NATO reporting name: SA-5 Gammon
S-200 missile (Vega) on its launcher
|Type||Strategic SAM system|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See list of present and former operator|
|Designer||Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence|
|Variants||S-200, S-200V (S-200VE), S-200D (S-200DE), S-200A|
The NPO Almaz S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna (Russian Ангара\Вега\Дубна), NATO reporting name SA-5 Gammon, is a very long range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system designed in the 1960s to defend large areas from bomber attack or other strategic aircraft. Each battalion has 6 single-rail missile launchers for the 10.8 m (35 ft) long missiles and a fire control radar. It can be linked to other, longer-range radar systems.
The first S-200 operational regiments were deployed in 1966 with 18 sites and 342 launchers in service by the end of the year. By 1966, the S-200 was officially accepted into service in order to replace the failed anti-ballistic missile RZ-25/5V11 "Dal". The Dal was assigned the NATO reporting name SA-5 "Griffon" before it was cancelled. By 1968 there were 40 sites, and by 1969 there were 60 sites. The growth in numbers then gradually increased throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until the peak of 130 sites and 1,950 launchers was reached in 1985.
5V21 missile elevated to a launch position on the S-200 missile system
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See list of operators|
|Designer||Petr Grushin design bureau|
|Variants||5V21, 5V28, 5V28V|
|Weight||7,100 kg (15,700 lb)|
|Length||10.8 m (35 ft)|
|Warhead weight||217 kg (478 lb)|
|proximity and command fuzing|
|Propellant||dual-thrust liquid-fueled rocket motor|
|300 kilometres (190 mi)|
|Flight altitude||40,000 metres (130,000 ft)|
|Boost time||4 solid-fueled strap-on rocket boosters|
|Speed||2,500 m/s (5,600 mph)|
|semi active radar terminal homing seeker head|
Each missile is launched by 4 solid-fueled strap-on rocket boosters. After they burn out and drop away (between 3 to 5.1 seconds from launch) it fires a 5D67 liquid fueled sustainer rocket engine (for 51–150 seconds) which burns a fuel called TG-02 Samin (50% xylidine and 50% triethylamine), oxidized by an agent called AK-27P Melange (fuming nitric acid enriched with nitrogen oxides, phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid). Maximum range is between 150 km (81 nmi) and 300 km (160 nmi), depending on the model. The missile uses radio illumination mid-course correction to fly towards the target with a terminal semi-active radar homing phase. Maximum target speed is around Mach 4. Effective altitude is 300 m (980 ft) to 20,000 m (66,000 ft) for early models and up to 35,000 m (115,000 ft) for later models. The warhead is either 217 kg (478 lb) high explosive fragmentation (16,000 × 2 g fragmentation pellets and 21,000 × 3.5 g pellets) triggered by radar proximity fuse or command signal, or a 25 kt nuclear warhead triggered by command signal only. Each missile weighs around 7,108 kg (15,670 lb) at takeoff.
The system utilises radio semi active guidance with mid-course correction and has, for the first time in a Russian system, terminal active radar homing, which is far more accurate at long range than the command guidance method used by the S-75 Dvina and other missiles. The existence of an optional terminal passive radar homing mode for use against AEW aircraft remains unconfirmed. Peak missile speed is around Mach 8 and the single-shot kill probability is quoted as 0.85, presumably against a high altitude bomber-type target.
