São Paulo

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This article is about the city. For the state, see São Paulo (state). For other uses, see São Paulo (disambiguation).
São Paulo
Municipality
Município de São Paulo
Municipality of São Paulo
From the top, left to right: Octávio Frias de Oliveira Bridge; São Paulo Museum of Art at Paulista Avenue; São Paulo Cathedral; overview of the historic downtown; Ibirapuera Park; Luz Station and panoramic view of the city at night.
From the top, left to right: Octávio Frias de Oliveira Bridge; São Paulo Museum of Art at Paulista Avenue; São Paulo Cathedral; overview of the historic downtown; Ibirapuera Park; Luz Station and panoramic view of the city at night.
Flag of São Paulo
Flag
Coat of arms of São Paulo
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle) and Sampa
Motto: "Non ducor, duco"  (Latin)
"I am not led, I lead"
Location in the state of São Paulo
Location in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo is located in Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State Bandeira do estado de São Paulo.svg São Paulo
Founded January 25, 1554
Government
 • Mayor Fernando Haddad (PT (2013–2016))
Area
 • Metro 7,943.818 km2 (3,067.125 sq mi)
Elevation 760 m (2,493.4 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Municipality 11,895,893
 • Rank 1st
 • Density 7,762.3/km2 (20,104/sq mi)
 • Metro 20,284,891 (1st)
 • Metro density 2,469.35/km2 (6,395.6/sq mi)
Demonym Paulistano
Time zone BRT (UTC−3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2)
Postal Code (CEP) 01000-000
Area code(s) (+55) 11
Website São Paulo, SP

São Paulo (/ˌs ˈpl/; Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w ˈpawlu] ( ); Saint Paul) is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in both the Americas and in the southern hemisphere, and the world's eleventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in Brazil, the second most populous in the Americas and the seventh largest in the world.[2] São Paulo is the capital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state. It exerts strong regional influence in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment and a strong international influence.[3] The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus.

The metropolis has the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and Southern Hemisphere.[4] São Paulo has significant cultural, economic and political influence both nationally and internationally. It is home to several important monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. Paulista Avenue is the most important financial center of São Paulo. The city holds high profile events, like the São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix of Formula One, São Paulo Fashion Week and the ATP Brasil Open. São Paulo hosts the world's largest gay pride parade. It is also the home of Brazilian television networks including Record, Band and Gazeta.

It is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange, the Future Markets and the Cereal Market Stock Exchanges (the second largest stock exchange in the world, in market value).[5] São Paulo is also home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the building Mirante do Vale, Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others.

People from the city of São Paulo are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the surrounding state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead."[6]

The city, which is also colloquially known as "Sampa" or "Cidade da Garoa" (city of drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. The city is considered a global city according to several classifications. According to one source, São Paulo is expected to have the third highest economic growth in the world between 2011 and 2025, after London and Mexico City, although New York City and Tokyo were expected to remain the largest in 2025.[7]

São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games.

Contents

Colonial period[edit]

Historical Affiliations
"Founding of São Paulo", 1913 painting by Antonio Parreiras

The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. The Jesuit college of twelve priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, and their structure was located on top of a steep hill between the rivers Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí.[8]

They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by the Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize - teach (catechesis) the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba.[9]

The name of the college was chosen as it was founded on the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus:[9]

The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college. It was then named "College of St. Paul Piratininga". The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups. It was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.[9]

Courtyard of the College, Patio do Colégio, in the Historic Center of São Paulo. At this location, the city was founded in 1554. The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in 1653.

For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived largely through the mostly native population's cultivation of subsistence crops. For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Piraiquê" (Piaçaguera today), because of frequent Indian raids along it.[9]

On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee of the Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital to the village of St. Paul, designating it the "Head of the captaincy." The new capital was established in April 23, 1683, with public celebrations.[9]

The Bandeirantes[edit]

In the 17th century, São Paulo was one of the poorest regions of the Portuguese colony. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves, as did other Spanish colonists. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, brought attention and new settlers to São Paulo. The Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro was created in November 3, 1709, when the Portuguese crown purchased the Captaincies of São Paulo and Santo Amaro from the former grantees.[9]

Conveniently located in the country, up the steep Serra do Mar sea ridge when travelling from Santos, while also not too far from the coastline, São Paulo became a safe place to stay for tired travellers. The town became a centre for the bandeirantes, intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to make slaves of. The bandeirantes, which could be translated as "flag-bearers" or "flag-followers", organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown. Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The bandeirantes eventually became politically powerful as a group, and were considered responsible for the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city of São Paulo in 1640, after a series of conflicts between the Jesuits and the bandeirantes over the trade of Indian slaves.[9]

On July 11, 1711, the town of São Paulo was elevated to city status. Around the 1720s, gold was found by the pioneers in the regions near what are now Cuiabá and Goiania. The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line.[9]

Monument to Independence in Independence Park, located at the place where then Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil.

When the gold ran out in the late 18th century, São Paulo shifted to growing sugar cane, which spread through the interior of the Captaincy. The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. At that time, the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast was constructed and named the Walk of Lorraine.[9]

Nowadays, the estate that is home to the Governor of the State of São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, is called the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Palace of Bandeirantes), in the neighbourhood of Morumbi.[9]

Imperial Period[edit]

After Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1823, as declared by Dom Pedro I where the Monument of Ipiranga is located, he named São Paulo as an Imperial City. In 1827, a law school was founded at the Convent of São Francisco, these days a part of the University of São Paulo. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city's growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St. Paul of Piratininga.[9]

The expansion of coffee production was a major factor in the growth of São Paulo, as it became the region's chief export crop and yielded good revenue. It was cultivated initially in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraíba Valley) region in the East of the State of São Paulo, and later on in the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto.[9]

From 1869 onwards, São Paulo was connected to the port of Santos by the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, nicknamed The Lady. In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. São Paulo became the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. Coffee was the economic engine for major economic and population growth in the State of São Paulo.[9]

In 1888, the "Golden Law" (Lei Áurea) was sanctioned by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, declaring abolished the slavery institution in Brazil. Slaves were the main source of labour in the coffee plantations until then. As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital. The region's first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese.[9]

Old Republican Period[edit]

Paulista Avenue in 1902.

By the time Brazil became a republic in November 15, 1889, coffee exports were still an important part of São Paulo's economy. São Paulo grew strong in the national political scene, taking turns with the also rich state of Minas Gerais in electing Brazilian presidents, an alliance that became known as "coffee and milk", given that Minas Gerais was famous for its dairy produce.[9]

Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. By the hands of some industrious families, including many immigrants of Italian and Jewish origin, factories began to arise and São Paulo became known for its smoky, foggy air. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Some examples of notable modernist artists are poets Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, artists Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Lasar Segall, and sculptor Victor Brecheret. The Modern Art Week of 1922 that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art.[9]

São Paulo's main economic activities derive from the services industry - factories are since long gone, and in came financial services institutions, law firms, consulting firms. Old factory buildings and warehouses still dot the landscape in neighbourhoods such as Barra Funda and Brás. Some cities around São Paulo, such as Diadema, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André and Cubatão are still heavily industrialized to the present day, with factories producing from cosmetics to chemicals to automobiles.[9]

Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932[edit]

Bandeirantes Palace, the official government of state residence.

