Š

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Š in upper- and lowercase

The grapheme Š, š (S with caron) is used in various contexts representing the sh sound usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative. In the International Phonetic Alphabet this sound is denoted with ʃ, but the lowercase š is used in the Americanist phonetic notation, as well as in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. It represents the same sound as the Turkic Ş.

For use in computer systems, Š and š are at Unicode codepoints U+0160 and U+0161 (Alt 0352 and Alt 0353 for input), respectively. In HTML code, the entities Š and š can also be used to represent the characters.

Primary usage[edit]

The symbol originates with the 15th-century Czech alphabet as introduced by the reforms of Jan Hus. From there, it was adopted into the Croatian alphabet by Ljudevit Gaj in 1830, and other alphabets of languages, such as Bosnian, Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Slovak, Slovene, Serbian, Karelian, Sami, Veps, Sorbian and some forms of Bulgarian. Some languages in this list also use the Cyrillic script where the "ш" represents the "š" in the Latin alphabet.

Also, š occurs in Finnish and Estonian, but only in loanwords. On occasion, it is possible to replace š with sh but only when it is technically impossible to typeset the accented character.[1]

Outside of Europe, the "š" is also used in Lakota, Cheyenne, and Cree (in dialects such as Moose Cree), and some African languages such as Northern Sotho and Songhay.

Transliteration[edit]

The symbol is also used as the romanisation of Cyrillic ш in ISO 9 and scientific transliteration and deployed in the Latinic writing systems of Macedonian, Bulgarian, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Bashkir.

In addition, the grapheme transliterates cuneiform orthography of Sumerian and Akkadian /ʃ/ or /t͡ʃ/, and (based on Akkadian orthography) the Hittite /s/ phoneme, as well as the /ʃ/ phoneme of Semitic languages, transliterating shin (Phoenician Phoenician sin.png and its descendants), the direct predecessor of Cyrillic ш.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]