S-300 (missile)

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"SA-10" redirects here. For the channel interface for the PDP-10 computer, see Systems Concepts.
"Grumble" redirects here. For other uses, see Grumble (disambiguation).
For the Project Apollo test mission, see A-105 (SA-10).
See also: S-300VM
S-300 Family
NATO reporting name:
SA-10 Grumble, SA-12 Giant/Gladiator, SA-20 Gargoyle
MoscowParade2009 7.jpg
S-300 anti-aircraft missile system at the Victory Parade, Red Square, 9 May 2009.
Type long-range SAM system
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1978–present
Used by See list of operators
Production history
Designer

Almaz-Antey:

NPO Almaz (lead designer)
NIIP (radars)
MKB Fakel (missile designer)
MNIIRE Altair (Naval version designer)
Designed 1967–2005[1]
Manufacturer MZiK[2]
Produced 1978–2011
Variants see variants

The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles.

The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft.

The project-managing developer of the S-300 is Russian Almaz corporation (government owned, aka "KB-1") which is currently a part of "Almaz-Antei" Air Defence Concern. S-300 uses missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" design bureau (a separate government corporation, aka "OKB-2").

The S-300 is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded.[3] Its radars have the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12/24/36 targets. The S-300 deployment time is five minutes.[3] The S-300 missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. An evolved version of the S-300 system is the S-400 (NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler), entering limited service in 2004.

Variations and upgrades[edit]

Numerous versions have since emerged with different missiles, improved radars, better resistance to countermeasures, longer range and better capability against short-range ballistic missiles or targets flying at very low altitude. There are currently three main variations.

S-300 system family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300 Family
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300V
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300F
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300V1
 
S-300V2
 
S-300PT
 
 
 
 
S-300PS
 
 
 
 
Fort
 
Rif
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300VM
 
 
 
S-300PT-1
 
S-300PM
 
 
 
 
S-300PMU
 
Fort-M
 
Rif-M
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Favorit-S
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300VM1
 
S-300VM2
 
S-300PT-1A
 
S-300PM1
 
 
 
S-300PMU1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antey 2500
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300PM2
 
 
 
 
S-300PMU2
 
 
Russian Version
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Favorit
 
 
 
 
 
Export Version
 
 
 
 
S-300VMD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-400
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

S-300P[edit]

Land-based S-300P (SA-10)[edit]

Slovak S-300P-TELs, ready to launch.

The S-300P (transliterated from Russian С-300П, NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is the original version of the S-300 system which became operational in 1978.[1] In 1987, over 80 of these sites were active, mainly in the area around Moscow. The P suffix stand for PVO-Strany (country air defence system). An S-300PT unit consists of a 36D6 (NATO reporting name TIN SHIELD) surveillance radar, a 30N6 (FLAP LID) fire control system and 5P85-1 launch vehicles. The 5P85-1 vehicle is a semi-trailer truck. Usually a 76N6 (CLAM SHELL) low altitude detection radar is also a part of the unit.[4]

This system broke substantial new ground, including the use of a passive electronically scanned array radar and multiple engagements on the same Fire-control system (FCS). Nevertheless, it had some limitations. It took over one hour to set up this semi-mobile system for firing and the hot vertical launch method employed scorched the TEL.[5]

Inflatable S-300 dummy

It was originally intended to fit the Track Via Missile (TVM) guidance system onto this model. However, the TVM system had problems tracking targets below 500 m. Rather than accept the limitation, the Soviets decided that the tracking of low altitude targets was a must and decided to use a pure command-guidance system until the TVM head was ready.[5] This allowed the minimum engagement altitude to be set at 25 m.

Improvements to the S-300P have resulted in several major subversions for both the internal and the export market. The S-300PT-1 and S-300PT-1A (SA-10b/c) are incremental upgrades of the original S300PT system. They introduce the 5V55KD missile and the cold launch method thereafter employed. Time to readiness was reduced to 30 minutes (broadly comparable to Patriot) and trajectory optimizations allowed the 5V55KD to reach a range of 75 km.[5]

Two S-300-PM missile TEL and a 'Flap Lid' radar

The S-300PS/S-300PM (Russian С-300ПC/С-300ПМ, NATO reporting name SA-10d/e) was introduced in 1985 and is the only version thought to have been fitted with a nuclear warhead. This model saw the introduction of the modern TEL and mobile radar and command-post vehicles that were all based on the MAZ-7910 8 × 8 truck.[1] This model also featured the new 5V55R missiles which increased maximum engagement range to 90 km (56 mi) and introduced a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) guidance mode. The surveillance radar of these systems was designated 30N6. Also introduced with this version was the distinction between self-propelled and towed TELs. The towed TEL is designated 5P85T. Mobile TELs were the 5P85S and 5P85D. The 5P85D was a "slave" TEL, being controlled by a 5P85S "master" TEL. The "master" TEL is identifiable thanks to the large equipment container behind the cabin; in the "slave" TEL this area is not enclosed and is used for cable or spare tyre storage.

