|First season||1959 Milli Lig|
|Number of teams||18|
|Levels on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||TFF First League|
|Domestic cup(s)||Türkiye Kupası
|International cup(s)||UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
|Most championships||Galatasaray (19 titles)|
|Most capped player||Oğuz Çetin (503 matches)|
|Top goalscorer||Hakan Şükür (249 goals)|
|TV partners||Lig TV
TRT (Highlights only)
MP & Silva (Global highlights)
|2013–14 Süper Lig|
The Süper Lig (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈsypæɾ liɟ], Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system. It is one of the top leagues in the UEFA confederation, and the winner of the competition automatically qualifies for the UEFA Champions League group stage. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated to and from the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday. It is sponsored by Spor Toto and therefore officially known as the Spor Toto Süper Lig. The competition formed as the Milli Lig in 1958. It was the first national league competition held in Turkey. Previously, league competitions took place in a few cities, including Adana, Ankara, Eskişehir, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, and Trabzon. It is currently ranked 11th in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 66 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but just 5 have won the title: Galatasaray (19), Fenerbahçe (18), Beşiktaş (11 (with an additional two championships counted in the two years before the league was formed in 1959 for a total of 13, see note below in the Champions section)), Trabzonspor (6) and Bursaspor (1).
Football in Turkey stams back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Thessaloníki. The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in 1904–05. The first champions were Imogene FC. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Milli Lig in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul Football League and Milli Lig, several other city leagues took place: Adana (1923), Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), Izmir (1923), Kayseri (1936), and Trabzon (1923). The Milli Küme was the first step towards a national league competition.
Started in 1937, the Milli Küme was an inter-city competition between clubs in Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir. The competition lasted until 1950. The Federation Cup was created in 1956 and used as a cup competition to decide a champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The cup competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Milli Lig. Beşiktaş won both times, and represented twice Turkey in the European Cup during the two-year span.
The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Milli Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (İstanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş (İstanbul), Beykoz (İstanbul), Fatih Karagümrük (İstanbul), Fenerbahçe (İstanbul), Galatasaray (İstanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir Province) and Vefa (Istanbul). Just 4 of those clubs are competing in the most recent 2012–13 Süper Lig: Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Gençlerbirliği. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first Gol Kralı (Goal King) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.
The 2.Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Milli Lig or Turkish National League became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the creation of a second league, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the seven team group were promoted to the Milli Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1.Lig, the formerly titled 1.Lig became the Süper Lig.
There are 18 clubs in the Süper Lig. During the course of the season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then head-to-head record, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to head record and then goal difference determine the winner. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1.Lig and the top two teams from the 1.Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1.Lig clubs, are promoted in their place.
Qualification for European competitions
As of the start of the 2012–13 Süper Lig season qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the third qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, and fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has already qualified for European competition through their league finish, then the runners-up take their place in the play-off round. If the runners-up have also qualified, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place.
- ( 8) Ukrainian Premier League (45.133) 9
- 10 (11) Super League Greece (37.100)
- 11 (10) Süper Lig (34.050)
- 12 (13) Belgian Pro League (32.400)
- 13 (12) Danish Superliga (27.525)
- 14 (16) Swiss Super League (26.800)
The following 18 clubs will compete in the Süper Lig during the 2013–14 season.
|Medical Park Antalyaspor||Antalya||7th||1982-83||19||2008–09||—|
|Çaykur Rizespor||Rize||TFF First League2nd in the||1967-68||14||2013–14||—|
|Kardemir Demir Çelik Karabükspor||Karabük||15th||1993–94||7||2010–11||—|
|Kayseri Erciyesspor||Kayseri||TFF First League1st in the||2005–06||3||2013–14||—|
|Konyaspor||Konya||TFF First League playoff winner||1988-89||13||2013–14||—|
- a: Founding member of the Süper Lig
- b: Never been relegated from the Süper Lig
Just 5 clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Super League in 1959: Galatasaray 19 times, Fenerbahçe 18 times, Beşiktaş 11 (with an additional two championships counted in the two years before the league was formed for a total of 13, see note below), Trabzonspor 6 and Bursaspor 1 time.
||19||9||1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013|
||18||19||1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011|
||13||14||1957*, 1958*, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009|
||6||8||1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984|
*NOTE: Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956/57 and 1957/58 versions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish Professional First Division championships to the Turkish Football Federation. The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Turkish Federation Cup will be considered as national championships but the Turkish Federation Cup can not be considered as the precursor to the Turkish Professional First Division (later named Süper Lig) and as such these titles can not be categorized as a Turkish Professional First Division (or Süper Lig) titles. Based on this ruling, the Turkish Federation Cup wins by Beşiktaş count towards the star rating system, giving Beşiktaş two more championships for the purposes of the star rating system than the number of Süper Lig titles won by the club.
Star rating system
Clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest on their uniforms for every five national championships won. For the 2013/14 season Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray are permitted three golden stars, Beşiktaş are permitted two golden stars and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.
Participation in the league (End of 2012-13 season)
Teams in bold play in 2013-14 Süper Lig.
All-time top scorers
|10||Alexsandro de Souza||136||241||0.56|
As of 11 November 2013 (Bold denotes players still playing in the league).
All-time most appearances
|3||Hakan Şükür||488||1987–2000, 2003–2008|
|5||Hami Mandıralı||475||1984–1998, 1999–2003|
As of 6 October 2013 (Bold denotes players still playing in the league).
- TFF First League
- TFF Second League
- TFF Third League
- Turkish Regional Amateur League
- Amatör Futbol Ligleri
- List of sports attendance figures — the Super League in a worldwide context
- List of foreign Süper Lig players
- Gol Kralı
- Football records in Turkey
- List of Turkish football champions
- 2011 Turkish sports corruption scandal
- "New Sponsor". SuperLigNews.com. Retrieved 2010-08-09.
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Before the Turkish leagues turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 56/57 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 57/58 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç 1959 Milli Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç 1963-1964 1. Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Official TFF competition rules
- Kárpáti, Tamás (21 May 2010). "Turkey- List of champions". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- Turkish Football Magazine - Online magazine to read the top articles about Turkish football in English (English)
- News About Turkish Football Leagues (English)
- Spor Toto Süper Lig Web oficial (Turkish)
- Turkish Football Federation website (Turkish)
- Canlı Skorlar (Turkish)