This "revolution" is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil's history. In July 9, 1932, the population of São Paulo town rose against a coup d'état by Getúlio Vargas to take the presidential office. The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government. The 1930 coup also affected São Paulo by eroding the autonomy that states enjoyed during the term of the 1891 Constitution and preventing the inauguration of the governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes in the Presidency of the Republic, while simultaneously overthrowing President Washington Luís, who was governor of São Paulo from 1920 to 1924. These events marked the end of the Old Republic.[9]

The uprising commenced on July 9, 1932, after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.[9]

In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of the political elites of two other powerful states, (Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul), the politicians from São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo revolt was militarily crushed on October 2, 1932. In total, there were 87 days of fighting (July 9 to October 4, 1932—with the last two days after the surrender of São Paulo), with a balance of 934 official deaths, though non-official estimates report up to 2,200 dead, and many cities in the state of São Paulo suffered damage due to fighting.[9]

There is an obelisk in front of Ibirapuera Park that serves as a memorial to the young men that died for the MMDC. The University of São Paulo's Law School also pays homage to the students that died during this period with plaques hung on its arcades.[9]

Geography[edit]

Physical setting[edit]

Pico do Jaraguá Mountain is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).[10]

São Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern São Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. The city is located on a plateau located beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range" or "Coastal Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. The distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.[11]

Metropolitan area[edit]

Main article: Greater São Paulo
Satellite view of Greater São Paulo at night.

The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") covers multiple definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 19,889,559[12] inhabitants (as of 2010 National Census).

Because São Paulo has significant urban sprawl, it uses a different definition for its metropolitan area called Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo. Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban aglomerations in the world, with 30 million inhabitants,[13] behind Tokyo and Jakarta, which includes 2 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 microregions.

Hydrography[edit]

The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo. However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.[14]

No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing. The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.[15]

Climate[edit]

Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme.[16][17]
Heavy rain and lightning in São Paulo, which has the largest number of lightning incidents amongst Brazilian provincial capitals.[18]

The city has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cfa/Cwa), according to the Köppen classification.[19] In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). In winter, temperatures tend to range between 11 and 23 °C (52 and 73 °F). The recorded high was 35.3 °C (95.5 °F) on November 15, 1985[20] and the lowest −2 °C (28 °F) on August 2, 1955 and on the same day −3.8 °C (25.2 °F) was recorded unofficially. Temperature averages are similar to those of Sydney and Los Angeles. The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23°27' S, passes through north of São Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo enjoys a temperate climate.[21]

The city experiences relatively four distinct seasons. The winter is mild and sub-dry, and the summer is moderately warm and rainy. Fall and spring are transitional seasons. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city. Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter.

Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).[22] It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in). Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone and tornadic activity is uncommon. During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "verãozinho" ("little summer"), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example. In the summer of 2012, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for 2 weeks with highs going from 29 to 34 °C (84 to 93 °F) on the hottest days.

Due to the altitude of the city, there are few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (69 °F). In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon.

Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 °C (55 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring. During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C(46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during all afternoon.

São Paulo is also known for its rapidly changing weather. Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold. When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures. This phenomenon happens usually in the winter.


Climate data for São Paulo (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.2
(93.6)
34.7
(94.5)
33.5
(92.3)
31.4
(88.5)
29.7
(85.5)
28.6
(83.5)
29.3
(84.7)
33
(91)
35.2
(95.4)
34.5
(94.1)
35.3
(95.5)
33.5
(92.3)
35.3
(95.5)
Average high °C (°F) 27.3
(81.1)
28
(82)
27.2
(81)
25.1
(77.2)
23
(73)
21.8
(71.2)
21.8
(71.2)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75)
24.8
(76.6)
25.9
(78.6)
26.3
(79.3)
15.5
(59.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
19.7
(67.5)
17.4
(63.3)
16.3
(61.3)
15.8
(60.4)
17.1
(62.8)
17.9
(64.2)
19
(66)
20.2
(68.4)
21.1
(70)
19.2
(66.6)
Average low °C (°F) 18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
18.2
(64.8)
16.3
(61.3)
13.8
(56.8)
12.4
(54.3)
11.7
(53.1)
12.8
(55)
13.9
(57)
15.3
(59.5)
16.6
(61.9)
17.7
(63.9)
15.52
(59.93)
Record low °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12
(54)
6.8
(44.2)
3.7
(38.7)
4.2
(39.6)
1.5
(34.7)
3.4
(38.1)
3.5
(38.3)
7
(45)
7
(45)
10.3
(50.5)
1.5
(34.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 237.4
(9.346)
221.5
(8.72)
160.5
(6.319)
72.6
(2.858)
71.4
(2.811)
50.1
(1.972)
43.9
(1.728)
39.6
(1.559)
70.7
(2.783)
126.9
(4.996)
145.8
(5.74)
200.7
(7.902)
1,441
(56.73)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 15 14 11 7 6 4 4 4 7 10 11 14 107
 % humidity 80 79 80 80 79 78 77 74 77 79 78 80 78.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.6 162.2 167.1 165.8 182.3 172.6 187.1 175.3 152.6 153.9 163 150.8 2,003.3
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Demographics[edit]

Race and ethnicity in São Paulo
Ethnicity Percentage
White
  
60.6%
Pardo (Multiracial)
  
30.5%
Black
  
6.5%
Asian
  
2.2%
Amerindian
  
0.2%

In 2013, São Paulo was the most populous city in Brazil and in South America.[32] According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 11,244,369 people residing in the city of São Paulo.[33] The census found 6,824,668 White people (60.6%), 3,433,218 Pardo (multiracial) people (30.5%), 736,083 Black people (6.5%), 246,244 Asian people (2.2%) and 21,318 Amerindian people (0.2%).[34]

In 2010, the city had 2,146,077 opposite-sex couples and 7,532 same-sex couples. The population of São Paulo was 52.6% female and 47.4% male.[34]

Immigration[edit]

Italian immigrants arriving in São Paulo.
Arab immigrants in the city of São Paulo.
The Liberdade district is a Japantown of São Paulo.

São Paulo is considered the most multicultural city in Brazil and one of the most diverse in the world. Since 1870 to 2010, approximately 2.3 million immigrants arrived in the state, from all parts of the world. Currently, it is the city with the largest populations of ethnic Italian, Portuguese, Japanese, Spanish, Lebanese and Arabic outside of their respective countries.

The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city. Of the ten million inhabitants of São Paulo, 60% (six million people) have some Italian ancestry. São Paulo has more descendants of Italians than any other Italian city (the largest city of Italy is Rome, with 2.5 million inhabitants). Even today, Italians are grouped in neighborhoods like Bixiga, Bras and Mooca to promote celebrations and festivals. In the early twentieth century, the Italian and the dialects were spoken as much as the Portuguese in the city, which influenced the formation of the São Paulo dialect of today. São Paulo is the second largest consumer of pizza city in the world. Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day.

The Portuguese community is also quite large, and it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal. The Jewish colony is more than 60,000 people in São Paulo and is concentrated mainly in Higienópolis and Bom Retiro. From the nineteenth century, and especially during the first half of the twentieth century, São Paulo also received German immigrants (in the current neighborhood of Santo Amaro), Spanish and Lithuanian (in the neighborhood Vila Zelina).