The next modernisation, called the S-300PMU (Russian С-300ПМУ, US DoD designation SA-10f) was introduced in 1992 for the export market and featured the upgraded 5V55U missile which still utilised the intermediate SARH terminal guidance method and smaller warhead of the 5V55R but increased the engagement envelope to give this missile roughly the same range and altitude capabilities as the newer 48N6 missile (max. range 150 km/93 mi). The radars were also upgraded, with the surveillance radar for the S-300PMU being designated 64N6 (BIG BIRD) and the illumination and guidance radar being designated 30N6-1 in the GRAU index.[citation needed]

  • S-300P Total produced: 3000 launchers, 28,000 missiles for the S-300P[6]

S-300F[edit]

Sea-based S-300F (SA-N-6)[edit]

Close up view of SA-N-6 launchers on Marshal Ustinov.

The S-300F Fort (Russian С-300Ф Форт, DoD designation SA-N-6, F suffix for Flot, Russian for fleet) was introduced in 1984 as the original ship-based (naval) version of the S-300P system developed by Altair with the new 5V55RM missile with range extended to 7–90 km (4–56 mi, equal to 3.8–50 nautical miles) and maximum target speed up to Mach 4 while engagement altitude was reduced to 25–25,000 m (100-82,000 ft). The naval version utilises the TOP SAIL or TOP STEER, TOP PAIR and 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar and utilises command guidance with a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode. Its first installation and sea trials were on a Kara class cruiser and it is also installed on Slava class cruisers and Kirov class battlecruisers. It is stored in eight (Slava) or twelve (Kirov) 8-missile rotary launchers below decks. The export version of this system is known as Rif (Russian Рифreef). The NATO name, found also in colloquial use, is "Grumble".

Sea-based S-300FM (SA-N-20)[edit]

The S-300FM Fort-M (Russian С-300ФМ, DoD designation SA-N-20) is another naval version of the system, installed only on the Kirov class cruiser RFS Pyotr Velikiy, and introduced the new 48N6 missile. It was introduced in 1990 and increased missile speed to approximately Mach 6 for a maximum target engagement speed of up to Mach 8.5, increased the warhead size to 150 kg (330 lb) and increased the maximum engagement range yet again to 5–150 km (3–93 mi) as well as opening the altitude envelope to 10m-27 km (33–88500 ft). The new missiles also introduced the ultimate track-via-missile guidance method and brought with it the ability to intercept short-range ballistic missiles. This system makes use of the TOMB STONE MOD rather than TOP DOME radar. The export version is called the Rif-M. Two Rif-M systems were purchased by China in 2002 and installed on the Type 051C air-defence guided missile destroyers.

Both naval versions are believed to include a secondary infrared terminal seeker, similar to the newer US Standard missile system, probably to reduce the system's vulnerability to saturation. This also allows the missile to engage contacts over the radar horizon, such as warships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles.

S-300V (SA-12)[edit]

S-300V (SA-12a Gladiator)

The 9K81 S-300V Antey-300 (Russian 9К81 С-300В Антей-300 – named after Antaeus, NATO reporting name SA-12 Gladiator/Giant) varies from the other designs in the series. It was built by Antey rather not Almaz.[7] The V suffix stands for Voyska (ground forces). It was designed to form the top tier army air defence system, providing a defence against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircraft, replacing the SA-4 'Ganef'. The "GLADIATOR" missiles have a maximum engagement range of around 75 km (47 mi) while the "GIANT" missiles can engage targets out to 100 km (62 mi) and up to altitudes of around 32 km (100,000 ft). In both cases the warhead is around 150 kg (331 lb).

While it was created from the same project (hence the common S-300 designation) different priorities resulted in a design quite different from the other versions. The S-300V system is carried on tracked MT-T transporters, which gives it better cross-country mobility than even the S-300Ps on 8 × 8 wheeled transporters. It is also somewhat more distributed than the S-300P's. For example, while both have mechanically-scanning radar for target acquisition (9S15 BILL BOARD A), the battery level 9S32 GRILL PAN has an autonomous search ability and SARH delegated to illumination radar on TELARs. The early 30N6 FLAP LID on the S-300P handles tracking and illumination, but is not equipped with an autonomous search capability (later upgraded).

SA-12 high altitude surface-to-air missile systems

The S-300V places a greater emphasis on the ABM, with the dedicated 9M82 (SA-12B Giant) Anti-Ballistic missile. This missile is larger and only two can be held on each TELAR. It also has a dedicated ABM radar – the 9S19 HIGH SCREEN phased array radar at battalion level. A typical S-300V battalion is made up out of a target detection and designation unit, a guidance radar and up to 6 TELARs. The detection and designation unit consists of the 9S457-1 command post, a 9S15MV or 9S15MT BILL BOARD all-round surveillance radar and 9S19M2 HIGH SCREEN sector surveillance radar.[8] The S-300V uses the 9S32-1 GRILL PAN multi-channel guidance radar. Four types of missile-launcher vehicles can be used with the system:[9]

  • Transporter erector and radar (TELAR) vehicles, which not only transport the missiles, but also fire and guide them. There are two models: the 9A83-1 TELAR holding four 9M83 GLADIATOR missiles and the 9A82 TELAR holding two 9M82 GIANT missiles.[9]
  • Launcher/loader vehicles (LLV), which transport the missiles and can reload the TELARs, and also fire missiles under the control of a TELAR. There are two models: the 9A84 LLV holding two 9M83 GLADIATOR missiles and the 9A85 LLV holding two 9M82 GIANT missiles.[9]

S-300V system may be controlled by an upper level command post system 9S52 Polyana-D4 integrating it with Buk missile system into a brigade.

