Rye whiskey can refer to either of two types of whiskey:
- American rye whiskey, which must be distilled from at least 51 percent rye;
- Canadian whisky, which is often referred to (and labelled as) rye whisky for historical reasons, although it may or may not actually include any rye in its production process.
American rye whiskey
In the United States, "rye whiskey" is, by law, made from a mash of at least 51 percent rye. (The other ingredients of the mash are usually corn and malted barley.) It is distilled to no more than 160 (U.S.) proof (80% abv), and aged in charred, new oak barrels. The whiskey must be put into such barrels at not more than 125 (U.S.) proof (62.5% abv). Rye whiskey that has been so aged for at least two years may be further designated as "straight", as in "straight rye whiskey".
Rye whiskey was the prevalent whiskey of the northeastern states, especially Pennsylvania and Maryland. Pittsburgh was the epicenter of Rye Whiskey production in the late 1700 and early 1800s. By 1808, Allegheny County farmers were selling one half barrel for each man, woman and child in the country. Rye whiskey largely disappeared after Prohibition. A few brands, such as Old Overholt, survived it, although by the late '60s even old Pennsylvania names such as Old Overholt were being distilled only in Kentucky. Today Bulleit, Heaven Hill, Sazerac Company, Jim Beam, and Wild Turkey, among others, also produce rye whiskeys, as does a distillery at Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington, which sells a version of the rye Washington made. Rye is currently undergoing a small but growing revival in the United States. Jack Daniel's has begun production of a rye whiskey, releasing unaged and lightly aged as limited editions. Many new whiskey distillers since the beginning of the 21st century are experimenting with rye whiskey, and several now market aged rye whiskey.
Differences between rye and bourbon
Rye is known for imparting what many call a spicy or fruity flavor to the whiskey. Bourbon, distilled from at least 51% corn, is noticeably sweeter, and tends to be fuller bodied than rye. Due to its distinctive flavor, American rye whiskey is sometimes referred to as America's equivalent of an Islay whisky. As bourbon gained popularity beyond the southern United States, bartenders increasingly substituted it for rye in cocktails like Whiskey sours, Manhattans, and Old Fashioneds, which were originally made with rye. All other things being equal, the character of the cocktail will be drier with rye.
Canadian rye whisky
Canadian whisky is often referred to as "rye whisky", since historically much of the content was from rye. There is no requirement for rye to be used to make whiskies with the legally-identical labels "Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" or "Rye Whisky" in Canada, provided they "possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky".
In modern practice, most Canadian whiskeys are blended to achieve this character, adding a flavoring whisky made from a rye mash and distilled to a lower proof, similar to an American straight rye whiskey, to a high-proof base whisky typically made from corn or wheat and aged in used barrels. Other lower-proof flavoring whisky varieties may also be included to achieve a desired taste. In some cases the corn-to-rye ratio may be as high as 9:1. Most contemporary Canadian whiskies contain only a fraction of rye, with the exception of Alberta Premium which is one of the very few whiskies made from 100% rye mash.
In contrast with the US "straight rye whiskey" counterpart, a minimum of 3 years aging in small 700 litres (150 imp gal; 180 US gal) wooden barrel is required, although they need not be new oak, nor charred.
- ""Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits," Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations, Pt. 5.22". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- Toland, Bill (May 23, 2007). "Rye is Popular Again". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Whiskey Resurrection: A Look at Local Distillers, and How They are Faring in Repeal's 4th Year". The Bulletin Index. September 16, 1937.
- ""Rye's Revival," Wine Spectator magazine, July 31, 2008". Winespectator.com. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- "Catoctin Creek Press Release, March 15, 2010". Catoctincreekdistilling.com. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- "You are all going to discover the beauty of young rye whiskey," Roundtable Interview, Malt Advocate Volume 16, Number 2, 2007.
- See, e.g. Wondrich, David, Imbibe!: From Absinthe Cocktail to Whiskey Smash, a Salute in Stories and Drinks to "Professor" Jerry Thomas, Pioneer of the American Bar, Perigee Books, 2007. (ISBN 978-0-399-53287-0) At page 241 Wondrich states, in giving the recipe for a Manhattan, that "[a]ll things being equal, a 100-proof rye will make the best Manhattan..."
- "Canadian Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870) - Canadian Whisky, Canadian Rye Whisky or Rye Whisky (B.02.020.)". Laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
- ""Rye: Situation and Outlook," Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Bi-Weekly Bulletin, 2006-06-02 | Volume 19 Number 8 | ISSN 1494-1805 | AAFC No. 2081/E". Agr.gc.ca. 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2013-04-12.