São Paulo City in 1886
Immigrants Percentage of immigrants in foreign born population [35]
Italians 47.9%
Portuguese 29.3%
Germans 9.9%
Spaniards 3.2%

A French observer, travelling to São Paulo at the time, noted that there was a division of the capitalist class, by nationality (...) Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans. Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans. (...) Italians outnumbered Brazilians two to one in São Paulo.[36]

Until 1920, 1,078,437 Italians entered in the State of São Paulo. Of the immigrants who arrived there between 1887 and 1902, 63.5% came from Italy. Between 1888 and 1919, 44.7% of the immigrants were Italians, 19.2% were Spaniards and 15.4% were Portuguese.[37] In 1920, nearly 80% of São Paulo city's population was composed of immigrants and their descendants and Italians made up over half of its male population.[37] At that time, the Governor of São Paulo said that "if the owner of each house in São Paulo display the flag of the country of origin on the roof, from above São Paulo would look like an Italian city". In 1900, a columnist who was absent from São Paulo for 20 years wrote "then São Paulo used to be a genuine Paulista city, today it is an Italian city."[37]

São Paulo City
Year Italians Percentage of the City[37]
1886 5,717 13%
1893 45,457 35%
1900 75,000 31%
1910 130,000 33%
1916 187,540 37%

Research conducted by the University of São Paulo (USP) shows the city's high ethnic diversity: when asked if they are "descendants of foreign immigrants", 81% of the students reported "yes". The main reported ancestries were: Italian (30.5%), Portuguese (23%), Spanish (14%), Japanese (8%), German (5.6%), Brazilian (4.3%), African (2.8%), Arab (2.4%) and Jewish (1.2%).[38]

Domestic migration[edit]

Since the 19th century people began migrating from Northeastern Brazil into São Paulo. This migration grew enormously in the 1930s and remained huge in the next decades. The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration. Northeastern migrants live mainly in hazardous and unhealthy areas of the city, in cortiços, in various slums (favelas) of the metropolis, because they offer cheaper housing. The largest concentration of Northeastern migrants was found in the area of Sé/Brás (districts of Brás, Bom Retiro, Cambuci, Pari and ). In this area they composed 41% of the population.[39]

As in all of Brazil, people of different ethnicities mix with each other, producing a multi-ethnic society. Today, people of many different ethnicities make São Paulo their home.[40] The main groups, considering all the metropolitan area, are: 6 million people of Italian descent,[41] 3 million people of Portuguese descent,[42] 1.7 million people of African descent,[43] 1 million people of Arab descent,[44] 665,000 people of Japanese descent,[44] 400,000 people of German descent,[44] 250,000 people of French descent,[44] 150,000 people of Greek descent,[44] 120,000 people of Chinese descent,[44] 60,000 Bolivian immigrants,[45] 50,000 people of Korean descent,[46] and 40,000 Jews.[47]

Changing demographics of the city of São Paulo

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.[48]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Brazil
Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 58.20% 6,549,775
Protestant 22.11% 2,487,810
No religion 9.38% 1,056,008
Spiritist 4.73% 531,882
Buddhist 0.67% 75,075
Umbanda and Candomblé 0.62% 69,706
Jewish 0.39% 43,610

Source: IBGE 2010.[49]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Brazil

The primary language is Portuguese.

The general language from São Paulo General, or Tupi Austral (Southern Tupi), was the Tupi-based trade language of what is now São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River. In the 17th century it was widely spoken in São Paulo and spread to neighboring regions. From 1750 on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal, Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools. The original Tupi Austral language subsequently lost ground to Portuguese, and eventually became extinct.

Due to the large influx of Japanese, German, Spanish, Italian and Arab immigrants & etc., the Portuguese idiom spoken in the metropolitan area of São Paulo reflects some significant influences from those languages.

The Italian influence in São Paulo accents is evident in the traditional Italian neighborhoods such as Bela Vista, Moóca, Brás and Lapa. Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language. The local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa, a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent.[50]

Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: the Liberdade neighborhood is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese. Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages.[51]

In some areas it is still possible to find descendants of immigrants who speak German[52] (especially in the area of Brooklin paulista) and Russian or East European languages (especially in the area of Vila Zelina).[53] In the west zone of São Paulo, specially at Vila Anastácio and Lapa region, there is a Hungarian colony, with three churches (Calvinist, Baptist and Catholic), so on Sundays it is possible to see Hungarians talking to each other on sidewalks.

Economy[edit]

Industries of São Paulo by ISIC categories.
Central Business District.
Commercial buildings in Brooklin Novo, featured the Octávio Frias de Oliveira Bridge and the Centro Empresarial Nações Unidas (background).

São Paulo is considered the "financial capital of Brazil", as it is the location for the headquarters of many major corporations and the country's most renowned banks and financial institutions. São Paulo is Brazil's highest GDP city and the 10th largest in the world,[54] using Purchasing power parity.[55] According to data of IBGE, its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 was R$450 billion,[56] approximately US$220 billion, 12.26% of Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo.[57] According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4.2%.[58] São Paulo also has a large "informal" economy.[59] In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$90 billion in taxes and the city budget was R$15 billion. The city has 1,500 bank branches and 70 shopping malls.[60]

The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil's official stock and bond exchange. It is the largest stock exchange in Latin America, trading about R$6 billion (US$3.5 billion) every day.[61] São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation. Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo's economy has followed the global trend of shifting to the tertiary sector of the economy, focusing on services. The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations.[62] 63% of all the international companies with business in Brazil have their head offices in São Paulo. São Paulo has the largest concentration of German businesses worldwide[63] and is the largest Swedish industrial hub alongside Gothenburg.[64] São Paulo ranked second after New York in FDi magazine's bi-annual ranking of Cities of the Future 2013/14 in the Americas, and was named the Latin American City of the Future 2013/14, overtaking Santiago de Chile, the first city in the previous ranking. Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro.[65]

The per capita income for the city was R$32,493 in 2008.[66] According to Mercer's 2011 city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, São Paulo is now among the ten most expensive cities in the world, ranking 10th in 2011, up from 21st in 2010 and ahead of London, Paris, Milan and New York City.[67][68]

Science and technology[edit]

Rua Oscar Freire in the Jardins neighbourhood, voted the eighth most luxurious street in the World.[69]

The city of São Paulo is home to research and development facilities and attracts companies due to the presence of several regionally renowned universities. Science, technology and innovation is leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP), one of the main agencies promoting scientific and technological research.[70]

Luxury goods[edit]

Luxury brands tend to concentrate their business in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. São Paulo, the most important city in the country is the main place for them to start opening their business. Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands.

Most of the international luxury brands can be found in the Iguatemi, Cidade Jardim or JK shopping malls or on the streets of Oscar Freire, Lorena or Haddock Lobo in the Jardins district. They are home of brands such as Cartier, Chanel, Dior, Giorgio Armani, Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Tiffany & Co.

Cidade Jardim was opened in São Paulo in 2008, it is a 45,000 square meters mall, landscaped with trees and greenery scenario, with a focus on Brazilian brands but also home to international luxury brands such as Hermès, Jimmy Choo, Pucci and Carolina Herrera. Opened in 2012, JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as, Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc., Prada, and Miu Miu.[71]

The Iguatemi Faria Lima, in Faria Lima Avenue, is Brazil's oldest mall, opened in 1966.[72] The Jardins neighborhood is regarded among the most sophisticated places in town, with upscale restaurants and hotels. The New York Times once compared Oscar Freire Street to Rodeo Drive.[73] In Jardins there are luxury car dealers. One of the world's best restaurants as elected by The World's 50 Best Restaurants Award, D.O.M.,[74] is located there.

Companies[edit]

Companies in Financial Times Global 500 of São Paulo in 2012[75]
SP Corporation BRA World
1 Ambev 1 43
2 Itau Unibanco 4 100
3 Bradesco 5 127
4 Banco Santander Brasil 6 260
5 Telefonica Brasil 8 282
6 Itausa 9 348
7 Cielo 10 423

Urban planning[edit]

Changes in urban fabrics in the region of Pacaembu neighborhood: side by side, vertical areas and low houses.