S-300PMU-1/2 (SA-20)[10][edit]

S-300PMU-2 64N6E2 acquisition radar (part of 83M6E2 command post)

The S-300PMU-1 (Russian С-300ПМУ-1,US DoD designation SA-20A, NATO reporting name SA-20 Gargoyle) was also introduced in 1992 with the new and larger 48N6 missiles for the first time in a land-based system and introduced all the same performance improvements from the S300FM version including the increased speed, range, TVM guidance and ABM capability.[11] The warhead is slightly smaller than the naval version at 143 kg (315 lb). This version also saw the introduction of the new and more capable 30N6E TOMB STONE radar.

The S-300PMU-1 was introduced in 1999 and for the first time introduces several different kinds of missiles in a single system. In addition to the 5V55R and 48N6E missiles the S-300PMU-1 can utilise two new missiles, the 9M96E1 and 9M96E2. Both are significantly smaller than the previous missiles at 330 and 420 kg (728 and 926 lb respectively) and carry smaller 24 kg (53 lb) warhead. The 9M96E1 has an engagement range of 1–40 km (1–25 mi) and the 9M96E2 of 1–120 km (1–75 mi). They are still carried 4 per TEL. Rather than just relying on aerodynamic fins for manoeuvring, they use a gas-dynamic system which allows them to have an excellent probability of kill (Pk) despite the much smaller warhead. The Pk is estimated at 0.7 against a tactical ballistic missile for either missile. The S-300PMU-1 typically uses the 83M6E command and control system, although it is also compatible with the older Baikal-1E and Senezh-M1E CCS command and control systems. The 83M6E system incorporates the 64N6E (BIG BIRD) surveillance/detection radar. The fire control/illumination and guidance radar used is the 30N6E(1), optionally matched with a 76N6 low altitude detection radar and a 96L6E all altitude detection radar. The 83M6E command and control system can control up to 12 TELs, both the self-propelled 5P85SE vehicle and the 5P85TE towed launchers. Generally support vehicles are also included, such as the 40V6M tow vehicle, intended for lifting of the antenna post.[citation needed]

S-300PMU-2 vehicles. From left to right: 64N6E2 detection radar, 54K6E2 command post and 5P85 TEL.

The S-300PMU-2 Favorite (Russian С-300ПМУ-2 ФаворитFavourite, DoD designation SA-20B), introduced in 1997, is an upgrade to the S-300PMU-1 with range extended once again to 195 km (121 mi) with the introduction of the 48N6E2 missile. This system is apparently capable against not just short range ballistic missiles, but now also medium range tactical ballistic missiles. It uses the 83M6E2 command and control system, consisting of the 54K6E2 command post vehicle and the 64N6E2 surveillance/detection radar. It employs the 30N6E2 fire control/illumination and guidance radar. Like the S-300PMU-1, 12 TELs can be controlled, with any mix of 5P85SE2 self-propelled and 5P85TE2 trailer launchers. Optionally it can make use of the 96L6E all altitude detection radar and 76N6 low altitude detection radar.[12]

S-400 (SA-21)[edit]

Main article: S-400

The S-400 Triumf (Russian С-400 «Триумф», formerly known as the S-300PMU-3/С-300ПМУ-3, NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler) was introduced in 1999 and features a new, much larger missile with 2 per TEL. The project has been encountering delays since its original announcement and deployment has only begun on a small scale in 2006. With an engagement range of up to 400 km (250 mi), depending on the missile variant used, and specifically designed to counter stealth, it is by far the most advanced version.[citation needed]

S-300VM (SA-X-23)[edit]

Main article: S-300VM

The S-300VM (Antey 2500) is an upgrade to the S-300V. It consists of a new command post vehicle, the 9S457ME and a selection of new radars. These consist of the 9S15M2, 9S15MT2E and 9S15MV2E all-round surveillance radars, and the 9S19ME sector surveillance radar. The upgraded guidance radar has the Grau index 9S32ME. The system can still employ up to six TELARs, the 9A84ME launchers (up to 4 × 9M83ME missile) and up to 6 launcher/loader vehicles assigned to each launcher (2 × 9M83ME missile each). An upgraded version, dubbed S-300V4 will be delivered to the Russian army in 2011.[13]

Complex «Antey-2500» it is the export version of the developed separately from the family of s-300 but could this comes in Venezuela, the estimated export price for 1 billion dollars, the system has 1 type missiles in 2 versions, basic and amended sustainer stage удваивающей range (up to 200 km, according to other data up to 250 km), can simultaneously engage up to 24 aircraft or 16 ballistic targets in various combinations.

