Tor missile system

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9K330 Tor
NATO reporting name: SA-15 "Gauntlet"
Tor-M1 SAM (2).jpg
9K330 TLAR (rear view)
Type Tracked SAM system
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1986–present
Used by See list of operators
Production history
Designer

Almaz-Antey:

Antey design bureau (lead designer)
MKB Fakel (missile designer)
MNIIRE Altair (naval version designer)
Designed 1975
Manufacturer IEMZ Kupol
Metrowagonmash (GM chassis designer),
MZKT (wheeled chassis designer)
Unit cost US$ 25 million
Produced 1983
Variants Tor, Tor-M1, Tor-M2, Tor-M1-2U
Specifications (Tor-M1)
Weight 34 tonnes
Length 7.5 m
Width 3.3 m
Height 5.1 m (radar mast unstowed)
Crew 3

Main
armament
9M330, 9M331
Engine V-12 diesel
618 kW (830 hp)
Transmission hydromechanical
Suspension torsion bar
Ground clearance 450 mm
Operational
range
500 km
Speed 65 km/h

The Tor missile system (Russian: "Тор"; English: torus[1]) is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for engaging airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (Anti-Munitions). Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K330, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 "Gauntlet". A navalized variant was developed under the name 3K95 "Kinzhal", also known as the SA-N-9 "Gauntlet". Tor was also the first air defence system in the world designed from the start to shoot down precision guided weapons like the AGM-86 ALCM[2] day and night, in bad weather and jamming situation.[3] Moving with the troops, Tor can detect targets itself on the move, for shooting need a short stop.[4][5]

Development[edit]

The development of the Tor missile system started on the 4th of February 1975, in response to the directives of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Initiated as a successor to the 9K33 Osa (NATO reporting name SA-8 "Gecko"), development on the land based version was conducted in parallel with a navalized variant of the system (3K95 Kinzhal/SA-N-9 "Gauntlet), to be installed on a number of upcoming ship classes, including the Kirov class battlecruisers,[2] and retrofitted onto older ships. Responsibility for development was given to the Antey design bureau headed by V.P. Efremov, the missiles designed by MKB Fakel under P.D. Grushin and the Altair design bureau headed by S.A. Fadeyev responsible for development of Kinzhal.[2] All the developers and manufacturers of the Tor missile system unified into Almaz-Antey in 2002.[6] Mobility time is 3 minutes, can be transported by any transport means (including aerial). The reaction time of the original Tor is 7-8 (standard) / 7-10 (if it is in motion) seconds.[4]

The project was given strict design specifications to meet; Tor had to provide extended detection and tracking of fast, low radar cross section targets and be capable of quickly and efficiently dealing with massed air raids, whilst providing a high degree of automation and integration with other air defence assets.[7] In order to meet these demanding specifications, the designers used a variety of new technologies, including advanced phased array radar for improved detection and tracking performance, enhanced digital information processing, and vertically launched missiles to improve reaction time and increase the number of readily available munitions. After a period of testing and evaluation between December 1983 and December 1984, the land based system was accepted into service on March 19, 1986.

Despite starting testing earlier than its terrestrial counterpart, the naval variant, Kinzhal, had a more protracted development.[2] After an extended testing period using a Project 1124 Grisha class corvette (including the engagement and destruction of four P-5 Pyatyorka (SSC-1a Shaddock) anti-ship missiles in 1986[8]) Kinzhal finally entered service in 1989.

Improvements[edit]

Tor M2E features at the MAKS 2009 show (Buk missiles in the background)

Even while the Tor was being introduced into service, work started on improving the system, resulting in an enhanced version, the Tor-M1. Many improvements over the original system were made; these included the addition of a second fire control channel, allowing two targets to be engaged at once; as well as upgrades to the optical tracking system and computer equipment. ECM protection and warhead design were also modified, as was the ammunition handling system.[7] State tests, conducted between March and December 1989,[2] showed that the result was a system which could engage more targets in a shorter time frame with reaction times reduced by over a second and an increased probability of target destruction. The M1 was introduced into service in 1991.[2] Further modifications occurred partly as a response of insight gained from the 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulting in the Tor-M1-1, or Tor-M1V, which offered improved network connectivity and ECM functions.[2][7] Significantly increased the probability of hitting any target.[4] In 1993, in the interference conditions was able to shoot down small-sized rocket (similar to the complexes Iron Dome).[9]

Upgrades have continued over the lifetime of the system, with developer Almaz Antey unveiling the newest incarnation of the Tor missile system, the Tor-M2E,[10] at the MAKS Airshow in 2007. The latest variant features improved fire control radar coverage, and four guidance channels, allowing up to four missiles to be guided at any one time. The Tor-M2E also offers the option of a wheeled chassis, as well as a new digital computer system and all weather optical tracking system.[7]

"Tor-M1-2U" entered service in the framework of the state defense order at the end of 2012. This system is designed to destroy aircraft, helicopters, wind drones, missiles, and other elements of precision weapons, flying at medium, low and very low altitudes in all weathers. The system is able to hit four targets simultaneously at a height of up to 10 kilometers. Its crew consists of three people. [11][12] Deliveries are underway.[13]

Description[edit]

A 9K332 TLAR with tracking radar covered. Photo by GulfLINK.