São Paulo has a history of actions, projects and plans related to urban planning that can be traced to the governments of Antonio da Silva Prado, Baron Duprat, Washington and Luis Francisco Prestes Maia. However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl.[76]

Thus, São Paulo differs considerably from other Brazilian cities such as Belo Horizonte and Goiânia, whose initial expansion followed determinations by a plan, or a city like Brasília, whose master plan had been fully developed prior to construction.[77]

The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable. Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes. In São Paulo until the mid-1950s, the plans were based on the idea of "demolish and rebuild", including former Mayor Prestes Maia São Paulo's road plan (known as the Avenues Plan) or Saturnino de Brito's plan for the Tietê River.

In 1968 the Urban Development Plan proposed the Basic Plan for Integrated Development of São Paulo, under the administration of Figueiredo Ferraz. The main result was zoning laws. It lasted until 2004 when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan.[78]

That zoning, adopted in 1972, designated "Z1" areas (residential areas designed for elites) and "Z3" (a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics). Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation.[79]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Brazil

São Paulo has a system of public and private primary and secondary schools and a variety of vocational-technical schools. More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school. There are more than 578 universities in the whole state of São Paulo.[80]

Educational institutions[edit]

The universities and colleges include:

Health care[edit]

São Paulo is the largest health care hub in Latin America. Among its hospitals are the Albert Einstein Israelites Hospital, ranked as the best in Latin America and the Hospital das Clínicas, the largest in the region. The private health care sector is very large and most of Brazil's best hospitals are located in the city. As of September 2009, the city of São Paulo had:[81]

  • 32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others);
  • 217 hospitals, with 32,554 beds;
  • 137,745 health care professionals, including 28,316 physicians.
Institute of Cancer of São Paulo is the largest hospital of cancer in Brazil.[82]

Municipal health[edit]

The municipal government operates public health facilities across the city's territory, with a total of 770 basic health care units (UBS), ambulatory and emergency clinics and 17 hospitals. The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59,000 employees, including more than 8,000 physicians and 12,000 nurses.

More than 6,000,000 citizens uses these facilities, which provide drugs at no cost and manage an extensive family health program (PSF – Programa de Saúde da Família).

The Rede São Paulo Saudável (Healthy São Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of São Paulo, bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city.

The network consists of two studios and a system for transmission of closed digital video in high definition via satellite, with about 1,400 points of reception in all health care units of the municipality of São Paulo.

Culture[edit]

Music[edit]

Main article: Music of Brazil

Adoniran Barbosa was a samba singer and composer who became successful during São Paulo's early radio era. Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the "composer to the masses", particularly Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bela Vista, also known as "Bexiga" and Brás, as well as those who lived in the city's many 'cortiços' or tenements. His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge. His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" ("Shanty of Fond Memories" – 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. His 1964 Trem das Onze ("The 11 pm Train"), became one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives home. Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini. Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician. He composed a song depicting a love murder scene in São Paulo called "Ronda".

In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular. Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians. The group were known as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Os Mutantes released five albums before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to join another group called Tutti Frutti. Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the 1990s. In 2000, Tecnicolor, an album recorded in the early 1970s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.[83]

In the early 1980s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor (Elegant Outrage) emerged. They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing. A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession. Bands originating from this movement include Ira!, Titãs, Ratos de Porão and Inocentes. In the 1990s, drum and bass arose as another musical movement in São Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick and Fernanda Porto.[84] Many heavy metal bands also originated in São Paulo, such as Angra, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. Sin. Famous electro-pop band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also has its origins in the city.

Many of the most important classical Brazilian living composers, such as Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born and live in São Paulo. Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. The São Paulo State Symphony is one of the world's outstanding orchestras; their artistic director beginning in 2012 is the noted American conductor Marin Alsop. In 1952, Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote his Symphony Number 10 ('Ameríndia') for the 400th anniversary of São Paulo: an allegorical, historical and religious account of the city told through the eyes of its founder Jose de Anchieta.[85]

Music halls and concert halls[edit]

Citibank Hall.

São Paulo's most important opera houses are: São Paulo Municipal Theater, Theatro São Pedro and Alfa Theater, for the symphonic concerts there is the Sala São Paulo, the latter being the headquarters of OSESP, a notable orchestra. The city also hosts several music halls. The main ones are: Citibank Hall, HSBC Music Hall, Olympia, Via Funchal, Villa Country, Kezebre Rock Bar, Arena Anhembi and Espaco das Américas. The Sambadrome hosts musical presentations as well.

Other facilities include the new Praça das Artes, with the Municipal Conservatory of Music Chamber Hall and others venues, like, Cultura Artistica, Teatro Sérgio Cardoso with a venue for only dance performances and Herzog & DeMeron's Centro Cultural Luz, for Ballet, Opera, theater and concerts, with three huge halls. The auditorium of the Latin-American Cultural Center, The Mozarteum, holds concerts through the year.

Literature[edit]

Main article: Literature of Brazil

São Paulo was home to the first Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed poetry and music for the catechism, creating the first written works from the area. The literary priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar.[86]

In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, launched in São Paulo, began to achieve cultural independence. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually.[87]

Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal. Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian. The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences. Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade were the prototypical modernists. With the urban poems of "Paulicéia Desvairada" and "Carefree Paulistan land" (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. His rhapsodic novel Macunaíma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism's nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat native national hero. Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933) and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition. Modernist artists and writers chose the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo to launch their Modernist manifesto. The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy. They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter.[88]

Theaters[edit]

Municipal Theatre of São Paulo, "Teatro Municipal de São Paulo."

Many historians believe that the first theatrical performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo. The Portuguese Jesuit missionary José de Anchieta (1534–1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Tupi–Guarani natives. In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged. European ethnic groups began holding performances in some of the state's rural cities. The most important period for the art in São Paulo was the 1940s. São Paulo had had a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, (Brazilian Theater of Comedy), along with others. During the 1960s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles não usam black tie" by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri which was the first in the history of the Brazilian drama to feature labor workers as protagonists.[89]

After the military coup of 1964, plays started focusing on Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. The Tropicalist movement began there. A number of plays represented historic moments, notably "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972).[90]

The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters, almost 30 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons. Some of the most important are Renault, Brigadeiro, Zaccaro, Bibi Ferreira, Maria della Costa, Ruth Escobar, Opera, TBC, Imprensa, Oficina, Àgora, Cacilda Becker, Sérgio Cardoso, do Bixiga, and Bandeirantes.

Museums[edit]

Ipiranga Museum, "Museu do Ipiranga."

Museu Paulista[edit]

Popularly known as "Ipiranga Museum", the first monument built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum). In 1919, it became a history museum. Reflecting the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing and appliances that belonged to those who took part in Brazilian history, such as explorers, rulers and freedom fighters. Its facilities house a library with 100,000 books and the "Centro de Documentação Histórica," Historic Documentation Center, with 40,000 manuscripts.

Fundação Cultural Ema Gordon Klabin[edit]

The Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation opened to the public in March 2007. Its headquarters is a 1920s mansion. It houses 1545 works, including paintings by Marc Chagall, Pompeo Batoni, Pierre Gobert and Frans Post, Brazilian modernists Tarsila do Amaral, Di Cavalcanti and Portinari, period furniture, decorative and archaeological pieces.