  • Became the first system in the world capable of in part 1 of complex simultaneously bruise and aerodynamic and ballistic targets. It also contains a private sector radar for the opening of the areas affected by interference (and does not use external elements of the system of special troops. The range of the developed overloads aim to 30 units.[14]

Operators and other versions[edit]

A parading S-300 of the Bulgarian military

The S-300 is mainly used in Eastern Europe and Asia although sources are inconsistent about the exact countries possessing the system.[15]

  •  Algeria – 4/8 [16] battalions of S-300PMU2 were ordered in 2006.[17]
  •  Armenia[18] S-300PS (SA-10)
  •  Azerbaijan bought two S-300PMU-2/SA-20B SAM battalions in 2010[19]
  •  Belarus – S-300PS systems delivered from Russia in 2007 to replace older S-300 model in Belarussian inventory.[20] Older S-300V sold to Turkey for testing and using on Anatolian Eagle exercises.[21] Four divisions of S-300 missiles to be delivered in 2014.[22]
  •  Bulgaria has ten S-300 launchers, divided into two units with five launchers each.[23]
  •  People's Republic of China: China is also the first customer of S-300PMU-2 and may be using the S-300V under the name Hongqi HQ-18.[24] China also built an upgraded version of the HQ-10 labelled the HQ-15 with the maximum range upgraded from 150 km (93 mi) to 200 km (120 mi). There are unconfirmed reports that claim this version is the Chinese manufactured S-300PMU-2.[25][26] The total number of the S-300PMU/1/2 and HQ-15/18 batteries in PLA are approximately 40 and 60 respectively, in the year 2008. The total number of the missiles is well above 1,600, with about 300 launcher platforms.[26] Five such SAM battalions are deployed and in active duty around Beijing region, six battalions in Taiwan strait region and rest battalions in other major cities like Shanghai, Chengdu and Dalian. Two Rif (SA-N-6) systems were purchased in 2002 for the Chinese Navy for the Type 051C Destroyers.
  •  Greece [27] - S-300 PMU1 system acquired by Greece after the Cyprus Missile Crisis and operated by HAF on the island of Crete consisting of 2 Batteries / 12 launchers / 96 missiles. Greece first fired an S-300 during the White Eagle 2013 military exercise, which was the first time it was used since it was bought 14 years earlier.[28]
  •  Kazakhstan[6][29]
  •  Slovakia – Inherited from Czechoslovakia.
  •  Russian Federation: Has used all of the S-300 variations. The Russian Air Defence Forces, which are part of the Russian Air Force, currently operates 768 S-300PMUs and 185 S-300Vs, meaning they operate 953/(1900 (S-300PT/PS/PMY, 200 S-300V/С-300V1 in 2010 year))[30] in total launchers.[31] All production in 1994 (actually 1990) or older, all the complexes S-300PM have been repairing and upgrading (Favorite-S).[32] S-300P/PT have been retired before 2008, some S-300PS in service, but will be retired in the near future(2012–2013), about 30 divisions is S-300V/S-300PM2, will be retired in ~2018.[33] By 2015 will be delivered over 3 S-300V4. Modernization of all S-300V to the version S-300V4 will end in 2012[34][35]
  •  Ukraine – S-300PS, S-300PMU, S-300V and others.[36] Only six systems have been repaired since 2004; as a result only 40% of Ukrainian S-300 systems are in good condition.[37]
  •  Venezuela ordered 2 battalions of S-300VM "Antey-2500". The missiles were delivered in May 2012.[38][39]
  •  Vietnam has bought two S-300PMU-1 for nearly $300 million.[40]

Former operators[edit]

  •  Croatia: Croatia no longer maintains an S-300 system. It was acquired from Ukraine in 1995 and was never complete and in operational state, but served the role of a psychological weapon. After much controversy, as of 2004 the system is no longer in Croatia and was presumably sold. According to some sources, including the court testimony of arms dealer Zvonko Zubak, the system was indeed shipped to the United States in 2004.[41]
  •  Czechoslovakia – One battalion created in 1990. Passed on to Slovakia in 1993.
  •  East Germany
  •  Soviet Union

Possible future operators[edit]