The closest foreign analogues to the Tor, in function and operation, are systems like the British Rapier missile and French Crotale missile systems. Analogs significantly[14] worse[15][16] than Tor. All 3 systems are mobile and self-propelled, Tor using the 9A330 combat vehicle, which carries a crew of four (one driver, three operators), and acts as an autonomous Transporter, Launcher, And Radar unit, or TLAR (similar to but not a TELAR, as it does not erect the missile to a launch position). The 9A330 is based on the GM-355 chassis manufactured by MMZ, the Tor-M1 using the improved GM-5955.[17] Like Rapier and Crotale, in addition to the tracked vehicle, there are also static and towed versions of the Tor, as well as a wheeled one.

Arranged in a similar fashion to the previous 9K33 Osa and 9K22 Tunguska (Russian: Тунгуска) air defense systems, Tor’s TLAR features a turret with a top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar, with 8 ready to fire missiles stored vertically between the two radars. The target acquisition radar is a 3D F band pulse doppler radar, equipped with a truncated parabolic antenna, and a mechanically, later electronically, scanned in azimuth with a 32 degree sector view,[18] and has an average power output of 1.5 kW, which provides a maximum detection range of 25 km/16 mi. For reference, a McDonnell Douglas F-15 at an altitude of 6 km has a detection probability of 0.8 at this range.[2] The electronic ‘heart’ of the system is a digital fire control system, which allows detection of up to 48 targets and the tracking of ten at any one time, and integrates IFF functionality; the IFF antenna being mounted above the search radar.

The target engagement radar is a G band/H band (later K band) pulse doppler radar with an electronically scanned (in azimuth) phased-array antenna. The radar is classed as a thinned array (design using fewer elements) incorporating only 570 phase shifters and uses linear polarization.[18] The radar has an average power output of 0.6 kW providing a maximum detection range of 20 km/12 mi. An F-15 type aircraft had a detection probability of 0.8 at this range.[2] Originally Tor could only engage one target at a time, and with only two of its missiles. Later variants of the Tor system (Tor-M1 and M2E) incorporate additional fire control channels, as well as improved fire control computers, allowing the system to engage two (M1) and then four (M2E) targets, whilst simultaneously guiding up to four (M1) and then eight (M2E) missiles.. There is also a small antenna on the top of the target engagement radar to communicate with missiles after launch. Together these radars carry the NATO reporting name "Scrum Half". To reduce the dimensions of the vehicle, the target acquisition radar can be folded down horizontally when travelling, and the tracking radar can partially rotate away from vertical. To allow engagements in the ECM heavy environment that is the modern battlefield, the 9K332 is equipped with an optical tracking system, complementing the main radar.

As a fully mobile system, the Tor is capable of acquiring and tracking targets while the TLAR is moving. Due, however, to the interference with launch operations while on the move, missiles can be fired only when the system is in a stationary position. Once set up, the reaction time (from target detection to engagement) is described as 5–8 seconds, depending on the variant; however, reaction time is somewhat longer (around 10 seconds) whilst in motion and firing in short halts. To facilitate this mode of operation, an auxiliary power unit (APU) is fitted so that the main engine can be shut down while the radar and missile system continue to operate when stationary, enabling long periods of readiness. The digital computers allowed for a higher degree of automation than any previous Soviet system of its type. Target threat classification is automatic and the system can be operated with little operator input, if desired. The high performance computing system combined with a phased array radar are the main reasons for the system's high degree of accuracy, ability to intercept small, fast and highly maneuverable targets, and the very fast reaction times of the system. It is equipped with NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) protection. Reflecting the complex nature of system, the price per unit was quoted as $25 million in 2007[citation needed].

Typically, a battery of four Tor vehicles is accompanied by the mobile Ranzhir-M (Russian: "Ранжир-М") command center, which provides automatically interaction with the SA-15,8,13,16. It allows for efficient allocation of tasks between the individual Tor-M1 crews and allows each TLAR to be linked into a wider air defense system, thereby increasing target detection range and reducing reaction time.