Memorial da América Latina[edit]

Stretching over 78,000 square meters, Memorial da América Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to showcase Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. It is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano – Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion with permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and an 1,679-seat auditorium.

Museu da Imigração e Memorial do Imigrante[edit]

Memorial of the Immigrant, "Memorial do Imigrante."

Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was built in 1886 and opened in 1887. Immigrant's Hostel was built in Brás to welcome the immigrants who arrived in Brazil through the Port of Santos, quarantining those who were sick and helping new arrivals to find work in coffee plantations in Western, Northern and Southwestern São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State. From 1882 to 1978, 2.5 million immigrants of more than 60 nationalities and ethnicities were guests there,[91] all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists. The hostel hosted approximately 3,000 people on average, but occasionally reached 8,000. The hostel received the last immigrants in 1978.[92]

In 1998 the hostel became a museum, where it preserves the immigrants' documentation, memory and objects. Located in one of the few remaining centenarian buildings, the museum occupies part of the former hostel. The museum also restores wooden train wagons from the former São Paulo Railway. Two restored wagons inhabit the museum. One dates from 1914, while a second class passenger car dates from 1931. The museum records the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from 1888 to 1978.[93]

Museu de Zoologia da USP[edit]

Occupying an area of 700 square meters, the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. The animals are grouped according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and some invertebrates such as corals, crustaceans and mollusks. The library specializes in zoology. It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps.

Museu de Arte de São Paulo[edit]

São Paulo Museum of Art, "Museu de Arte de São Paulo" on Paulista Avenue.

MASP has one of world's most important collections of European art. The most important collections cover Italian and French painting schools. The museum was founded by Assis Chateaubriand and is directed by Pietro Maria Bardi. Its current headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by Lina Bo Bardi. MASP organizes temporary exhibitions in special areas. Brazilian and international exhibitions of contemporary arts, photography, design and architecture take turn during the whole year.[94]

Acervo do Palácio dos Bandeirantes[edit]

The headquarters of the state government has a collection of works by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, Aldo Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida Júnior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. It also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts and European tapestry. In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo.

Pinacoteca[edit]

Pinacoteca de São Paulo.

Located next to the Luz metro station, the building was projected by architect Ramos de Azevedo in 1895. It was constructed to house an Arts Lyceum. In 1911, it became the State of São Paulo' Pinacotheca, where it currently hosts a number of art exhibitions. A major exhibition on the bronze statues of French sculptor Auguste Rodin took place in 2001. There is also a permanent exhibition on the "Resistance" movement that took place during military dictatorship in the Republican period, including a reconstructed prison cell where political prisoners were kept.

Oca[edit]

Also called Oca do Ibirapuera, oca means thatched house in Native Brazilian Tupi-Guarani. A white, spaceship-like building sitting in the greens of Ibirapuera Park, Oca is an exhibition place with more than 10,000 squared metres. Modern art, Native Brazilian art, and photographies are some of the topics of past thematic exhibitions.

Museu da Imagem e do Som[edit]

Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) preserves music, cinema, photography and graphical arts. MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images. It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm film. MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals and photography and graphical arts exhibitions.

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Ibirapuera Park during Christmas.
Main article: Tourism in Brazil

São Paulo is known for its cuisine, ranging from Chinese to French, from fast food chains to five star restaurants. Restaurants offer approximately 62 cuisines across more than 12,000 restaurants.[95]

Landmarks[edit]

Inside the Arts Biennial Building of São Paulo.

Parks[edit]

View from the Obelisk to the Ibirapuera Park in the background.
  • Parque da Aclimação – located in the Aclimação neighbourhood in the central region, it was inaugurated in 1939 and has an area of approximately 112,000 m2 (1,205,558 sq ft).
  • Parque da Água Branca – located at the west side of the city, in the Barra Funda district. It was inaugurated in 1929 and has an area of 136,000 m2 (1,463,892 sq ft).
  • Parque Alfredo Volpi – with an area of 142,000 m2 (1,528,475 sq ft), it is located at the south side of the city, in the Cidade Jardim neighbourhood.
  • Parque Anália Franco – located in the Jardim Anália Franco neighbourhood, has an area of 286,000 m2 (3,078,478 sq ft).
  • Parque Anhanguera – features native Atlantic Forest and is environmentally protected by law. Because of that, most of its area has restricted access. It was inaugurated in 1979 and has an area of approximately 9,000,000 m2 (96,875,194 sq ft). Located in the Perus neighbourhood, it is situated close to the Jaraguá peak, in the city's far northwest.
  • Parque Buenos Aires – located in the neighbourhood, in the city's central area. It was inaugurated in 1913 and has an area of 22,200 m2 (238,959 sq ft).
  • Parque Burle Marx – inaugurated in 1995, it is located in the Panamby neighbourhood, in the city's south side.
Lake in Cantareira Park.
  • Parque da Cantareira – inaugurated in 1963, this park is an environmental protection unit and was listed by UNESCO in 1994. With an area of approximately 7,916 hectares, it covers part of the Cantareira mountains, which is part of the Atlantic Forest. It includes areas of the north side of São Paulo and parts of the cities of Mairiporã, Guarulhos and Caieiras.
  • Parque do Carmo – inaugurated in 1976, do Carmo is the biggest public park inside the city, with an area of approximately 500,000 m2 (5,381,955 sq ft). Situated at the city's east side, in the Itaquera neighbourhood.
  • Parque Cidade de Toronto – located in the district of Santo Domingo, northwest of the city.
  • Parque dos Eucaliptos – located in western São Paulo in the district of Vila Sonia.
  • Parque Estadual Fontes do Ipiranga – also known as Parque do Estado (State Park), it was created in 1991 and extends over 526 hectares. Contains remnants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation.
  • Parque Ecológico do Guarapiranga – situated on the banks of the Guarapiranga reservoir on the south side of the city.
  • Parque Guarapiranga – located on the banks of Guarapiranga Dam, in the district of Campo Limpo (south side of São Paulo).
  • Horto Florestal de São Paulo – located in the northern side of São Paulo, at about seven miles (11 km) from the center of the city, it occupies an area of 174 hectares at the foot of the Cantareira mountains. It is adjacent to the Cantareira State Park in the district of Mandaqui. Access can be made from the neighboring district of Tremembé and its accecible perimeter is 47,875 meters.
  • Ibirapuera Park – the second largest park of the city and probably the most popular. It is home to several museums and is known for its buildings designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, such as the Oca and the new Ibirapuera Auditorium.
  • Parque Estadual do Jaraguá – created in 1961, around the Jaraguá peak.
  • Parque Jardim Felicidade – located in the Pirituba district, north side of the city.
  • Parque Luís Carlos Prestes – a small park located in the extreme west of São Paulo, in the Jardim Rolinópolis neighbourhood, near the Raposo Tavares highway and close to another city park, the Parque da Previdência. Opened in 1990, it was named after the political, military and revolutionary Luis Carlos Prestes and has an area of 27,100 m2 (291,702 sq ft).
  • Parque Nabuco – located in the Jabaquara district, south side of the city.
  • Parque do Piqueri – located in the Tatuapé neighbourhood, has an area of 97,272 m2 (1,047,027 sq ft).
  • Parque Previdência – located in the far west of São Paulo in the neighborhood of Jardim Rolinópolis, near the Raposo Tavares highway. It has an area of 91,500 m2 (984,898 sq ft) and was founded in 1979.
  • Parque Lina e Paulo Raia – located in the Jabaquara district, southern São Paulo, has an area of 15,000 m2 (161,459 sq ft).
  • Parque Raposo Tavares – located on the western outskirts of the city, in the district of Butantan.
  • Parque Raul Seixas – it has 33,000 m2 (355,209 sq ft) and is situated in the district of Itaquera, in the East of the city.
  • Parque Rodrigo de Gásperi – Located in the Pirituba district, north side of the city.
  • Parque Santa Amélia – located in the Itaim Paulista district, eastern suburb of São Paulo.
  • Parque Santo Dias – located in the district of Capão Redondo, in the city's south side suburb.
  • Parque São Domingos – located in the district of Santo Domingo, west of the city. It was named after the neighborhood, which honors the Catholic saint Dominic Savio.
  • Parque Severo Gomes – located in the neighborhood of Granja Julieta, south of the city, was inaugurated in 1989.
  • Parque Ecológico do Tietê – with an area of 12.5 million m², inaugurated in 1982, it is an environmental protection region. Located in the floodplain of the Tietê River, between the cities of São Paulo, Guarulhos Itaquaquecetuba.
  • Parque Trianon – inaugurated in 1892 with the opening of Paulista Avenue, it was designed by French landscape architect Paul Villon. The name came from the fact that at that time, opposite the park, there was a club named Trianon. In 1924 it was donated to the city and in 1931 received its current name in honor of one of the heroes of the Uprising Lieutenants, Antonio de Siqueira Campos.
  • Parque Vila dos Remédios – located in the district of Jaguara, close to the confluence of the Pinheiros and Tietê rivers in the city's north side.
  • Parque Vila Guilherme – opened in 1986, it is located in the district of Vila Guilherme, north side of the city.
  • Parque Ecológico da Vila Prudente – Located in the district of VilaPrudente, on the city's east side.
  • Parque Villa-Lobos – opened in 1994, it is located in the Alto de Pinheiros district, on the banks of the Pinheiros River and has an area of 732,000 m2 (7,879,182 sq ft).
Panorama Ibirapuera Park.