  •  Iran's status regarding the S-300 system remains controversial. Iran claimed to have signed a contract with Russia on 25 December 2007 on the sales of the S-300PMU-1 missile system.[42] Russian officials have denied this.[43] It has also been claimed that Croatia sold their S-300s to Iran.[44] Later, On 21 December, according to a senior Iranian lawmaker, Russia has started the supply of components for S-300 air defence systems to Iran. Esmaeil Kosari, deputy chairman of the parliamentary commission on national security and foreign policy, told the Iranian news agency IRNA that Iran and Russia had held negotiations for several years on the purchase of S-300 air defence systems and had finalized a deal. Kosari said the Islamic Republic would deploy S-300 surface-to-air missile systems to strengthen national defence on border areas.[45] On 28 October 2009, if asked when Russia would deliver the systems to Iran, Ivanov said: "There have been no such deliveries to date."[46] Yet on 23 December 2009, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Alexei Borodavkin said Russia sees no reason to cancel a deal to provide S-300s to Iran. He said ""Exports of such weapons is subject to no UN treaty or other bilateral agreements, This is why we see no essential reason to make any change in the deal," indicating that there is a deal.[47] On 8 February 2010, Iran announced that it had a "domestically-made" system called Bavar 373 with the same capabilities as the S-300. In September 2012 Iran successfully tested Raad Air Defense System a partner for Bavar 373.[48] Alexander Fumin has said that the delay in the delivery is due to a technical problem with the radiowave system.[49] In 19 April 2010, Asr Iran (Iran's Era) website said that Iran could develop a similar air missiles system[50] On 11 June 2010, Russia stopped sale of the S-300 air defence system to Iran in light of U.N. sanctions against Iran, stating that the "S-300s fall under these sanctions".[51] On 4 August 2010, Iran claimed it has obtained two S-300PT (SA-10) from Belarus and two others from another unspecified source despite Russian refusal to deliver them.[52] The Belarusian government has denied rumors that Minsk had allegedly sold S-300 air defence systems to Iran. "The State Military-Industrial Committee can officially state that Belarus has never held talks with Iran on the deliveries of the S-300 air defence systems", said committee's spokesman Vladimir Lavrenyuk. "Belarus has never supplied S-300 systems or their components to Iran," he said, adding that Minsk strictly complied with international arms control regulations.[53] On 22 September 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree banning the sale of the S-300 and other military equipment to Iran.[54] The sale was canceled because of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929 sanctions on Iran. On 10 November 2010 Iran announced that it had developed a version of the S-300 missile.[55] However Pieter Wezeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute has questioned Iran's ability to duplicate the Russian missile system.[56] And by 2012 the Iranian position had softened to merely considering the production of such a system.[57] In April 2012, Iran filed a lawsuit for $4 billion in damages for failure to deliver the missiles.[58] Then Iran blamed foreign media for inflaming the situation when Russia threatened to reduce diplomatic support for Iran if the lawsuit continued.[59] Russian Technologies (Rostech) CEO Sergei Chemezov said on Thursday 30/05/2013 that the US applied heavy pressure on Moscow to stop the agreement under the pretext that the Iran-Russia deal was against UN Security Council sanctions imposed on the Islamic Republic. Chemezov, added, however, that Washington later changed its rhetoric, saying the UN resolution did not specifically mention the S-300 system and Russia had acted on its own. “The Americans now agree that it is a defensive system and Russia alone should be responsible for the breach of the contract,” Ria Novosti quoted Chemezov as saying. He added that Moscow now seeks to reach a settlement with Tehran to withdraw its lawsuit against Russia’s state-run arms export company Rosoboronexport over the canceled deal, saying Russia’s chances “to win the case are very slim.”[60] On 10 June 2013, Iran's ambassador to Russia rejected Russia's offer to substitute S-300 with Tor air defense system. Ambassador Seyed Mahmoud-Reza Sajjadi said Iran had developed a national defense system “and within that system the proposed Tor system would be unable to fulfill the S-300’s functions.”[61] In late August 2013, the Almaz-Antey Corporation said that the S-300 missiles that were to be delivered to Iran had been scrapped. Some dismantled parts that could be reused were saved, but the rest were completely scrapped. The S-300s could not be entirely re-sold to other buyers because requirements, specifications, and software are different for each particular client and cannot be adjusted. Rosoboronexport had no plans at the time to provide a replacement system,[62] but reversed themselves in 2013 and decided to go forwards with the shipment in exchange for another $800 million payment.[63] On 13 January 2014, it was revealed that Iran would send a delegation to Russia to discuss the delivery of a substitute missile system to the S-300, possibly the Tor missile system, which was rejected in a previous offer, or the S-300VM.[64]
  •  Libya: Tripoli also expressed interest in buying 10 Ka-52 Alligator assault helicopters, two advanced long range S-300PMU2 Favorit air defence missile systems, and 40 short range Pantsir-S1 air defence complexes, for a total cost over $1 billion.[65]
  •  Thailand:HQ-9 Offers
  •  Turkey: Russia has offered the S-300VM to Turkey.[66] Turkey however eventually bought the Chinese HQ-9.
  •  Iraq: Iraq expressed interest in buying S-300
  •  Pakistan: HQ-18 reported to be under evaluation in November 2010.[67]
  •  Syria: Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the acceleration of highly advanced Russian weapons supplies to Syria. Referring to S-300 anti-air systems and the nuclear-capable 9K720 Iskander (NATO named SS-26 Stone) surface missiles. Since Syrian Air Defense Force teams have already trained in the Russian Federation on the handling of the S-300 interceptor batteries, they can go into service as soon as they are landed by one of Russia's daily airlifts to Syria. Russian air defence officials will supervise their deployment and prepare them for operation.[68][69] According to President Vladimir Putin, components of the S-300 have been delivered to Syria but the delivery has not been completed.[70]

Combat history[edit]

Although none of the S-300 versions have ever fired a missile in a real conflict, it is considered a very capable SAM system that poses a significant hazard even to the most advanced aircraft or other airborne targets. In April 2005, NATO had a combat exercise in France and Germany called Trial Hammer 05 to practice Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses missions.[71][72][73] Participating countries were pleased that the Slovak Air Force brought a S-300PMU along, providing a unique opportunity for NATO to become familiar with the system. It's worth noting that many parts of the system have undergone significant upgrades since 2005.

