated in one of the single most dramatic putts in the history of golf. With only one match remaining to be completed, between Hale Irwin for the United States and Bernhard Langer for the Europeans, the United States team led by one point. Irwin and Langer came to the last hole tied. To win the cup, the American team needed Irwin to win or tie the match by winning or tying the hole. The Europeans could keep the cup with a win by Langer. Both players struggled on the hole, and found themselves facing a pair of putts; Langer had a six-foot, side-hill par putt, and Irwin had a generally uphill, 18-inch putt for bogey. To the surprise of his teammates, Langer conceded Irwin's bogey putt, leaving himself in a must-make position. Langer missed his putt, the match was halved, and the U.S. team took back the cup.

Players on both sides were driven to public tears by the pressure of the matches on the final day. The intense competition of the 1991 Ryder Cup is widely regarded as having elevated public interest in the series.

1999: Battle of Brookline[edit]

Main article: 1999 Ryder Cup

The 1999 Ryder Cup held at The Country Club in Brookline, Massachusetts, caused great controversy. A remarkable comeback by the American team helped propel the U.S. to a 14.5–13.5 victory after trailing 10–6 heading into the final day. The U.S. went 8–3–1 in the singles matches to seal the first American victory since 1993.

The competition turned on the 17th hole of a match between American Justin Leonard and Spaniard José María Olazábal. With the match all square at the 17th hole, Leonard needed to earn at least a half-point by either winning one of the last two holes (therefore earning a full point), or finishing the match at all square (therefore earning a half-point) to seal an American victory. After Olazábal's second shot left him with a 22-foot putt on the par-4, Leonard hit his shot within 10 feet of the hole and then watched it roll away from the cup, leaving him with a 45-foot putt for birdie. While sinking a putt of this length is unlikely, Leonard had made putts of 25 and 35 feet earlier in the round. Leonard holed the astounding putt, and a wild celebration ensued with other U.S. players, their wives, and a few fans running onto the green. Had Leonard's putt sealed the match, this type of behavior would have been inappropriate but moot. Knowing that a made putt would extend the match while a miss would assure Leonard of a half-point and the U.S. a victory (the Americans needed 14.5 points to gain the cup due to the Europeans' 1997 victory at Valderrama), Olazábal tried to regain his focus. However, he missed the difficult putt, and the American team celebrated once again (although the second celebration was more reserved than the first one).

According to the "Best of the Rest" section of ESPN's Top 5 Reasons You Can't Blame program, NBC television footage and press photos prove that no official rules (Ryder Cup or PGA) were broken when the Americans celebrated after Leonard's putt (i.e., no one walked in or crossed Olazábal's putting line – although Europe player Sam Torrance has said in TV interviews that a TV cameraman stood on Olazábal's line while filming the invasion of the green by players and spectators). However, the game of golf is upheld by many to be "the gentleman's game", and there remain a number of unwritten rules and codes of conduct which the European players believe were being ignored. Many of the American players believed the Europeans' response was hypocritical; they argued that European players – in particular Seve Ballesteros – had been guilty of excessive celebration and gamesmanship as far back as the 1985 Ryder Cup Matches, without attracting the same opprobrium from the European media. There was still considerable bad blood after the match, with some of the European players complaining about the behavior of the American galleries throughout the match. Sam Torrance branded it "disgusting," while European captain Mark James referred to it as a "bear pit" in a book recounting the event.[22] There were also reports that a spectator spat at James' wife.[23]

Following the 1999 Ryder Cup, a number of members of the U.S. team apologized for their behavior, and there were numerous attempts by both teams to calm the increasing nationalism of the event. These efforts appear to have been largely successful, with subsequent Cups being played in the "spirit of the game".

2012: The Meltdown at Medinah/The Miracle at Medinah[edit]

Main article: 2012 Ryder Cup

The 39th Ryder Cup, held at the Medinah Country Club in Medinah, Illinois, saw an extraordinary comeback by Europe, under captain José María Olazábal of Spain. The Europeans were down 10-4 after 14 matches, with two four-ball matches still on the course and 12 singles matches to be played the next day. Despite being down 10-6 going into the final day Europe came back to win by 14½ points to 13½.[24] Out of the 12 points up for grabs on the final day Europe won 8½ points with the U.S. winning only 3½ points.

