S-400 (SAM)

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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf SAM.png
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Mobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin  Russia
Service history
In service 28 April 2007[1]
Used by  Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Specifications

Operational
range

400 km (40N6 missile) 250 km (48N6 missile)

120 km (9M96E2 missile) 40 km (9M96E missile)

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф»; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with the Russian Armed Forces.

The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.

Development[edit]

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.[2]

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, but in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.[2]

Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.[3][4]

Structure[edit]

  • 30K6E administration system:
    • 55K6E command and control centre based on Ural-532301.
  • 92N6E Panoramic radar detection system (range of 600 km) with protection against jamming. Mounted on an MZKT-7930.
  • 6 battalions of 98ZH6E Surface-to-air missile systems consisting of (an independent combat system for autonomous operation):[5]
    • 92N6(or 2)E Multi-functional passive electronically scanned array radar (range of 400 km).[6]
    • 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer (up to 12 launchers).
    • Surface-to-air missiles allowed by Russian Presidential decree: 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and ultra distance 40N6E.[7]

Possible elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E):[5][8] 15I6ME - for moving the to the distance 98ZH6E 30/60/90 km away from 30K6E. 96L6E[9] - universal complex (all functions), the detection range of 300 km. 40B6M - tower for radar 92N6E or 96L6E. Anti - stealth: Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Orion[10] passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 1 out of 3), Avtobaza-M passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 2 out of 3)[11] and Orion+ Avtobaza=the exact location. 1RL220BE[5] classified information[12] (or outdated), older versions (supposedly) were used for interference/anti-jamming[13] (inside/within passive sensor (locator)). Possible to apply the S-200D "Dubna" (SA-5c) missiles (using standartyne launchers S-400).[14]

The 30К6Е control system can control:[5]

  • S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system;
  • S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system);
  • S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system);
  • Tor-M1 through Ranzhir-M battery command post;
  • Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle;

Triumf kets – when carrying out additional works using the 30K6E administration system; reception of the route information from an additional integrated 92Н6Е radar system;

Radar type 96L6E/30K6E administration system, Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Optional integration with the 92H6E radar system ensure communicaion between each battery with:

  • Baikal-E senior command posts and other similar types;
  • nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е, and 83М6Е2 administration systems ;
  • Polyana-D4М1 command post;
  • command post for Russian fighter aircraft.

For export supply in coordination with foreign customers, with the purpose of integration in the system of defence from the customer are additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets.

Base statistics[edit]

Main characteristics of the «Triumph» [15]
Max target speed (km/s) 4,8[8]
Target detection distance (km) 600
Range of aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

400[16]
2
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27[8](easily)/30[17]
0.005(9M96)/0,01(all)
Range of tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

60
5[5]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU) 36
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast WRU) 72
Mobile to Launch-ready time (min) 5-10
Detection to Launch time (min) 3
Time between major overhauls (h) 10 000
Service life (Years)
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

at least 20
15
  • Types of target:[18]
  • Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111 and B-52H
  • Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
  • Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
  • Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
  • Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16 and F-22
  • Stealth airplanes such as the B-2 and F-117A
  • Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
  • Ballistic missiles (range up to 3500km[19]).
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4800 meters per second (absolute limit 5000[19]), the minimum is zero.[5]

Missiles[edit]

  • The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400 km (250 mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012)[20]
  • The 48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250 km (160 mi). Semi-active radar homing head.
  • The 48H6E3/48H6E2 – The 250/200 km, target speed 4800/2800 m/s, rocket speed 2000 m/s.[5]
  • The 9M96E2[21] extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi), flying altitude 5 m to 30 km,. It has the highest hit probability against fast, manoeuvrable targets such as fighter aircraft. Weight 420 kg. Active radar homing head.
  • The 9M96E medium range missile (40 km), flying altitude 20 km, weight 333 kg. Active radar homing head.[19]
  • The 9M96(not for exporting) medium range missile. Range more 120 km, a high probability of target destruction 1 rocket (0.9 for the aircraft and UAV maneuvering - 0.8). Can maneuver at a height of 35[22] km with an overload of more than 20g, which greatly increases the efficiency of destruction of ballistic missiles medium and short range.[14]
  • The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[23] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[24]

Deployment[edit]

A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[25] On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007.[26] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[27]

On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast' near the town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[28]

On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[29]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400's.[30]

On March 17, 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[31]

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[25]