Israel's purchase of F-35 Lightning II fighters was allegedly motivated in part to nullify the threat of S-300 missiles that were, at the time the fighters were initially sought, subject to a potential arms sale to Iran.[74][75]

High combat capabilities and mobility of anti-aircraft missile systems s-300V were repeatedly confirmed by uchebno-fighting and shooting held in special exercises. So, the exercises "0борона-92"/"defense-92" this system ensured the defeat of the aircraft first missile and ballistic missiles destroyed it with a flow rate of two missiles.[14]

In 1995 at the landfill Kapustin Yar in testing The system s-300 for the first time in the world[76] managed to achieve destruction of operative-tactical missile type R-17 in the air: at the point of interception of undermining the military equipment of anti-aircraft missiles s-300 caused the initiation of the warhead ballistic missile R-17.[76] For comparison, four years earlier, during the Persian Gulf War Patriot missile complexes did not show high efficiency, mainly impressed housing missiles of this type, not destroying warhead missiles-the goal, but only by rejecting her.[77][a] However, given the low own precision missiles R-17, the criterion of reckoning affected missiles to «hit» is subjective and actual effectiveness is the main rival to The s-300 can hardly be measured reliably. A more recent modification SAM «patriot», which are more precise targeting, more sophisticated and the availability of a new fuse, providing a detonation of the warhead with a sufficient approximation to the rocket enemy, at the 2003 Iraq war have already yielded different results - all 9 running Iraq Scuds were shot.[78]

During tests of the S-300PMU2 in China shooting were held on 4 types of goals: imitators of operational-tactical missiles were shot at a distance of 34 and 30.7 km at altitudes of 17.7 km and 4.9 km respectively, simulator aircraft strategic aviation was amazed at the range of RUB 184.6 km, small-sized biosphere target type UAV destroyed at a range of 4,6 km, small-sized biosphere ballistic goal also destroyed. The whole complex of tests was completed successfully, confirming the high characteristics of air defence missile system s-300ПМУ2.[79]

In November 2010 payments "'S-300V"' for the first time shot down simulators POS.[dead link] In the firings took part 2-division of the S-300V, the following targets were used rocket-analogues of «wild Boar». A year earlier anti-aircraft missile troops of the North-West Association of the air force and air defense participated in the Airborne fire of the conference of the air force at Ashuluk training. The density of the strike reached six goals in a minute, and only two minutes of the fight, was destroyed 14 rockets-targets - analogues of promising means of air attack of the adversary's.[80]

Israel concerned about the possibility of delivery of complexes s-300 to Iran and Syria, directed substantial efforts on the creation of the systems of radio-electronic counteraction this particular missile system.[81]

Having studied in 1996, in the course of a joint Israeli-Greek air drills, S-300PMU1 purchased by Cyprus -, Israeli experts stated that they identified the weaknesses of this system.[82]

In September 2013, Russia lost the tender for Turkey's T-LORAMIDS. Was initially declared about the participation in the tender complex 400, subsequently, however, the Russian party refused from the sales of s-400 abroad before saturation needs its own army. Together with Russia, participated in the tender United States, and offered anti-aircraft missile complex patriot, China, and European producers. Turkey has given preference to the cheaper Chinese FD-2000.

In May 2012, a large exercise took place in Slovakia under the code name MACE XIII. The SA-300PMU was challenged by modern NATO ECM/ESM sets under complex SEAD conditions. Several NATO countries took part in this exercise. French Mirage and Rafale, Danish F-16, Norway with DA-20, NATO E-3 AWACS, Turkish F-4, German Learjet with an ECM/ESM set and approximately four ground jammers had partial success. NATO concluded that an up to date S-300PMU with a professionally trained crew is capable of effective operations in a complex ECM/ESM environment, with a high level of success.[citation needed]

Comparison with other systems[edit]

official designation COMPLEX S-300PMU[83] S-300PMU1[84] S-300PMU2[85] S-300VM[85] Patriot PAC-2[86] Patriot PAC-3[87]
Range of,
kms
aerodynamic target 5—90 5—150 3—200 200 (250) 3—160 15, at most 20
ballistic targets at most 35 at most 40 5—40 40 20 15—45[88] (20)[89]
Height defeat,
kms
aerodynamic target 0,025—27 0,01—27 0,01—27 0,025—30 0,06—24 15[89]
ballistic targets (?) (?) 2—25 1-30 3—12 15(?)[89]
Maximum target speed, M/S 1150, at most 1300 at most 2800 at most 2800 4500 of ballistic targets[85] at most 2200 at most 1600 [89]
Maximum speed of the rocket COMPLEX, M/S at most 2000[83] (?) 1900 2600/1700[89] 1700[90] (?)
Number of simultaneously guided anti-aircraft missiles of one COMPLEX at most 12 at most 12 at most 72 48 (?) / 96 (?) at most 24 (?)
Number of simultaneously engaged

targets one COMPLEX

at most 6 at most 6 at most 36 at most 24 at most 8 at most 8
Mass of a rocket, kilo 1400—1600 (?) 330—1900 (?) 900 312
Warhead weight, kilo 150 (?) 180[91] (?) 91 74
Minimum time between missile launches, SECONDS 3—5 3—5 3 (0 at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