Main radar system
Additional radar systems
- P-14/5N84A "Tall King" A-band early warning radar (range 600 km (370 mi), 2-6 RPM, maximum search altitude 46 km (29 mi))
- or "Big Back" E-band early warning radar (600 km (370 mi)
- Kabina 66/5N87 "Back Net" or "Back Trap" E-band early warning radar (with special low-altitude search mod, range 370 km (230 mi), 3-6 RPM)
- P-35/37 "Bar Lock\Bar Lock B" 1000 kW E\F-band target detection and tracking radar (with integrated IFF, range 392 km (244 mi), 7 RPM)
- "Side Net" or "Odd Pair" E-band height finding radar (also used by the SA-2, 2K11 Krug and SA-6, range 240 km (150 mi), 3-6 RPM)
- P-15M(2) "Squat Eye" 380 kW C-band target detection radar (range 128 kilometres (80 mi)
- S-200A "Angara" (SA-5a), with the V-860/5V21 or V-860P/5V21A missile, introduced in 1967, range 160 km (99 mi), ceiling 20 km (12 mi)
- S-200V "Vega" (SA-5b), with the V-860PV/5V21P missile, introduced in 1970, range 250 km (160 mi), ceiling 29 km (18 mi)
- S-200 "Vega" (SA-5b), with the V-870 missile, range increased to 300 km (190 mi) and ceiling to 40 km (25 mi) with the new, shorter missile and solid fuel motor
- S-200M "Vega-M" (SA-5b), with the V-880/5V28 or V-880N/5V28N² missile, range 300 km (190 mi), ceiling 29 km (18 mi)
- S-200VE "Vega-E" (SA-5b), with the V-880E/5V28E missile, export version, high explosive warhead only, range 240 km (150 mi) Minimum target size of 0.3 sq. meters. Speed of the target -1200 m / s 
- S-200D "Dubna" (SA-5c), with the 5V25V, V-880M/5V28M or V-880MN/5V28MN² missile, introduced in 1976, high explosive or nuclear warhead, range 400 km (250 mi), ceiling 40 km (25 mi).
Iran claims to have developed a mobile launcher for the system.
- Algeria - 10
- Azerbaijan - 15
- Bulgaria -  1 battalion.
- India - 
- Iran -  5 battalions.
- Kazakhstan - 
- North Korea - 4 battalions (2008). 40 systems in 2010 (number of constituent elements is unknown). C-125 (SA-3) 140 (2M-Pechora presumably), C-75 (SA-2) - 180.
- Burma - 20 launchers from North Korea
- Poland - 2 squadrons.
- Romania - unknown number 
- Syria - 2 battalions (8 launchers)
- Turkmenistan - 
- Uzbekistan - 
- Belarus - Approximately 4 battalions.
- Czechoslovakia - 5 battalions, passed on to successor states.
- Czech Republic - Inherited all Czechoslovak S-200 SAM systems, out of service since mid 1990s.
- East Germany - 4 battalions.
- Germany - 4 battalions former GDR, phased out around 1991
- Hungary - 1 battalion.*
- Libya - 8 battalions.
- Moldova -  1 Battalion
- Georgia - 
- Russia - mostly phased out (S-200 Vega, S-200 Angara), weapons and equipment were disposed. One battery of S-200D remains on alert near Gvardeysk and one near Norilsk.
- Ukraine - Last division was retired on October 30 2013 
- Soviet Union - Originally deployed with the ZA-PVO in the strategic air defense role. It was phased out starting in the 1980s and passed on to the successor states before the phasing out process could be completed.
- Mongolia - The Mongolian People's Army operated SA-5 systems in 1985, but it is not known if there are any operational as of 2011.
Incidents involving the S-200
- Siberia Airlines Flight 1812: a Ukrainian S-200 accidentally locked on to Soviet-made Tupolev Tu-154 when the target drone the missile was aimed at was destroyed by another missile. The airliner was destroyed over the Black Sea on 4 October 2001, killing all 78 people on board.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-200.|
- "Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence S-200 Angara/Vega (SA-5 'Gammon') low to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- "S-200 SA-5 GAMMON". 1998-07-03. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- "Iran upgrades S-200 long-range air defence system."
- "Romanian Armed Forces". European Defense Information. Armed Forces.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Ukrainian military portal(Ukrainian)
- World Missile Directory, FLIGHT international, 1985
- "After 9 Days, Ukraine Says Its Missile Hit A Russian Jet".
- Federation of American Scientists page
- Federation of American Scientists Russian Radars page
- S-200 battalion locations and satellite photos
- S-200 walkaround photos on airforce.ru
- S-200VE Vega-E (SA-5B Gammon) Simulator