Martin Kaymer struck the putt (a putt almost identical in length that fellow German Bernhard Langer missed at the 1991 Ryder Cup) that retained the cup for Europe. Francesco Molinari secured the final half-point to win the Ryder Cup outright by winning the 18th hole to halve his match against Tiger Woods. Ian Poulter of the European team finished this Ryder Cup with a perfect 4-0 record. He also played an instrumental role in team morale, with emotions pouring out during each of his matches.

Results[edit]

Cancellations and postponements[edit]

1939 Ryder Cup

The 1939 Ryder Cup was planned for November 18–19 at Ponte Vedra Country Club in Jacksonville, Florida; Walter Hagen was chosen as non-playing captain of the U.S. team. The competition was cancelled shortly after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September.

In early April 1939, the British P.G.A. chose a selection committee of six and selected Henry Cotton as captain.[25] In August, eight players were named in the team: Cotton, Jimmy Adams, Dick Burton, Sam King, Alf Padgham, Dai Rees, Charles Whitcombe and Reg Whitcombe.[26] Charles Whitcombe immediately withdrew from the team,[27] not wishing to travel to the United States. With seven selected, three places were left to be filled. War was declared on 3 September and the British P.G.A. immediately cancelled the match: "The P.G.A. announce that the Ryder Cup match for this year has been cancelled by the state of war prevailing in this country. The P.G.A. of the United States is being informed."[28]

1941, 1943 and 1945 Ryder Cups

The Ryder Cup was not played in these scheduled years due to the war. After a decade-long absence, it resumed in November 1947 at the Portland Golf Club in Portland, Oregon.

2001 Ryder Cup
Main article: 2002 Ryder Cup

The competition, scheduled for 28–30 September at the The Belfry's Brabazon Course, was postponed a year because of the September 11 attacks. It was played in 2002 at the original venue with the same teams that had been selected to play a year earlier. The display boards at The Belfry still read "The 2001 Ryder Cup", and U.S. captain Curtis Strange deliberately referred to his team as "The 2001 Ryder Cup Team" in his speech at the closing ceremony.

It was later decided to hold the subsequent Ryder Cup in 2004 (rather than 2003) and thereafter in even-numbered years. This change also affected the men's Presidents Cup and Seve Trophy and women's Solheim Cup competitions, as each switched from even to odd years.

Summary[edit]

Team From To Matches Wins Losses Ties
 United States 1927 2012 39 25 12 2
 Great Britain/
 Great Britain &  Ireland
1927 1977 22 3 18 1
 Europe 1979 2012 17 9 7 1

Although the team was referred to as "Great Britain" up to 1971, a number of golfers from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Guernsey and Jersey had played for Great Britain before that date. In 1973 the official team name was changed to "Great Britain and Ireland", but this was simply a change of name to reflect the fact that golfers from the Republic of Ireland had played in the "Great Britain" Ryder Cup team since Harry Bradshaw in 1953, while Northern Irish players had competed since Fred Daly in 1947. The team has been referred to as "Europe" since 1979, when players from continental Europe were included.

Future venues[edit]

Bidding for the 2018 Ryder Cup[edit]

Ryder Cup Europe confirmed that six countries – France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden – had announced their intention to bid for the 2018 Ryder Cup.[29] The deadline for the submission of bids was set for 30 April 2010; Sweden withdrew from the bidding early that month,[30] while the Spanish bidding host city of Tres Cantos showed poor popular support.[31][32]

There were five bids to host the event:

France were announced as hosts on 17 May 2011, despite calls for the Cup to be held in Spain, as a tribute to the late Seve Ballesteros.[33]

Records[edit]

Sources[34][35][36]

Similar golf events[edit]

The following team events involve the top male professional golfers:

  • Presidents Cup — an event similar to the Ryder Cup, except that the competing sides are a U.S. side and an International side from the rest of the world consisting of players who are ineligible for the Ryder Cup. Held in years when there is no Ryder Cup.
  • Seve Trophy — founded by Seve Ballesteros, between a team from Great Britain and Ireland against one from continental Europe. Held in years when there is no Ryder Cup.
  • Royal Trophy — established in 2006, a similar match between Europe and Asia with eight men a side.
  • EurAsia Cup — established in 2014, another event between Europe and Asia with ten men a side.