1,5 (0 at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

3—4 (1[90] at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

(?)
The set up time and clotting time of starting

complex, mins

5 5 5 5 15/30 (?) 15/30(?)
means of transportation Wheeled Wheeled Wheeled CATERPILLAR semi trailer semi trailer

Specifications[edit]

An important quality of all complexes of the family of S-300 is the ability to work in various combinations within a single modification and within the same complex, between the modifications (limited), as well as through a variety of mobile superior command posts to line up in a battery of any composition, quantity, modifications, location and so on including the introduction of other air defence systems into a common battery.[85] the System for the defence of the major industrial and administrative objects, military bases and control points from the shock means of air-space attack of the enemy. Capable of hitting ballistic and aerodynamic targets. Became the first multi-channel anti-aircraft missile system, is able to accompany each system (ADMS) to 6 goals and build them up to 12 missiles. When creating funds management (FM), consisting of paragraph combat control and radar detection, solved the problem of automatic track initiation of up to one hundred goals and effective management divisions, located at a distance of 30–40 km from the (FM). For the first time established a system with full automation of combat operation. All tasks - detection, tracking, target setting is considered, target designation, development of target designation, target acquisition, maintenance, capture, tracking and missile guidance, assessment of results of firing system capable of dealing automatically with the help of digital computing facilities. The operator functions are to control over the work of funds and implementation of the launch of rockets. In a complex environment, you can manually intervene in the course of combat operation. None of the previous systems these qualities possessed. Vertical launch missiles provided bombardment of targets flying from any direction without the reversal of the launcher in the direction of the shooting.[14][92]

Missiles are guided by the 30N6 FLAP LID or naval 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar using command guidance with terminal semi-active radar homing. Later versions use the 30N6 FLAP LID B or TOMB STONE radar to guide the missiles via command guidance/seeker-aided ground guidance (SAGG). SAGG is similar to the Patriot's TVM guidance scheme. The earlier 30N6 FLAP LID A can guide up to four missiles at a time to up to four targets, and can track up to 24 targets at once. The 30N6E FLAP LID B can guide up to two missiles per target to up to six targets simultaneously. Targets flying at up to Mach 2.5 can be successfully engaged or around Mach 8.5 for later models. One missile can be launched every three seconds. The mobile control centre is able to manage up to 12 TELs simultaneously.

The original warhead weighed 100 kg (220 lb), intermediate warheads weighed 133 kg (293 lb) and the latest warhead weighs 143 kg (315 lb). All are equipped with a proximity fuse and contact fuse. The missiles themselves weigh between 1,450 kg (3,200 lb) and 1,800 kg (3,970 lb). Missiles are catapulted clear of the launching tubes before their rocket motor fires, and can accelerate at up to 100 g (1 km/s²). They launch straight upwards and then tip over towards their target, removing the need to aim the missiles before launch. The missiles are steered with a combination of control fins and through thrust vectoring vanes. The sections below give exact specifications of the radar and missiles in the different S-300 versions. It should be noted that since the S-300PM most vehicles are interchangeable across variations.

Radar[edit]

The 30N6 FLAP LID A is mounted on a small trailer. The 64N6 BIG BIRD is mounted on a large trailer along with a generator and typically towed with the now familiar 8-wheeled truck. The 76N6 CLAM SHELL is mounted on a large trailer with a mast which is between 24 and 39 m (79 and 128 ft) tall.

The original S-300P utilises a combination of the 76N6 CLAM SHELL continuous-wave Doppler radar for target acquisition and the 30N6 FLAP LID A I/J-band phased array digitally steered tracking and engagement radar. Both are mounted on trailers. In addition there is a trailer-mounted command centre and up to twelve trailer-mounted erector/launchers with four missiles each. The S-300PS/PM is similar but uses an upgraded 30N6 tracking and engagement radar with the command post integrated and has truck-mounted TELs.

If employed in an anti-ballistic missile or anti-cruise missile role, the 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F-band radar would also be included with the battery. It is capable of detecting ballistic missile class targets up to 1,000 km (620 mi) away travelling at up to 10,000 km/h (6,200 mph) and cruise missile class targets up to 300 km (190 mi) away. It also employs electronic beam steering and performs a scan once every twelve seconds.

The 36D6 TIN SHIELD radar can also be used to augment the S-300 system to provide earlier target detection than the FLAP LID radar allows. It can detect a missile-sized target flying at an altitude of 60 metres (200 ft) at least 20 km (12 mi) away, at an altitude of 100 m (330 ft) at least 30 km (19 mi) away, and at high altitude up to 175 km (109 mi) away. In addition a 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F band target acquisition radar can be used which has a maximum detection range of 300 km (190 mi).

The S-300 FC Radar Flap Lid can be mounted on a standard pylon.

