Rzhevsky District

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Rzhevsky District
Ржевский район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-Rzhev.png
Location of Rzhevsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 56°15′56″N 34°19′39″E / 56.26556°N 34.32750°E / 56.26556; 34.32750Coordinates: 56°15′56″N 34°19′39″E / 56.26556°N 34.32750°E / 56.26556; 34.32750
Coat of Arms of Rzhev rayon (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Rzhev rayon (Tver oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2013)
Administrative center town of Rzhev[1]
Administrative divisions:[2]
Rural settlements 7
Inhabited localities:[2]
Rural localities 389
Municipal structure (as of March 2013)
Municipally incorporated as Rzhevsky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[4]
Urban settlements 0
Rural settlements 7
Statistics
Area 2,760 km2 (1,070 sq mi)[5]
Population (2010 Census) 12,480 inhabitants[6]
- Urban 0%
- Rural 100%
Density 4.52/km2 (11.7/sq mi)[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[8]
Official website
Rzhevsky District on WikiCommons

Rzhevsky District (Russian: Рже́вский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[3] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders with Staritsky District in the north, Zubtsovsky District in the east, Sychyovsky District of Smolensk Oblast in the south, Oleninsky District in the west, and with Selizharovsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 2,760 square kilometers (1,070 sq mi).[5] Its administrative center is the town of Rzhev[1] (which is not administratively a part of the district).[9] Population: 12,480 (2010 Census);[6] 14,674 (2002 Census);[10] 17,664 (1989 Census).[11]

Geography[edit]

The whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Volga River. The volga itself crosses the district from north to south. The main tributaries of the Volga within the district are the Itomlya River (left), the Tudovka River (right), and the Sishka River (right). The southeastern part of the district belongs to the basin of the Osuga River, a right tributary of the Vazuza, also in the basin of the Volga. The Osuga itself crosses the southern part of the district. Most of the area of the district is forested.

History[edit]

Rzhev was founded in the Middle Ages. It belonged to Principality of Smolensk and subsequently to Principality of Toropets. From the 13th century, the area was the battlefield between Vladimir-Suzdal (later the Grand Duchy of Moscow) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and changed hands many times. In the 13th century, Principality of Rzhev existed with the capital in Rzhev. In the end of the 14th century, the area was finally under control of Moscow, and in the 15th century, it was briefly given to Principality of Tver (which itself was annexed by Moscow shortly afterwards).[12]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and the area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate. In 1775, Rzhevsky Uyezd was established, with the center in Rzhev. Almost the whole area of the district belonged to Rzhevsky Uyezd, with small parts also belonging to Staritsky and Zubtsovsky Uyezds.[13]

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Rzhevsky District with the administrative center in the town of Rzhev was established. It belonged to Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast.[14][15] On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On 29 January, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Rzhevsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[14][13] During World War II, in 1941—1943, the district was occupied by German troops. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.[15]

On 12 July 1929 Molodotudsky District, with the center in the selo of Molodoy Tud was created as well. It was a part of Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast. On 1 February 1932 it was abolished. On March 5, 1935 Chertolinsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Chertolino was established. It was a part of Kalinin Oblast. On 20 March 1936 Chertolino was transferred to Rzhevsky District, and Chertolinsky District was renamed Molodotudsky. The administrative center was moved to Molodoy Tud. On 22 August 1958 Molodotudsky District was abolished and split between Kirovsky, Oleninsky, and Rzhevsky Districts.[13]

Another district created on 12 July 1929 was Lukovnikovsky District, with the center in the selo of Lukovnikovo. It was a part of Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast. On January 29, 1935 Lukovnikovsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. On 14 November 1960 Lukovnikovsky District was abolished and split between Kirovsky, Novotorzhsky, Staritsky, and Rzhevsky Districts.[13]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Rzhevsky District is one of the thirty-six in the oblast.[1] The town of Rzhev serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as an okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[9]

As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Rzhevsky Municipal District.[4] Rzhev Okrug is incorporated separately from the district as Rzhev Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy[edit]

The M9 highway in Rzhevsky District

Industry[edit]

There are enterprises in the district producing brick, crushed stone, and prefabricated wooden houses.[16]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specializations of the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, as well as crops and flax growing.[17]

Transportation[edit]

The railway which connects Moscow and Riga via Rzhev, crosses the district from east to west. Another railway connecting Torzhok with Vyazma via Rzhev, crosses it from north to south. There is passenger railway traffic.

The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the district. Two other roads connect Rzhev with Tver via Staritsa and with Ostashkov via Selizharovo; both of them cross the district. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Rzhev.

The Volga is navigable, however, there is no passenger navigation.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Ruins of the facade of the main building of the Znamenskoye Estate

The district contains 13 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 108 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments include the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in the selo of Ratkovo, the complex of the Orekhovo Estate in the selo of Orekhovo, as well as a number of archeological sites.[18]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 248», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 248, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. ^ Law #34-ZO stipulates that the borders of the administrative divisions of the district match those of the municipal formations the corresponding municipal district is subdivided into. Law #43-ZO contains the list of the municipal formations of Rzhevsky Municipal District. The counts of inhabited localities are per OKATO.
  3. ^ a b c Law #4-ZO
  4. ^ a b Law #43-ZO
  5. ^ a b "О районе" (in Russian). Official website of Rzhevsky District. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b Law #34-ZO
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ Янин, В.Л. (1998). "Новгород и Литва: Пограничные ситуации XIII-XV веков" (in Russian). Moscow State University. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c d Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133. 
  15. ^ a b Малыгин, П. Д.; Смирнов, С. Н. (2007). История административно-территориального деления Тверской Области (PDF). Tver. p. 14-15. ISBN 5-94205-049-7. 
  16. ^ "Промышленность района" (in Russian). Rzhevsky District Administration. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  17. ^ "Сельское хозяйство" (PDF) (in Russian). Rzhevsky District Administration. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  18. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved May 27, 2015. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #66-ZO of October 1, 2014 On Amending Article 18 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №43-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Ржевский район", и наделении их статусом сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №22-ЗО от 28 марта 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований сельское поселение "Шолохово" Ржевского района Тверской области и сельское поселение "Итомля" Ржевского района Тверской области и внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Ржевский район", и наделении их статусом сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #43-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Rzhevsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #22-ZO of March 28, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of Sholokhovo Rural Settlement of Rzhevsky District of Tver Oblast and Itomlya Rural Settlement of Rzhevsky District of Tver Oblast and on Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Rzhevsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).