Other team golf events between U.S. and either Europe or Great Britain and Ireland include:

  • Solheim Cup — The women's equivalent of the Ryder Cup, featuring the same U.S. against Europe format.
  • Walker Cup — Event for amateur men between a U.S. side and a team drawn from Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Curtis Cup — Women's amateur event analogous to the Walker Cup. Like the Walker Cup, the competition format is the U.S. versus Great Britain and Ireland.
  • PGA Cup — A match between U.S. and Great Britain and Ireland club professionals.
  • Palmer Cup — A match, named after Arnold Palmer, between U.S. and European college/university golfers.
  • Junior Ryder Cup — A match between U.S. and European juniors involving both boys and girls.
  • Junior Solheim Cup — A match between U.S. and European junior girls, held in conjunction with, and in the vicinity of, the Solheim Cup.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "OK, so what's it worth?". golftoday.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  2. ^ "U.S. Professionals to Seek British Title". Golf Illustrated Inc 1920 (November): 27. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Month at a Glance". Golf Illustrated Inc 1921 (March): 32. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "Month at a Glance". Golf Illustrated Inc 1921 (May): 32. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "Golf Stars Sail for British Links". The New York Times 1921 (May 25). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  6. ^ "The American Professionals". The Times 1921 (May 17): 12. 
  7. ^ "Gleneagles - International Golf". The Glasgow Herald 1921 (June 7). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "The "Invasion" Begins - American Golfers at Liverpool". The Times 1921 (May 10): 10. 
  9. ^ "History of the Walker Cup match". 2013 Walker Cup. 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Professional International Match". The Times 1926 (February 20): 5. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Fry, Peter (July 2000). Samuel Ryder: The Man Behind the Ryder Cup. Wright Press. ISBN 978-0-9539087-0-7. 
  12. ^ "The "Ryder" Trophy". The Times 1926 (April 26): 6. 
  13. ^ "Professional International Match". The Times 1926 (May 18): 3. 
  14. ^ "The "Ryder" Cup - To-day's International Match". The Times 1926 (June 4): 6. 
  15. ^ "The Ryder Cup". The Times 1927 (April 6): 7. 
  16. ^ Jack Nicklaus: My Story, by Jack Nicklaus with Ken Bowden, 2002.
  17. ^ "Ryder Cup Match History". Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  18. ^ "PGA Media Guide 2012 - How The Ryder Cup Teams Have Been Chosen". PGA. pp. 21–22. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  19. ^ Yanks great golf good for tie
  20. ^ Ryder Cup Climax of Breath-Taking Excitement
  21. ^ A tie may be like kissing your sister...
  22. ^ Into the Bear Pit: The Hard-hitting Inside Story of the Brookline Ryder Cup, ISBN 1-85227-854-4
  23. ^ CNN report 'A Mob demonstration'
  24. ^ "Ryder Cup 2012: Europe beat USA after record comeback". BBC. 30 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  25. ^ "The Ryder Cup". The Times, Wednesday, 5 April 1939; pg. 6; Issue 48272; col C.
  26. ^ "The Ryder Cup Team". The Times, Tuesday, 22 August 1939; pg. 6; Issue 48390; col E.
  27. ^ "C Whitcombe out of Ryder Cup Team". The Times, Wednesday, 23 August 1939; pg. 6; Issue 48391; col B.
  28. ^ "Ryder Cup Match Cancelled". The Times, Tuesday, 5 September 1939; pg. 3; Issue 48402; col C.
  29. ^ The 2010 Ryder Cup – Bidding nations for 2018 Ryder Cup announced
  30. ^ News & Events | PGA.com
  31. ^ About 500 people march against the construction of a golf course
  32. ^ New demonstration at Tres Cantos against the golf course project
  33. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/golf/13409990.stm BBC Sport, 17 May 2011
  34. ^ 2010 Ryder Cup 2010 All-Time Team Europe Ryder Cup Records
  35. ^ 2010 Ryder Cup 2010 All-Time Team USA Ryder Cup Records
  36. ^ The Ryder Cup - Match history & records 1927 - 2012

External links[edit]