Zoos[edit]

A typical Brazilian macaw in the São Paulo Zoo.

The Zoological Park of São Paulo is the largest in Brazil. Located in an area of 824,529 m2 (8,875,156 sq ft) of original Atlantic Forest, it has approximately 4 miles (6 kilometres) of walkway. It is located at headwaters of the historic stream of Ipiranga, on the south side of the city. It hosts more than 3,200 animals, 102 species of mammals, 216 species of birds, 95 species of reptiles, 15 species of amphibians and 16 species of invertebrates, in enclosures that replicate the natural habitats of these animals. The Zoo's farm of 572 ha produces vegetables used to feed the various animals and provide material to the enclosures where the animals stay.

The zoo also counts a nursery for rejected puppies and incubators for hatching eggs of birds and reptiles. Its library of more than four thousand volumes is open to the public. Its partnerships with other state, federal and foreign research institutions include researches that aim to facilitate the preservation of endangered species.

São Paulo also has a Safari Zoo located in its southeastern side, in the district of Cursino.

Aquarium[edit]

The Aquário de São Paulo (São Paulo Aquarium) is one of the largest aquaria in Latin America, with an area of 9,000 square meters and 2 million liters of water. It has approximately 3,000 specimens of about 300 species of animals. It is located in the Ipiranga neighbourhood.

Events[edit]

São Paulo Art Biennial. The second oldest art biennial in the world after the Venice Biennial.

The city of São Paulo hosts approximately 90 thousand events every year, featuring arts, business, fashion and beyond.[96]

Carnaval[edit]

Allegory of the Gaviões da Fiel samba school during the Carnaval of São Paulo. The school also represents one of the football teams of the city, S.C. Corinthians.
Main article: Brazilian Carnaval

Carnaval is a traditional celebration held every year. The parade of samba schools in São Paulo is the Anhembi Sambadrome, designed by Oscar Niemeyer. The Special Group parade of samba schools happens on Friday and Saturday of carnaval week. Schools that participated in the carnaval in 2012: Unidos de Vila Maria; Rosas de Ouro; X9; Vai Vai; Águia de Ouro; Camisa Verde e Branco; Império de Casa Verde; Dragões da Real; Acadêmicos do Tucuruvi; Gaviões da Fiel; Mancha Verde; Tom Maior; Pérola Negra; Mocidade Alegre.

Cultural Turn[edit]

Virada Cultural (Cultural Turn) is an annual event held since 2005 by the Municipality, promoting 24 hours of non-stop cultural activities held each May. The event was inspired by the annual event named Nuit Blanche in Paris, with many entertainment events held throughout the night. The activities include music shows, dance shows, classical and orchestra presentations, theater plays, cinema, poetry, anime/comics fans meetings and acrobatic performances. The event takes place in several parts of the downtown area, as well as some cultural centers, clubs and selected schools. In 2010, according to São Paulo Municipality, the event attracted around 4 million people.

Art Bienal[edit]

The São Paulo Art Biennial attracted almost 1 million people in 2004. It represented a wide range of artistic positions. Its aims include an intensification of the North-South dialogue inside Brazil and promoting links between non-European cultures along a South-South orientation.[97]

Fashion Week[edit]

São Paulo Fashion Week, established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, is the largest and most important fashion event in Latin America.[98] Renamed in 2001, its two annual editions bring almost 100 thousand people to Bienal's building in Ibirapuera Park.

Brazil first entered the international fashion circuit with the increasing reputation of famous Brazilian top models such as Isabeli Fontana, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen, Alessandra Ambrosio, Fernanda Tavares, Ana Beatriz Barros, Izabel Goulart, Brenda Costa, Ana Hickmann and Evandro Soldati and designer Alexandre Herchcovitch.

Gay Pride Parade[edit]

São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, the largest in the World.
Main article: LGBT rights in Brazil

The first São Paulo Gay Pride Parade took place in 1987 and attracted 20,000 people, growing to around 3.5 million visitors in 2010. It is opened by the city's mayor, running along the Paulista Avenue, accompanied by several Trio Elétricos.[99][100]

Since 2002, the Parade has also become associated with a wider long cultural program, lasting at least a month.

Pancake Cook-Off[edit]

The São Paulo Pancake Cook-Off is a cooking festival held annually in the city center.[101] Every summer, thousands of amateur chefs from across Brazil come to compete in various competitions and contests centered on the cooking of pancakes.

March for Jesus[edit]

The March for Jesus is an Evangelical parade that takes place on Corpus Christi Thursday every year in Zona Norte. It is organized by Renascer em Cristo Church, a Neo-Pentecostal denomination created in the 1980s that grew significantly in the first decade of the 21st century. In 2006, more than 2 million people took part in the event, according to official estimates.[102] Evangelicals from across Brazil go to São Paulo for the annual June march. The event features concerts with 30 Christian bands carried on 17 flatbed trucks performing live as participants march through Brazil's financial capital.

International Transport Industry Show[edit]

The Salão Internacional da Indústria do Transporte (FENATRAN) is held biannually in the Park Anhembi, usually in October.[103] It presents new trends for the industry related to transport, such as truck manufacturers, components for vehicles, fuel, motors and services for the industry, such as financial and insurance companies.

International Film Festival[edit]

The São Paulo International Film Festival is a film festival held annually since 1976.

Electronic Language International Festival[edit]

Electronic Language International Festival.

The Electronic Language International Festival is a non-profit cultural organization, whose purpose is to disseminate and to develop arts, technologies and scientific research, by means of exhibitions, debates, lectures and courses. The festival promotes a yearly meeting.

