São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport

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São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport
Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro
Airport type Public/Military
Operator Invepar-ACSA
Serves São Paulo
Location Guarulhos, Brazil
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 750 m / 2,459 ft
Coordinates 23°26′08″S 046°28′23″W / 23.43556°S 46.47306°W / -23.43556; -46.47306Coordinates: 23°26′08″S 046°28′23″W / 23.43556°S 46.47306°W / -23.43556; -46.47306
Website www.gru.com.br
GRU is located in São Paulo
Location in São Paulo State
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09R/27L 3,000 9,843 Asphalt
09L/27R 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
Statistics (2014)
Passengers 39,573,000[1]
Aircraft operations 304,586[2]
Metric tonnes of cargo 339,828[3]
Economic & social impact $3.4 billion & 154.1 thousand[4]
Statistics: Infraero[5]
GRU airport[6]Sources: Infraero[7] ANAC[8]

São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport (IATA: GRUICAO: SBGR), popularly known locally as Cumbica Airport after the district where it is located and the Brazilian Air Force base that still exists at the airport complex, is the main international airport serving São Paulo, Brazil. It is located in the municipality of Guarulhos in Greater São Paulo. Since November 28, 2001 the airport has been named after André Franco Montoro (1916–1999), former Governor of São Paulo state.[9] The airport was rebranded as GRU Airport in 2012.[10]

In Brazil the airport was ranked first in terms of transported passengers, aircraft operations, and cargo handled in 2012, placing it as the busiest airport in Latin America by passenger traffic (39,573,000 in 2014).[11] Guarulhos has slot restrictions, operating with a maximum of 45 operations/hour[12] and being one of the five airports with such restrictions in Brazil (the others are São Paulo-Congonhas, Brasília, Belo Horizonte-Pampulha and Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont).[13]

Since 2012, the airport has been operated by a consortium composed of Invepar S/A, Airports Company South Africa, and Infraero.[14] Some of its facilities are shared with the São Paulo Air Force Base of the Brazilian Air Force.

The Tropic of Capricorn goes directly through the southern tip of the airport.[15]

Control tower.


On June 6, 1967, in response the growth of the air traffic in Brazil, the Brazilian military government initiated studies concerning the renovation of the airport infrastructure in Brazil. As part of the conclusions of these studies, because of their location, strategic importance, and security issues, new passenger facilities would be constructed in the areas of Galeão Air Force Base in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Air Force Base in São Paulo.

In relation to São Paulo, the initial planning of the airport involved three runways and four passenger terminals. However, the first phase of the construction comprising two runways and two terminals started only on August 11, 1980. The airport was officially inaugurated on January 20, 1985. Quickly Guarulhos became the city's primary airport, supplanting São Paulo–Congonhas Airport.

In 1989 the runways were extended and the terminals renovated, enlarged, and had their capacity increased from 7.5 million to 8.25 million passengers/year. The whole complex covered 3,425 acres (13.86 km2), of which 1,200 acres (5 km2) is urbanized area.

Construction of Terminal 3, capable of handling 12 million passengers per year, had been planned since 2001 but due to a myriad of political and economic problems, the actual construction didn't begin until 2011.

In 2010, the airport served more than 26.8 million passengers, an increase of 24% over 2009 and passenger volumes were 31% in excess of its capacity rated at 20.5 million per year at its present configuration.[5]

In order to relieve the acute overcrowding at Terminals 1 and 2, Infraero announced on May 17, 2011 that the former cargo terminals of defunct airlines VASP and Transbrasil, later used by Federal Agencies, would undergo renovations and adaptations for use as domestic passenger terminals with remote boarding. This new terminal is now called Terminal 4 (T4).[16] The first phase of the renovations, comprising the former VASP terminal, opened on February 8, 2012,[17][18] and the second phase, comprising the former Transbrasil terminal,was opened in June 2013. Contrary to what was announced before, T4 will be permanent. Webjet was the first airline to use the new facility.[19] The new terminal, in its first phase, increased the capacity of the airport in 5.5 million passengers/year and, in the second phase it will increase to 8 million passengers/year. In total, Guarulhos will then be able to handle 28.5 million passengers/year.[20]