Tor vehicles is accompanied by the mobile Polyana-D4 which provides automatically interaction with the SA-15,17,19,23 (S-300V, Buk, Tor, Tunguska), (integrates all functions of several different systems into a single whole + Various Air Force aircraft + direct transfer of target designation).[19][20]

Tor-M1 receiving commands from Ranzhir-M / Polyana-D4 can shoot down targets in the range of 0-84 degrees.[4] Tor-M1 system (the time of creating the version, 1991[16]) can operate in a * pair *, then the angle of observation was 0-64 degrees (vertical).[4]

Combat vehicle of antiaircraft Tor missile system provides simultaneous detection of up to 48 targets.[3]

3K95 Kinzhal[edit]

SA-N-9 launcher on the Udaloy class destroyer Admiral Vinogradov.

The 3K95 "Kinzhal" (Russian: Кинжалdagger) is the naval version of the Tor missile system developed by Altair and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-9 Gauntlet. Using the same 9M330 missile as the land based version, the system can be mounted on vessels displacing over 800 tonnes and is known to be installed on Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, Kirov class multimission cruisers, Udaloy class anti-submarine destroyers and Neustrashimy class frigates. The naval version of the later Tor-M1 is known as the "Yozh" (Russian: Ёж - hedgehog), while the export version of the Kinzhal is known as "Klinok" (Russian: Клинок - blade).

Stored within rotary VLS modules, the missiles are clustered into launchers comprising three to six modules (32 (Neustrashimy), 64 (Udaloy) or 192 (Kuznetsov, Kirov) missiles) and mounted flush to the deck. Each module has up to eight missiles stored ready to fire; during firing the missile is cold launched using a gas catapult before the launcher brings the next round to a firing position.[21]

SA-N-9 firing from the Kirov class cruiser Frunze.

Fire control (FC) is handled by the 3R95 multi-channel FC system, (NATO reporting name Cross Swords), composed of two different radar sets, a G-band target acquisition radar (maximum detection range 45 km/28 mi,[21]) and a K-band target engagement radar, (maximum tracking range 15 km/9 mi[citation needed]) that handles the actual prosecution of a target.

Using two top mounted, mechanically scanned, parabolic target acquisition radars, the fire control system provides a 360 degree field of view, as well as IFF. The target engagement radar is an electronically scanned phased array antenna of the reflection type mounted on the front of the fire control system with a 60 degree field of view.[8] Much like its land based sibling, the target engagement radar can track and guide eight missiles on up to four targets at once and is effective to a range of 1.5–12 km and an altitude of 10–6000 m.[21] The system has a reaction time of 8–24 seconds[citation needed], depending on the mode of operation, and is managed by a crew of 13.[21] Additional missile guidance antennae can be seen around the fire control system and the 3K95, like the upgraded Tor launchers, is equipped with a secondary infrared guidance system. The 3R95 can also provide fire control information for the vessels AK-630 close in weapons systems (CIWS) providing a second line of defence should anything penetrate the missile layer.[8]

Variants[edit]

  • 9K330 "Tor" with the 9M330 missile, minimum range 2 km (1.2 mi), introduced in 1983, (put into service in 1986)[22]
  • 9K331 "Tor-M1", introduced in 1991 with the 9M331 missile, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously, minimum range 1.5 km (0.93 mi), minimum height 0,01 km[23].
  • Tor-M1V has a protection against spoofing
  • 9K332 "Tor-M2", in service since 2007, protection against spoofing.[24] The reaction time is 7 seconds, fully automated.[25] The ability to engage 4 targets simultaneously.

ADMS «Tor-M2» currently produced at OJSC Izhevsk Electromechanical plant «Kupol».

"'Tor-M2E (9К332МE)"' - antiaircraft missile system with a fighting vehicle on caterpillar chassis. In the composition includes: the fighting machine 9А331МE and antiaircraft missile module 9М334 with four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М9331.[26] The crew of 2 persons. The system is fully automated.[27]

"'Tor-M2K (9К332МК)"' - antiaircraft missile system with fighting machine on a wheeled chassis. Chassis developed by the Belarusian enterprise «MZKT». In the composition includes: the fighting machine 9А331МК and antiaircraft missile module 9М334 with four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М9331.[28][29]

'Characteristics'
  • The affected area:
    • range: 1 to 15 km
    • height: from 0.01 to 10 km
  • The time of reaction: 4,8 s
  • Max. target speed: 700 m / s
  • Number of simultaneously engaged targets: 4
  • Maximum overload of the missiles: 30 (g)
  • Flight speed of the missiles: 700...800 m / s
  • Minimum target RCS: 0,05 m2[30]
  • Guidance system: anti-jamming, commands via radio
  • Number of target channels: 4
  • The number of missiles on combat vehicle: 8
  • Year of development: 2008
  • The crew of 3 persons
  • Cruising range of 500 km[31]