In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[32] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[33]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012 and these went into operational status in April 2012.[34][35] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[36]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[37] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[38]

As of September 2013, the Russian Army has five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. Beginning in 2014, the army will receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[39] Another S-400 regiment will be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.[40]

Foreign interest[edit]

On August 23, 2007 RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia will not export the S-400 for the next few years.[41]

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul Turkey expressed interest in buying the system.[42]

Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.[43]

On August 24, 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[44]

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a two billion dollar arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.[45][46]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales.[47] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[48] and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[49] LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.[50]

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China.[51]

Operators[edit]

Current:

Potential:

  •  Egypt – Egypt has expressed its interest in buying S-400 systems[57]
  •  Kazakhstan – started planning creation of a joint air defense system that helped Astana buy S-400 complexes from Moscow after 2015 [58]
  •  Belarus – announced its intention to purchase S-400 systems in September 2011 [58]
  •  Vietnam – Vietnam will buy 4-6 S-400 complexes after 2015 when Russia exports this system [59][60]
  •  Armenia – Armenia showed interest to Russian S-400 in 2011[61]
  •  Saudi Arabia – has expressed its interest in buying 12 unit S-400 systems .
  •  Turkey – has expressed interest in S-400 system instead of Russian offered S-300 system [62] However, Turkey is currently debating purchase of Chinese HQ-9, and the S-300PMU2 was first to be eliminated from the competition.
  •  Serbia – Serbia has shown interest to buy S-400 system to upgrade Serbian Air Defence capabilities.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ЗРС С-400 Триумф". S400.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  2. ^ a b "S-400 (SA-20 Triumf)". MissileThreat.com. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Russia: New S-400 Air Defense System Coming Soon". Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules. April 4, 2001. 
  4. ^ "Russia Trumpets New S-400 Missile System". BBC Monitoring. March 23, 2001. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g http://old.raspletin.ru/press-centre/news/2008/080603/
  6. ^ http://www.dtig.org/docs/SA-21.pdf
  7. ^ "Частокол противовоздушной обороны / Вооружения / Независимая газета". Nvo.ng.ru. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29.  (Russian)
  8. ^ a b c http://www.raspletin.ru/produktsija-i-vidy-dejatelnosti/produktsija-oboronnogo-naznachenija/sistemy-i-kompleksy-zonalnoj-i-obektovoj-pvo/zenitnaja-raketnaja-sistema-s-400-triumf |title=Mobile multichannel air defense missile system S-400 "Triumf"
  9. ^ http://www.lemz.ru/goods/rls/rls96l6e/
  10. ^ http://www.rusarmy.com/pvo/pvo_vvs/rtr_orion.html
  11. ^ http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-598.html
  12. ^ http://all-tanks.ru/content/indeksy-grau-mo-sssr-rf?page=3
  13. ^ http://www.logistics.ru/9/15/i77_19374p0.htm
  14. ^ a b http://www.kap-yar.ru/index.php?pg=257
  15. ^ http://old.raspletin.ru/produce/adms/s400/
  16. ^ New missile for the s-400 is already being prepared for serial production «Military parity» (March 18, 2010)
  17. ^ http://ria.ru/infografika/20110217/335150208.html
  18. ^ http://www.raspletin.ru/
  19. ^ a b c http://www.arms-expo.ru/049051048057124052049048.html
  20. ^ "Ракету дальнего радиуса действия для С-400 создадут в 2012 году » Военное обозрение". Topwar.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  21. ^ http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-S-400-Triumf.html#mozTocId125551
  22. ^ http://www.deagel.com/Anti-Ballistic-Missiles/9M96E_a000991001.aspx
  23. ^ Andrei Kislyakov, specially for RIR (2012-12-18). "Russia to roll out new hypersonic missiles". Indrus.in. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  24. ^ "S-500 Prometheus". MissileThreat.com. April 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  25. ^ a b Denisov, Anton (August 26, 2008). "Russia deploys S-400 air defense systems in Far East". RIA Novosti (Moscow, Russia). Retrieved December 9, 20102009-08-26. "A regular S-400 battalion comprises at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post." 
  26. ^ "S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1". RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia. May 21, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Systém S-400 připraven k obraně Moskvy" [The S-400 is ready to defend Moscow]. RIA Novosti (in Czech). Moscow, Russia: The Internet Archive Wayback Machine. May 31, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "...S-400 will be given to full combat readiness to defend Moscow and central Russia (near the town of Elektrostal in the Moscow region) on 1 July 2007." 