Following a decision made on April 26, 2011 by the Federal Government for private companies being granted concessions to explore some Infraero airports,[21] on February 6, 2012, the administration of the airport was conceded, for 20 years, to the Consortium Invepar-ACSA composed by the Brazilian Invepar, an Investments and Funds Society (90%) and the South African ACSA – Airports Company South Africa (10%).[22] Infraero, the state-run organization, will remain with 49% of the shares of the company incorporated for the administration.[23][24]


GRU has two parallel runways. Runway 9R/27L is 9,843 feet (3,000 m) long and 148 feet (45 m) wide, while Runway 9L/27R is 12,140 feet (3,700 m) long and 148 feet (45 m) wide.[25] The field elevation at the Airport is 2,459 feet (750 m) above mean sea level.[26] There are high-speed exit taxiways on both runways that allow for traffic to depart the Runway at higher speed to allow better efficiency for landing and takeoff traffic. Right now, there is an average of 650 takeoff and landing operations at the Airport.[7]

There are two navigational aids that GRU traffic uses. The Bonsucesso very high frequency omnidirectional range with distance measuring equipment (VOR-DME) is located 4.9 nautical miles (9.1 km; 5.6 mi) to the east of GRU.[25] The terminal is split into two: TPS1 and TPS2.[27] There are two main terminals with piers coming out of each one. Because the two are connected, transferring between the two is easy. There are about 260 check-in counters and 370 companies established there, generating about 53,000 jobs.[27]

Future developments[edit]

Interior of the Terminal 3

Infraero unveiled a R$ 1,489.5 million (US$784.7 USD million; €549.8 EUR million) investment plan to upgrade Guarulhos International Airport, focusing on preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the Summer Olympics in 2016. The investment was supposed to be used as follows:[28]

  • Construction of additional taxiways. Cost: R$ 19M. Completion: April 2016.
  • Enlargement of apron and taxiways. Cost: R$370,5M. Completion: May 2016.
  • Construction of passenger Terminal 3. Cost: R$1,1M. Completed: March 2014. Opened for Star Alliance airlines in May.

The airport is now officially open and all Star alliance airlines are in terminal 3.

Central to this investment plan is Terminal 3, which is projected to add 12 million passenger capacity to the 17 million of the existing two terminals. Plans for a third runway were decided to be "technically impracticable" and were cancelled in January 2008.

However, the former concessionary, Infraero, experienced many legal and bureaucratic difficulties, which prevented most (if any) of these improvements from being completed on schedule. As of April 2013, the new concessionary unveiled a new expansion project, which included the new Terminal 3 (with a different design than the one proposed by Infraero), the widening of the main runway in order to enable operations by the new Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8, and several other improvements in the existing terminals and parking area.

A train service development and construction has also been given high priority. This include an Airport Express Line linking the airport to downtown São Paulo and a Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail connecting Guarulhos to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão and Campinas-Viracopos airports.[29]


Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Passengers 36,460,923 32,177,594 29,964,108 26,849,185 21,727,649 20,997,813 19,560,963 16,580,842 16,855,026 12,940,193
Cargo (t) 343,784 448,274 465,255 384,587 351,788 425,884 424,157 419,848 470,944 435,594

Busiest international routes by seat capacity (2013)[30]
Ranking City Seats Companies serving the route
1 Argentina Buenos Aires 2,398,905 Aerolíneas Argentinas, Austral Líneas Aéreas, Gol Transportes Aéreos, LAN Argentina, Qatar Airways, TAM Airlines, Turkish Airlines
2 United States Miami 1,207,985 American Airlines, Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines
3 United States New York 1,038,618 American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, TAM Airlines, United Airlines (Newark)
4 Chile Santiago 996,494 Gol Transportes Aéreos, LAN Airlines, Sky Airline, TAM Airlines
5 France Paris 592,504 Air France, TAM Airlines
6 Spain Madrid 579,912 Air China, Air Europa, Iberia, TAM Airlines
7 Peru Lima 539,130 LAN Perú, Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines
8 Germany Frankfurt 503,538 Lufthansa, TAM Airlines
9 United Kingdom London 502,288 British Airways, TAM Airlines
10 Uruguay Montevideo 497,444 Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines
11 Panama Panama City 452,600 Copa Airlines
12 Colombia Bogota 415,474 Avianca, LAN Colombia
13 Mexico Mexico City 385,690 Aeroméxico, TAM Airlines
14 Portugal Lisbon 369,659 TAP Portugal
15 Paraguay Asuncion 353,576 TAM Airlines Paraguay
16 United States Orlando 316,672 Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines

Airlines and destinations[edit]


Countries served by flights from São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport (includes seasonal and future destinations).
Airlines Destinations Terminal/
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Mendoza 1A
Aerolíneas Argentinas
operated by Austral Líneas Aéreas
Buenos Aires–Aeroparque 1B
Aeroméxico Mexico City 1B
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson 3E
Air China Beijing–Capital, Madrid 3E
Air Europa Madrid 2D
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle 3G
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino 3G
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK 3G
Avianca Bogotá 2C
Avianca Brazil Belo Horizonte–Confins, Brasília, Campo Grande, Chapecó, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Juazeiro do Norte, Natal, Passo Fundo, Petrolina, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador da Bahia 2C
Avianca Peru Lima 1A
Azul Brazilian Airlines Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Belo Horizonte–Pampulha, Brasília, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Ilhéus, Londrina, Manaus, Navegantes, Porto Alegre, Porto Velho, Recife, Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont, Salvador da Bahia, Uberlândia, Vitória 4
Boliviana de Aviación Cochabamba, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru 2C
British Airways London–Heathrow 3G
Copa Airlines Panama City 2C
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, New York–JFK 1B
Emirates Dubai–International 3G
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Lomé (ends 24 April 2015)[31] 2C
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 3G
Gol Transportes Aéreos Aracaju, Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Brasília, Campo Grande, Caxias do Sul, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Ilhéus, João Pessoa, Londrina, Macapá, Maceió, Manaus, Maringá, Natal, Navegantes, Petrolina, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Porto Velho, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont, Salvador da Bahia, São Luís, Teresina, Vitória 1A
Gol Transportes Aéreos Aruba, Asunción, Barbados, Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Caracas, Cordoba, Montevideo, Orlando, Punta Cana, Santiago de Chile, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Tobago (via Barbados) 1B
Iberia Madrid 3F
KLM Amsterdam 3G
Korean Air Los Angeles, Seoul–Incheon 3F
LAN Airlines Santiago de Chile 3E
LAN Argentina Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza 3E
LAN Colombia Bogotá 3E
LAN Perú Lima 3E
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich 3F
Passaredo Linhas Aéreas Cascavel, Cuiabá, Goiânia, Palmas, Ribeirão Preto, Salvador da Bahia, São José do Rio Preto, Três Lagoas, Uberaba, Uberlândia, Vitória da Conquista 4
Qatar Airways Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Doha 3F
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca 1A
Singapore Airlines Barcelona, Singapore 3G
Sky Airline Santiago de Chile 2B
South African Airways Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo 3F
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich 3F
TAAG Angola Airlines Luanda 2C
TAM Airlines Aracaju, Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Boa Vista, Brasília, Campo Grande, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Ilhéus, João Pessoa, Joinville, Londrina, Maceió, Manaus, Natal, Navegantes, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador da Bahia, São José do Rio Preto, São Luís, Vitória 2D
TAM Airlines Barcelona (begins 1 October 2015),[32] Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cancún, Caracas, Córdoba, Frankfurt, Lima, London–Heathrow, Madrid, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Montevideo, New York–JFK, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Rosario, Santiago de Chile, Toronto–Pearson (begins 29 March 2015)[33] 3E
TAM Airlines Paraguay Asunción, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Ciudad del Este 3E
TAME Lima, Quito 2C
TAP Portugal Lisbon, Porto 3F
Turkish Airlines Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Istanbul–Atatürk 3E
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles 3F


Airlines Destinations
ABSA Cargo Airline Belém–Val de Cans, Fortaleza, Manaus, Recife, Miami
Avianca Cargo Bogota
Rio Linhas Aéreas Brasília, Manaus, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador da Bahia
TAM Cargo Fortaleza, Manaus, Recife
Total Linhas Aéreas Belo Horizonte–Confins, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Salvador da Bahia