"'Tor-М2КМ (9К331МКМ)"' - created in modular design (towed variant weight reduced to 15 tons), to accommodate various types of chassis. In the composition includes: an autonomous fighting machine 9А331МК-1 and antiaircraft missile module 9М334 with four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М9331. At MAKS-2013 was presented on the chassis of the Indian TATA.[32][33] The affected area expanded to height - 10 km, distance - 15.[34] The crew of 2 persons. Chance to destroy any target 98% as a minimum. Significantly improving penetrating power of fragments of warhead.[35] The system is fully automated.[27] Modules weighing 15 tons are installed on ships of the Russian Navy.[36]

Ammunition of the Tor-M2 includes 8 missiles 9M331 or 16 missiles 9M338 (increase the altitude and range).[37] The affected area expanded to height - 10 km, distance - 16. The maximum speed of the rocket is 1 km/s. Time for a short stop for the firing start reduced to 2–3 seconds.[38] 9M338 have already produced.[39]

Missiles[edit]

9M330
9М330 missiles.jpg
4 9M330 Missiles in one of the two launching racks
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1986-present
Used by See list of operators
Production history
Designer Fakel
Designed 1975
Manufacturer IEMZ Kupol
Produced 1983
Variants 9M330, 9M331, 9M332, 9M338[40][41]
Specifications (9M331[43])
Weight 167 kg
Length 2900 mm
Diameter 235 mm
Warhead Frag-HE
Warhead weight 15 kg
Detonation
mechanism
RF Proximity

Wingspan 650 mm
Propellant Solid-fuel rocket
Operational
range
12 kilometres (7.5 mi)[42]
Flight ceiling 6,000 metres (20,000 ft)
Boost time Cold launch ejection for 20 m
Speed 850 m/s
Guidance
system
Radio command
Steering
system
Gas dynamic control system, with four control surfaces
Launch
platform
9A331 combat vehicle
Transport GM-569 tracked vehicle

Rocket complex were specially developed for the effective interception of small intensely maneuvering targets.[3]

Weighing in at 167 kg (368 lb), the 9M330 missile is 3 m (10 ft) long, carries a 15 kg (33 lb) warhead and has a peak speed of around Mach 2.8. Utilizing command guidance and radar controlled proximity fuzes, the missiles can maneuver at up to 30Gs and engage targets flying at up to Mach 2. Cold launched, the missiles are propelled out of the vehicle before the solid fuel rocket motor fires and the gas-dynamic maneuvering system turns them toward their target. Missiles can also be fired against surface targets. Each missile is a sealed round, stored in two groups of four. Engagement range is up to 12 km (0.8-6.47 nm) with minimum range varying between 1500–2000 m (328-5,621 feet), depending upon version and an effective altitude of 10–6000 m (33-20,000 ft).[42]

Kill probabilities for later versions are quoted as:

  • 0.92-0.95 against aircraft
  • 0.80-0.96 against helicopters
  • 0.60-0.90 against cruise missiles (with an effective range of around 5 km/3 miles)
  • 0.70-0.90 against precision munitions (LGBs, glide bombs, etc.)
  • 0.90 against UAVs

A new 9M338 missile has been developed by Almaz Antey offering improved range and precision, its smaller size also enables the modified Tor-M2 to be equipped with 16 missiles as opposed to the original 8.[40][41]

Combat history[edit]

In a press conference regarding the 2008 South Ossetia War, Russian defence ministry spokesperson Anatoliy Nogovitsyn speculated about the use of the Tor missile system by Georgia against attacking Russian aircraft. The system suggested as a possible cause of the loss of a Tu-22MR strategic bomber, shot down by Georgian air-defences while on a reconnaissance mission during the conflict.[44] While the loss of the bomber has also been attributed to Buk-M1, which Georgia obtained from the Ukraine in 2007,[45] if the loss can be attributed to Tor it would be the first time the (as yet unproven) system has seen combat use.

Operators[edit]

The HQ-17 (Hongqi-17) is the reported Chinese designation for the Tor missile system, which is replacing the HQ-61. There is no confirmation that China is currently manufacturing its own licenced copy of the Tor system. In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000.[46]

Russia has delivered an undetermined number of Tor-M1 systems (originally built for Greece) to the Islamic Republic of Iran amid protests from the United States.[47] It is suspected that at least 29 such systems have been transferred along with service contracts with an approximate value of $700,000,000 USD.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]