  28. ^ "Russia to Belarus fearing of Ukraine". Charter97.org. April 15, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "...sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command" 
  29. ^ "Russia moves to longer-range interceptors". United Press International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "Russian military experts expect the S-400 to be the backbone of the country's missile defenses through at least 2020." 
  30. ^ "Оружия не хватит – Для переоснащения армии нет средств" [The Army cannot afford enough weapons for retooling]. Vedomosti (in Russian). August 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "LG-2015 provides for... the purchase of... 18 anti-aircraft missile battalions of S-400" 
  31. ^ "Second S-400 air defense regiment put into service in Russia". RIA Novosti. March 17, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  32. ^ Rian.ru Defense Russia's second S-400 missile unit enters service, 16 February 2011.
  33. ^ Rian.ru Russia to deploy modern missile defense systems on disputed Kuril Islands, 15 February 2011
  34. ^ "Baltic Fleet Receives S-400 Air Defense Missile Systems". Rusnavy.com. 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  35. ^ Lenta.ru Балтийский флот заменит ЗРК С-200 на "Триумфы" (The Baltic fleet will replace the S-200 with the "Triumf"). 11 December 2011
  36. ^ a b "SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM - Russian Military Analysis". Warfare.be. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  37. ^ "Russia to induct three S-400 battalions in 2012". Industry News. Air Force Technology. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  38. ^ "Russia’s Eastern Military District Gets S-400 Missiles". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  39. ^ Russian army will receive two or three new regiments of S-400 defense missile systems every year - Armyrecognition.com, 15 September 2013
  40. ^ New regiment of S-400 air defense missile sytem will enter in service with the Russian army - Armyrecognition.com, 8 October 2013
  41. ^ "Russia unlikely to export S-400 SAM systems any time soon". RIA Novosti. August 23, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Turkey hopes to buy S-400 air defense systems from Russia". RIA Novosti. April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Iran's army to be equipped with S-400". PressTV. September 5, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the magnificent S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran." 
  44. ^ Belarus asks Russia for S-400 SAM systems by 2010 – source
  45. ^ Defpro. Daily Saudi Arabia signs 2 billion dollar weapons deal with Russia, 1 Sep 2009.
  46. ^ upi.com Riyadh mulls big Russian missile buy, 22 March 2010.
  47. ^ New Contract: ALMAZ Corp. creates Multi-functional radar for South Korea
  48. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  49. ^ "Doosan Corporation Mottrol : Defence Weapon". Doosan.com. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  50. ^ "True Dream Partner - LIG Nex1". Lignex1.com:8001. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  51. ^ http://www.armyrecognition.com/march_2014_global_defense_security_news_uk/russia_gives_green_light_to_sell_s-400_air_defense_missile_systems_to_china_3103144.html
  52. ^ "Наука и техника: Западный военный округ получил дивизион комплексов С-400". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  53. ^ a b c Беларусь. "210-й зенитно-ракетный полк ВВС и ПВО России, дислоцированный около поселка Морозки Дмитровского района Московской области, получил на вооружение два дивизиона новейшей зенитно-ракетной системы С-400. / Союзное вече / Приложения / Народная газета". Ng.by. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  54. ^ "ВВС РФ в 2010 году должны получить еще пять дивизионов С-400 | РИА Новости". Ria.ru. 2009-11-26. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  55. ^ "Наука и техника: Комплексы С-400 отправят на Дальний Восток". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  56. ^ "Зенитно-ракетный полк ЮВО ВВС России получил на вооружение комплекс С-400 "Триумф" - Телеканал "Звезда"". Tvzvezda.ru. 2011-01-02. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  57. ^ "Egypt wants S-400 to counter Iran". Defaiya.com. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  58. ^ a b "Kazakhstan to get first S-400 air defense systems after 2015". En.tengrinews.kz. 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  59. ^ "VNTime - Viet-Nam-co-the-mua-S-400-cua-Nga". Vntime.vn. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  60. ^ [1][dead link]
  61. ^ Sargis Harutyunyan եւ Emil Danielyan (2011-08-31). "Armenia Eyes More Sophisticated Russian Missiles". Azatutyun.am. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  62. ^ "China wants to buy S-400 ground to air defence missile system from Russia 1901121". Armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  63. ^ "RTS :: Vučić u poseti Rusiji" (in Serbian). Rts.rs. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 

External links[edit]

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