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 28 January 1986, a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registered PP-SME flying from Guarulhos to Belo Horizonte unknowingly tried to take-off from Guarulhos,during foggy conditions, from a taxiway. The take-off was aborted, but the aircraft overran, collided with a dyke and broke in two. One passenger died.[34]
  • On 21 March 1989, a Transbrasil cargo Boeing 707-349C registered PT-TCS operating flight 801, flying from Manaus to São Paulo-Guarulhos, crashed at the district of Vila Barros in Guarulhos, shortly before touch-down at runway 09R. That day, at 12:00, the runway was going to be closed for maintenance and the crew decided to speed up procedures to touch-down before closure (it was already 11:54). In a hurry, one of the crew members, by mistake, activated the air-dynamic brakes, and the aircraft lost too much speed to have enough aerodynamic support (resulting in a stall). As a consequence the aircraft crashed approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the airport. There were 25 fatalities, of which three were crew members and 22 were civilians on the ground. As well as the 22 fatalities, there were also over 100 injured on the ground.[35]
  • On 2 March 1996, a Madrid Táxi Aéreo Gates Learjet 25D registered PT-LSD transporting the Brazilian comedy rock band Mamonas Assassinas crashed into Cantareira mountain range, located north of the airport, at 23:16 local time killing all 9 passengers on board. The aircraft was on final approach to land on the runway 09R, but went around. As it flew toward the runway for a second attempt to land, the ATC instructed the pilots to make a right turn heading south, but they turned north (left) and crashed into the mountain range at 3,300 feet (1,000 m), 6.2 miles (10.0 km) from the airport.
  • On 14 September 2002, a Total Linhas Aéreas ATR42-312 registered PT-MTS on a cargo flight between São Paulo-Guarulhos and Londrina crashed while en route near Paranapanema. The crew of 2 died.[36]


Guarulhos Airport at dawn.
Bus service to the city.
Approach Lighting System CAT II at Guarulhos Airport.

The airport is located 25 km (16 mi) from downtown São Paulo.


The airport has its own highway system: Rodovia Hélio Smidt Highway which connects the airport to Presidente Dutra Highway or Ayrton Senna Highway. Residents of Guarulhos can access the road via Monteiro Lobato Avenue.


Bus transportation is available through the Airport Bus Service, an executive bus line, administered by EMTU and operated by Consórcio Internorte - Área 3. This service provides transportation connecting Guarulhos to Congonhas airport; to Tietê Bus Terminal; to Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal, to Faria Lima Ave; To Republica Square (Praça da República); To Berrini Ave., Itaim Bibi district; and to the circuit of hotels along Paulista Avenue and Rua Augusta. The ride takes about one hour, depending on traffic.[37] At the airport, tickets can be purchased at the counter located outside the lounge of the Terminal 1, Wing B's arrivals level.

Pássaro Marron/EMTU, a syndicate of the Internorte Consortium, offers two regular bus lines, 257 and 299, connecting Tatuapé subway station (Linha Vermelha) with Guarulhos Airport every 30 minutes. At Tatuapé, both buses can be picked up on the street level. At the airport, the stop for both buses is on the median of the Arrivals-level road connecting Terminals 1 and 2.

As of December 1, 2011, one-way fare on either bus costs R$4.05 and can be paid to the driver in cash upon boarding. Ticket counters for this service can be found at the Arrivals areas of both Terminals 1 and 2.

Gol Airlines and TAM Airlines offer for their passengers free bus transfers between Guarulhos and Congonhas airports at regular times.[38][39]

Viação Cometa offers daily departures to and from the airport and the cities of Santos, São Vicente, and Praia Grande.[40] Lirabus operates daily buses between the airport and Campinas. Pássaro Marron offers bus services to São José dos Campos with departures every two hours. Viação Transdutra connects the airport with the city of Arujá.


Taxi stands are located outside each of the two terminals on the Arrivals level.

Car Rental[edit]

There are car rental facilities at the airport.