Festival of Electronic Art[edit]

Every two years, Associação Cultural Videobrasil's International Electronic Art Festival brings works by artists from all over the world. In keeping with the constant transformations in media and support, the curatorship has added installations, performances, VJs, CD-ROM art and Internet art to the programme. Art shows, debates and meetings introduce new ideas and artwork, setting new guidelines for contemporary art in Brazil. Exhibitions featuring work by prominentelectronic artists are also part of the Festival. Brazilian pioneers such as Rafael França and Olhar Eletrônico and international guests such as Nam June Paik, Bill Viola and Gary Hill, have featured in the event's past editions.[104]

2007 Virada Cultural, in Downtown São Paulo.

Other events[edit]

X-Games – Brazilian branch, held in April; É Tudo Verdade – Documentary film festival, held in March; Feicorte – Livestock fair; FIEPAG – International Printing Industry Fair; CIOSP – International Dental Congress; Skol Beats – Electronic music festival, features famous Brazilian and foreign DJs from around the world. Held in May; Grande Prêmio São Paulo de Turfe – Equestrian competition, held in May; Expomusic – Music and audio exposition, also features small shows and autograph sessions; Feira do Circuito das Malhas – Winter clothes baazar; In-Edit – Music documentary festival; São Paulo's International Marathon – Held in June; Saint Vitus Festival (Festival de São Vito) – Italian festival, featuring food and music. Held in June; Anima Mundi – International Animation Film Festival, held in July; Batuka! – Drummers festival, featuring workshops, presentations and a national contest; Brasil Pack – International Packaging Fair; Japan Festival – Held in July; Brooklinfest – German festival in October (district Brooklin Paulista);[105] Festa de Vila Zelina – Russian, Ukrainian and East European Festival in the district Vila Zelina;[106] Bolivian Arts and Culture Festival; Achiropita Festival – Italian festival, featuring food and music. Held in August; New Year's Eve – Held at the Paulista Avenue, features free concerts and fireworks, usually gathering up to a million people.

Sports[edit]

See also: Sport in Brazil

Football[edit]

Pacaembu Stadium, historic city stadium.

As in the rest of Brazil, football is the most popular sport. The city's major teams are Corinthians, Palmeiras and São Paulo FC. Portuguesa is a medium club and Juventus and Nacional are two small clubs.

São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil was the host nation. The Arena Corinthians was built for the event and hosted six matches, including the opening.


Football/soccer teams
Club League Venue Established (team)
SC Corinthians Série A Arena Corinthians

48,234 (63,267 record)

1910
SE Palmeiras Série A Allianz Parque (under construction)

43,000

1914
São Paulo FC Série A Morumbi Stadium

67,428 (138,032 record)[107]

1935
Portuguesa Série B Canindé Stadium

19,717 (25,000 record)

1920
Juventus Campeonato Paulista Série A3 Rua Javari Stadium

7,200 (9,000 record)

1924
Nacional Campeonato Paulista Segunda Divisão Nicolau Alayon Stadium

9,500 (22,000 record)

1919

Brazilian Grand Prix[edit]

Main article: Brazilian Grand Prix
Autódromo José Carlos Pace, the venue for the Brazilian Grand Prix.

Formula One is also one of the most popular sports in Brazil. Brazil's most famous sportsmen is perhaps three times Formula One world champion Ayrton Senna. The Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix (Portuguese: Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos. The race has been held continuously since 1990. Since 1973, the first year Formula One Grand Prix had been held in Brazil, 4 Brazilians have won the Grand Prix in São Paulo: Emerson Fittipaldi (1973) and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008).

In 2007, a new local railway station Autódromo of the Line C (Line 9) of CPTM, was constructed near the circuit to improve access.

São Silvestre Road Race[edit]

The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year's Eve. It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres. Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9.3 mi).

São Paulo Indy 300[edit]

The São Paulo Indy 300 was an IndyCar Series race in Santana that ran annually from 2010 to 2013. The event was removed from the 2014 season calendar.

Other sports[edit]

Volleyball, basketball, skateboard and tennis are other major sports. There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships. The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, women's volleyball, swimming, men's basketball and handball), Clube Athletico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Esporte Clube Sírio (basketball), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), São Paulo Athletic Club (rugby union), Pasteur Athlétique Club (rugby union), Rio Branco Rugby Clube (rugby union), Bandeirantes Rugby Clube (rugby union), Clube de Regatas Tietê (multi-sports) and Clube Atlético Ipiranga (multi-sports and former professional football). Also, on Bom Retiro, there is a public baseball stadium, Estádio Mie Nishi.

International sports events[edit]

The following international sports events have been held in São Paulo:

Transport[edit]

Automobiles are still the main means to get into the city. In March 2011, more than 7 million vehicles were registered.[108] Heavy traffic is common on the city's main avenues and traffic jams are relatively common on its highways.

Highways[edit]

Imigrantes highway connects the city to the ocean coast.
Radial Leste, relevant axial through the city.

The city is crossed by 10 major motorways:

Rodoanel[edit]

Main article: Rodoanel Mário Covas

From the 1940s to the 1980s, many roads and buildings were built without major planning. Ex-governor Mário Covas sponsored a ring road that circles the city, called Rodoanel Mario Covas,[109] and is being built by DERSA.[110]

Railways[edit]

Luz Station "Estação da Luz."

The two major São Paulo railway stations are Luz and Julio Prestes in the Luz/Campos Eliseos region. Luz is the seat of the Santos-Jundiaí line which historically transported international immigrants from the Santos port to São Paulo and the coffee plantation lands in the Western region of Campinas. Julio Prestes connected Southwest São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State to São Paulo. Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic ocean and overseas. Julio Prestes stopped transporting passengers through the Sorocabana or FEPASA lines and now only has limited suburban service. Due to its acoustics and interior beauty, surrounded by Greek revival columns, part of the rebuilt station was transformed into the São Paulo Hall.

Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil. It has an underground station and is still very active with east and westbound suburban trains that link São Paulo to the Greater São Paulo region to the East and the Campinas Metropolitan region in Jundiaí in the western part of the State. Besides housing the interactive Museu da Língua Portuguesa (Portuguese Language Museum), Luz Station is surrounded by important cultural institutions such as the Pinacoteca do Estado, The Museu de Arte Sacra on Tiradentes Avenue and Jardim da Luz, among others.

Internal view of Luz Station.

Although poorly maintained by heavy rail services, a high-speed railway service is proposed to link São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[111] The trains are projected to reach 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph), taking about 90 minutes.

Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes," a medium-speed rail service (about 160 km/h) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from 90 minutes by car to about 50 minutes, linking São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport and Campinas city center. This service is also to connect to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport. Work on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007.[112]

Airports[edit]

Congonhas Airport serves national flights.

São Paulo has two main airports, São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU) for international flights and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport (IATA: CGH) for domestic and regional flights. Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport, serves light aircraft. The three airports together moved 42,617,779 passengers in 2010, making São Paulo one of the top 20 busiest in the world, by number of air passenger movements. The region of Greater São Paulo is also served by São José dos Campos Airport and Viracopos-Campinas International Airport.