Surveillance radar
GRAU index NATO reporting name Specialisation Target detection range Simultaneously detected targets NATO frequency band First used with Notes
36D6 TIN SHIELD 180–360 km (110–220 mi) 120 E/F S-300P Industrial designation: ST-68UM
350 kW to 1.23 MW signal strength
76N6 CLAM SHELL Low altitude detection I S-300P
76N6 CLAM SHELL Low altitude detection 120 km (75 mi) 300 I S-300PMU 1.4 kW FM continuous wave
64N6 BIG BIRD Regiment radar 300 km (190 mi) C S-300PMU-1
96L6E CHEESE BOARD All altitude detection 300 km 300 S-300PMU-1
9S15 BILL BOARD 250 km (160 mi) 200 S-300V
9S19 HIGH SCREEN Sector tracking 16 S-300V
MR-75[93] TOP STEER Naval 300 km D/E S-300F
MR-800 Voskhod[93] TOP PAIR Naval 200 km (120 mi) C/D/E/F S-300F
Target tracking/missile guidance
GRAU index NATO reporting name NATO frequency band Target detection range Simultaneously tracked targets Simultaneously engaged targets First used with Notes
30N6 FLAP LID A I/J 4 4 S-300P
30N6E(1) FLAP LID B H-J 200 km (120 mi) 12 6 S-300PMU Phased array
30N6E2 FLAP LID B I/J 200 km 72 36 S-300PMU-2
9S32-1 GRILL PAN Multi-band 140–150 km (87–93 mi) 12 6 S-300V
3R41 Volna TOP DOME I/J 100 km (62 mi) S-300F

Missiles[edit]

two types of missiles for the Russian SA-20 anti-air complex
Missile specifications
GRAU index Year Range Maximum velocity Maximum target Speed Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance First used with
5V55K/KD 1978 47 km (29mile) 1,700 m/s (3,800 mph) 1,150 m/s (2572 mph) 7 m (23 ft) 450mm 1,450 kg (3,200 lb) 100 kg (220 lb) Command
5V55R/RM 1984 90 km (56mile) 1,700 m/s (3,800 mph) 1,150 m/s (2572 mph) 7 m (23 ft) 450mm 1,450 kg (3,200 lb) 133 kg (293 lb) SARH
5V55U 1992 150 km (93mile) 2,000 m/s (4,470 mph) 7 m (23 ft) 450mm 1,470 kg (3,240 lb) 133 kg (293 lb) SARH
48N6/E 1992 150 km (93mile) 2,000 m/s (4,470 mph) 2,800 m/s (6,415 mph) 7.5 m (25 ft) 500mm 1,780 kg (3,920 lb) ~150 kg (~330 lb) TVM
48N6E2 1992 195 km (121mile) 2,000 m/s (4,470 mph) 2,800 m/s (6,415 mph) 7.5 m (25 ft) 500mm 1,800 kg (3,970 lb) 150 kg (330 lb) TVM
9M82 1984 13–100 km (8.1–62.1 mi)
30 km (98,000 ft) alt
2,400 m/s (5,400 mph) 420 kg (926 lb) 150 kg (330 lb) SARH by TELAR S-300V
9M83 1984 6–75 km (3.7–46.6 mi)
25 km (82,000 ft) alt
1,700 m/s (3,800 mph) 150 kg (330 lb) SARH by TELAR S-300V
9M83ME 1990 200 km (120mile) SARH by TELAR S-300VM
9M96E1 1999 40 km (25mile) 900 m/s[94] (2,010 mph) 4,800–5,000 m/s
(10,737–11,185 mph)
330 kg (728 lb) 24 kg (53 lb) Active Radar Homing S-400
9M96E2 1999 120 km (75mile) 1,000 m/s[94] (2,240 mph) 4,800–5,000 m/s
(10,737–11,185 mph)
420 kg (926 lb) 24 kg (53 lb) Active Radar Homing S-400
40N6[94] 2000 400 km (250mile) Active Radar Homing S-400

Means of camouflage and protection[edit]

  • Masking components of s-300 systems are used in full-scale inflatable layouts,[95] equipped with additional devices simulation of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared and radar.

Also can be used all sorts of means of masking as the camouflage nets and placement of the components of C-300 in the trenches that considerably complicates the detection from long range. Station interference with radar enemy, SPN-30, Veil-1.[85]

  • Protection. Additional elements of protection is the placement of components of C-300 in the trenches (practiced as placing on the hills for a better view and more rapid care of the horizon, and in the trenches for stealth and protection against fragments of explosions).

Composite element to counter the radar missile programme is for s-300 system Paperboy-E,[85][96] the likelihood of intercepting missiles PIS type of HARM is 0.85 for missiles with active radar-guided, heat or body-managed system pointing the probability of interception of 0.85-0.99. Under the interception perceived inability of the object to cause harm because of his hit miss the target.

Comparable SAMs[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ All, according to Israeli data, the coverage of the Пэтриотов» were not more than 47 Scuds, which was released a total of 158 interceptors. According to the Israeli Ministry of Defense, «Пэтриотам», despite the over-expenditure of interceptor missiles (including a case with a flow rate of 28 units on target), managed to intercept no more than 20 % of Iraqis running missiles. Other sources of data vary greatly (from 9 % according to the estimates of the Control Chamber of the US Administration to 52-80 %)

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External links[edit]