Currently, there is no rail access to Guarulhos. Line 13 of the São Paulo's suburban rail system, the CPTM, is under construction and is expected to begin operating in 2015.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/e098a704-b524-41b4-a3eb-2b8f2d935698.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/e098a704-b524-41b4-a3eb-2b8f2d935698.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/e098a704-b524-41b4-a3eb-2b8f2d935698.pdf
  4. ^ "São Paulo–Guarulhos International airport - Economic and social impact". Ecquants. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Movimento operacional da rede Infraero de janeiro a dezembro de 2012" (in Portuguese). Infraero. January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  6. ^ http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/e098a704-b524-41b4-a3eb-2b8f2d935698.pdf
  7. ^ a b "Sao Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport". Infraero. Retrieved April 29, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Lista de aeródromos públicos" (in Portuguese). ANAC. 
  9. ^ "Lei n˚10.314, de 28 de novembro de 2001" (in Portuguese). Lei Direto. November 28, 2001. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  10. ^ Dores, Kelly (November 27, 2012). "Aeroporto de Guarulhos adota nova identidade: GRU Airport". propmark (in Portuguese). Editora Referência. Retrieved April 29, 2014. 
  11. ^ http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/e098a704-b524-41b4-a3eb-2b8f2d935698.pdf
  12. ^ Komatsu, Alberto (16 March 2010). "ANAC vai por limite de pouso e decolagem em mais seis aeroportos" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved March 19, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Anac restringe pousos e decolagens". Revista em Discussão (in Portuguese). Senado Federal (Brazilian Federal Senate). November 2010. Retrieved 2013-09-18. 
  14. ^ "Invepar Website.". Retrieved November 17, 2013. 
  15. ^ "View of São Paulo-Guarulhos airport centered on the Tropic of Capricorn". Google Maps. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  16. ^ Salomon, Marta (May 18, 2011). "Galpão vira terminal em Guarulhos" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. Retrieved May 20, 2011. 
  17. ^ Borges, André (December 16, 2012). "Terminal de Guarulhos fica pronto só em 2012" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Novo terminal de Cumbica fica só para janeiro" (in Portuguese). Veja. December 18, 2011. Retrieved December 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Webjet passa a utilizar o terminal 4 de Cumbica no dia 8" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  20. ^ Costa, Nataly (December 1, 2011). "Cumbica inaugura no dia 20 mais um terminal, a 2 quilômetros dos atuais" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 
  21. ^ Bitencourt, Rafael (April 26, 2011). "Governo define concessão de obras em 3 aeroportos, diz Palocci" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  22. ^ Rittner, Daniel (February 7, 2012). "Cumbica, Viracopos e Brasília são privatizados" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved March 22, 2012. 
  23. ^ Salomon, Marta; Monteiro, Tânia (June 1, 2011). "Governo pretende privatizar três aeroportos e abrir o capital da Infraero" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo: Economia. Retrieved March 22, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Brazil moves swiftly (at last) to award airport concessions". Centre for Aviation. February 9, 2014. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=BR32944&sch=SBGR
  26. ^ http://www.gcmap.com/airport/SBGR
  27. ^ a b http://www.execbrazil.com
  28. ^ Rittner, Daniel; Braga, Paulo Victor (31 August 2009). "Infraero vai gastar R$5 bi em reforma de aeroportos". Valor Econômico (in Portuguese). pp. A4. 
  29. ^ "Trem de alta velocidade" (in Portuguese). Ministério dos Transportes. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  30. ^ http://www.alta.aero/aura/content/publication/Capacity%20Analysis%202014%20sent.pdf
  31. ^ Ethiopian Airlines converts Addis Ababa service to nonstop
  32. ^ "TAM Airlines Adds Barcelona Service from Oct 2015". Airline Route. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  33. ^ https://canadianaviationnews.wordpress.com/2014/12/21/tam-to-launch-new-route-from-toronto-to-sao-paulo-via-jfk/ Retrieved December 22, 2014
  34. ^ "Accident description PP-SME". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Accident description PT-TCS". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Accident description PT-MTS". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved July 23, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Airport Bus Service" (in Portuguese). EMTU. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  38. ^ "Transporte para aeroportos" (in Portuguese). Gol Airlines. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  39. ^ "Traslados Nacionais". TAM Airlines. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  40. ^ Caprioli Turismo (Portuguese)
  41. ^ "SP: trem para Cumbica deve começar a operar em 2015, diz CPTM" [São Paulo: train to Cumbica shall start operations in 2015, CPTM says]. terra.com.br (in Portuguese). September 23, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013. 

External links[edit]