Congonhas Airport operates flights mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. In the latest upgrade, eight boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights. The terminal area was expanded from 37.3 thousand to over 51 thousand square meters. This expansion was to satisfy current demand rather than to raise capacity. Built in the 1930s, it was designed to handle 6 million passengers a year and was struggling to handle 12 million instead.[113]

São Paulo-Guarulhos International, also known as "Cumbica" is 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the city center, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos. Every day nearly 100 thousand people pass through the airport, which connects Brazil to 28 countries around the world. 370 companies operate there, generating 53 thousand jobs. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport currently handles 32 million users.

São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport is the largest airport in Latin America and Southern Hemisphere.[114]

Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to more than 45 million passengers. The project, in the financing phase, is part of the airport’s master plan and will get under way shortly. São Paulo International Airport is also the main air cargo hubs in Brazil. The roughly 100 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to locally manufactured medicine. The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest. In 2003, over 75 thousand metric tons of freight passed through the terminal.[115]

Campo de Marte is located in Santana district, the northern zone of São Paulo. The airport handles small aircraft, including air taxi firms. Opened in 1935, Campo de Marte is the base for the largest helicopter fleet in Brazil. It has no scheduled service, but its terminal is equipped with a snack bar, restaurant and bank branch. This airport is the home base of the State Civil Police Air Tactical Unit, the State Military Police Radio Patrol Unit and the São Paulo Flying Club.[116]

Largely using this airport, prosperous passengers take advantage of some one hundred remote helipads and heliports to conveniently bypass heavy road traffic.[117] Campo de Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp.

Metro[edit]

São Paulo Metro was elected the best metro in the Americas.[118]
Consolação Metro Station on Avenida Paulista.

São Paulo has three rapid transport systems: The underground rail system (called "metrô", short for "metropolitano" and in plates in English is called "subway"), with five lines. The suburban rail system, Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), has six lines that serve many regions not reached by the underground system and even some other cities in the metropolitan region. The CPTM network is longer than the underground rail system. The fast-lane bus system: there are many such bus lines in the city, called "Passa Rápido," which are street-level, placed on large avenues and connected with the underground or suburban train stations.

The city currently has 379 kilometres (235 mi) of rail operated by three companies. The São Paulo Metro operates 69.0 km (42.9 mi) of underground railway systems (34.6 km (21.5 mi) fully underground)[119] locally known as the Metrô), with 5 lines in operation and 59 stations. Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM, or "Paulista Company of Metropolitan Trains") railway add 260.7 km (162.0 mi). The third company is Via4. The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday. New underground lines are expected to move another million people per day within the next five years. The projects would expand São Paulo's urban railway system from the current 322 km (200 mi) to more than 500 km (310 mi) on the next 10 years, surpassing the London Underground.[120]

Faria Lima (Line 4 Side) Metro Station.
Further information: Expresso Tiradentes

São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams were common in the first half of the 20th century.[121] São Paulo's underground train system is overcrowded, but was certified by the NBR ISO 9001. It has five lines and links to the metropolitan train network. The São Paulo Metro last year[when?] reached the mark of 11.5 million passengers on mile of line, 15% higher than in 2008, when 10 million users were taken per mile. It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company.[122]

While the total number of passengers increased, satisfaction decreased. The survey "The Metro according to its user: a service evaluation" of last year showed that 60% of respondents rated the means of transport as "very good" and "good." In 2009, the notes were 67% positive.

Buses[edit]

Tietê Bus Terminal, the second largest Bus Terminal in the World. After only New York Port Authority Bus Terminal.[123]

Bus transport (government and private) is composed of approximately 17,000 buses (including about 290 trolley buses).[124] The traditional system of informal transport (dab vans) was later reorganized and legalized under a consistent set of rules.

São Paulo Tietê Bus Terminal is the second largest bus terminal in the world. It serves localities across the nation, with the exception of the states of Amazonas, Roraima and Amapá. Routes to 1,010 cities in five countries (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay) are available. It connects to all regional airports and a ride sharing automobile service to Santos.

The Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal is much smaller and is connected to the Palmeiras-Barra Funda metro and Palmeiras-Barra Funda CPTM stations. It serves the southwestern cities of Sorocaba, Itapetininga, Itu, Botucatu, Bauru, Marília, Jaú, Avaré, Piraju, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, Ipaussu, Chavantes and Ourinhos (on the border with Paraná State). It also serves São José do Rio Preto, Araçatuba and other small towns located on the northwest of São Paulo State.

Helicopter arriving in the São Paulo City Hall.

Buses to São Paulo coast are available at the Jabaquara metro station, which is the final southbound stop on Line 1 (Blue) of the São Paulo Metro. The Litoral bus terminal serves Praia Grande, Santos and São Vicente on the South Shore and Mongaguá, Bertioga and Guarujá on the North Shore. Buses to North Shore cities such as Maresia, Riviera de São Lourenço, Caraguatatuba, Ubatuba and Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro State must be taken at the Tietê Bus Terminal, at Portuguesa-Tietê metro station on Line 1 (Blue).

On October 26, 2013, hundreds of people attacked the bus station in São Paulo, setting fire to a bus and destroying cash and ticket machines. At least six people were arrested in the protests.[125]

Helicopters[edit]

São Paulo has the largest number of helicopters in the world. The second and third positions are of New York City and Tokyo. With 420 helicopters[126] in 2012 and around 2,000 flights per day within the central area, the city is turning into a "real life South-American episode" of The Jetsons.[127]

Helicopters enable businessmen and other affluent workers to sharply reduce time spent moving around and commuting. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services. One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles (24 km) from the center of the city in Tamboré, is operated totally by women, including its pilots.

Social challenges[edit]

Smog in São Paulo.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America. During two World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports (from other regions of the state) were critically affected. This led wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities that turned São Paulo into Brazil's largest industrial hub.

  • Crime rates consistently decreased in the 21st century. The city-wide homicide rate was 9.0 in 2011, less than half the 22.3 national rate.[128]
  • Air quality[129] has steadily increased during the modern era.
  • The two major rivers crossing the city, Tietê and Pinheiros, are highly polluted. A major project to clean up these rivers is underway.
  • The Clean City Law or antibillboard, approved in 2007, focused on two main targets: antipublicity and anticommerce. Advertisers estimate that they removed 15,000 billboards and that more than 1,600 signs and 1,300 towering metal panels were dismantled by authorities.[130]
  • São Paulo metropolitan region, adopted vehicle restrictions from 1996 to 1998 to reduce air pollution during wintertime. Since 1997, a similar project was implemented throughout the year in the central area of São Paulo to improve traffic.[131]

Structural problems[edit]

Due to the large size and scale of the problems the city faces, some of the following issues are currently under discussion by politicians and the society in general:

  • Major traffic jams that stretch out for many kilometers are a common occurrence
  • Flooding of certain areas, especially in the summer due to heavy showers, are still an unsolved problem
  • Potholes and irregular pavement all across town
  • Blackouts and visual pollution caused by overhead wires on utility poles. A schedule for removing all the utility poles in the city and making all the wires underground is under debate.

Politicians[edit]

São Paulo City Hall.

São Paulo's most recent mayors were:

Mayor Entry in Left Office in Political Party
Fernando Haddad 2013 PT
Gilberto Kassab 2006 2012 Democratas, later PSD
José Serra 2005 2006 PSDB
Marta Suplicy 2001 2004 PT
Celso Pitta 1997 2000 PPB, later PTN
Paulo Maluf 1993 1996 PPB (PP)
Luiza Erundina 1989 1992 PT
Jânio Quadros 1986 1988 PTB
Mário Covas 1983 1985 PMDB

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

São Paulo is twinned with:[132][133]

Partner cities[edit]

São Paulo has the following partner cities:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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