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This article is about the traditional conventions of naming the Polish state in its historical context. For more detailed explanations of naming the Polish state, see Name of Poland. For an overview of and a local guide to Poland, see Outline of Poland. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita (disambiguation).
1st Rzeczpospolita
2nd Rzeczpospolita
3rd Rzeczpospolita

Rzeczpospolita (Polish pronunciation: [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔsˈpɔlʲita]) is a traditional name of the Polish State, usually referred to as Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska (Latin: Respublica Poloniae). It comes from the words: "rzecz" (thing) and "pospolita" (common), literally, a "common thing". In terms of etymology and meaning, the closest Latin phrase is "res publica" (res "thing", publica "public, common") and the closest English term is "commonwealth" (i.e. "common wealth", "common good"), but a more modern translation is republic (a form of governance).


The term "Rzeczpospolita" has been used in Poland since beginning of the 16th century. Originally it was a generic term to denote a state or a commonness. The famous quote by Jan Zamoyski, the Lord Chancellor of the Crown, on the importance of education, is a great example of its use:

Polish: Takie będą Rzeczypospolite, jakie ich młodzieży chowanie.
Such will be the Commonwealths as the upbringing of their youth.

Jan ZamoyskiFoundation Act of the Academy of Zamość; 1600

The meaning of Polish term "Rzeczpospolita" is well described by the term "Commonwealth". As a result the literal meaning of "Rzeczpospolita Polska" is "Polish Commonwealth", or "Republic of Poland". However, the connotation with the term "republic" may be somewhat misleading in a context of Polish State within period from 16th to 18th century, because Poland in that time was an elective monarchy and the "Rzeczpospolita" was reflected in the official name, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Three Rzeczpospolitas[edit]

"Rzeczpospolita" is also used in a series of symbolic names referring to three periods in the History of Poland:

(Please note: The above list is by no means a complete list of the various official titles for the Polish State throughout its history; it is simply a list of those which are referred to as a Rzeczpospolita.)

Other usage[edit]

Expressions that make use the concept of "Rzeczpospolita" include:

  • Rzeczpospolita szlachecka – Republic of Nobles (szlachta), another name for the "I Rzeczpospolita";
  • Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów – The Commonwealth of the Two Nations, another name for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth;
  • Rzeczpospolita BabińskaBabin Republic, a satirical, literary society, founded by a group of nobles during the second half of the 16th century;
  • Rzeczpospolita KrakowskaFree City of Kraków or Republic of Kraków (1815–1846);
  • Rzeczpospolita ZakopiańskaRepublic of Zakopane, a short-lasting form of an independent state, established for about a month at October 1918;
  • Polska Rzeczpospolita LudowaPeople's Republic of Poland, a name used formally from 1952 to 1990. Was often abbreviated to simply "Rzeczpospolita Polska" or "RP". Sometimes referenced (wrongly) to the post-war period 1944–1952;
  • Czwarta RzeczpospolitaFourth Polish Republic, a slogan used by the political party Law and Justice.

Nowadays, the terms "Rzeczpospolita" and "Rzeczpospolita Polska" are used interchangeably, so far as they relate to the Polish State by default.

Before 1939, "Rzeczpospolita" was sometimes abbreviated to "Rzplita" in written documents.

"RP" is a common abbreviation for "Rzeczpospolita Polska".

The word "rzeczpospolita" was borrowed from the Polish language by other languages of the nearby region: Lithuanian Žečpospolita, Belarusian Рэч Паспалітая (Rech Paspalitaya) and Ukrainian Річ Посполита (Rich Pospolyta). All of them refer to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]