South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
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South Asia Association for Regional
|-||Secretary-General||Arjun Bahadur Thapa|
Md Ibrahim Ghafoori
|-||Nepal||Harpal Sing Nepali|
|-||Sri Lanka||Prasanna Gamage|
|Establishment||8 December 1985|
|GDP (PPP)||April 2015 estimate|
|-||Total||US$9.9 trillion |
|GDP (nominal)||April 2015 estimate|
|-||Total||US$ 2.9 trillion|
|a.||Current SAARC Summit host|
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or Indian subcontinent. The SAARC Secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The combined economy of SAARC is the 3rd largest in the world in the terms of GDP(PPP) after the United States and China and 5th largest in the terms of nominal GDP. SAARC nations comprise 3% of the world's area and contain 21% (around 1.7 billion) of the world's total population and around 9.12% of Global economy as of 2015. SAARC also home to world's 3rd & 7th largest Economy of world in GPP(PPP) & GDP(Nominal) terms respectively as well as World's fastest growing major Economy,that is India. India makes up over 70% of the area and population among these eight nations. All non-Indian member states except Afghanistan share borders with India but only two other members, Pakistan and Afghanistan, have a border with each other. During 2005-10, the average GDP growth rate of SAARC stood at an impressive 8.8% p.a., but it slowed to 6.5% in 2011 largely because of economic slowdown in India, which accounts for nearly 80% of SAARC's economy. But driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices,from the last quarter of 2014 South Asia once again become the fastest-growing region in the world.
The idea of regional political and economical cooperation in South Asia was first raised in 2 May 1980 by Bangladesh President Ziaur Rahman and the first summit was held in Dhaka on 8 December 1985, when the organisation was established by the governments of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Since then the organisation has expanded by accepting one new full member, Afghanistan, and several observer members.
The SAARC policies aim to promote welfare economics, collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia, and to accelerate socio-cultural development in the region. The SAARC has developed external relations by establishing permanent diplomatic relations with the EU, the UN (as an observer), and other multilateral entities. The official meetings of the leaders of each nation are held annually whilst the foreign ministers meet twice annually. The 18th SAARC Summit was held in Kathmandu from 26–27 November 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Members and observers
- 3 Secretariat
- 4 Apex and Recognised Bodies
- 5 Political issues
- 6 South Asian Free Trade Area
- 7 SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme
- 8 Awards
- 9 Anthem
- 10 Secretaries-General of SAARC
- 11 SAARC summits
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The idea of co-operation in South Asia was discussed in at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference held in New Delhi on April 1947; the Baguio Conference in the Philippines on May 1950; and the Colombo Powers Conference held in Sri Lanka in April 1954.
In the ending years of the 1970s, the seven inner South Asian nations that included Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka agreed upon the creation of a trade bloc and to provide a platform for the people of South Asia to work together in a spirit of friendship, trust and understanding. President Ziaur Rahman later addressed official letters to the leaders of the countries of the South Asia, presenting his vision for the future of the region and the compelling arguments for region. During his visit to India in December 1977, President Ziaur Rahman discussed the issue of regional cooperation with the then Indian Prime Minister, Morarji Desai. In the inaugural speech to the Colombo Plan Consultative Committee which met in Kathmandu also in 1977, King Birendra of Nepal gave a call for close regional cooperation among South Asian countries in sharing river waters. After the USSR's intervention in Afghanistan, the efforts to established the union was accelerated in 1979 and the resulting rapid deterioration of South Asian security situation. Responding to the President Zia Rehman and King Birendra's convention, the officials of the foreign ministries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. The Bangladesh's proposal was promptly endorsed by Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and the Maldives but India and Pakistan were sceptical initially. The Indian concern was the proposal’s reference to the security matters in South Asia and feared that President Zia Rehman's proposal for a regional organisation might provide an opportunity for new smaller neighbours to renationalised all bilateral issues and to join with each other to gang up against India. Pakistan assumed that it might be an Indian strategy to organise the other South Asian countries against Pakistan and ensure a regional market for Indian products, thereby consolidating and further strengthening India’s economic dominance in the region.
However, after a series of quiet diplomatic consultations between South Asian foreign ministers at the UN headquarters in New York from August to September 1980, it was agreed that Bangladesh would prepare the draft of a working paper for discussion among the foreign secretaries of South Asian countries. The foreign secretaries of the inner seven countries again delegated a Committee of the Whole in Colombo on September 1981, which identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of co-operation were added in the following years.
In 1983, the international conference held by Indian Minister of External Affairs P.V. Narasimha Rao in New Delhi, the foreign ministers of the inner seven countries adopted the Declaration on South Asian Association Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and formally launched the Integrated Programme of Action (IPA) initially in five agreed areas of cooperation namely, Agriculture; Rural Development; Telecommunications; Meteorology; and Health and Population Activities.
Officially, the union was established in Dhaka with Kathmandu being union's secretariat-general. The first SAARC summit was held in Dhaka on 7–8 December 1985 and hosted by the President of Bangladesh Hussain Ershad. The declaration signed by King of Bhutan Jigme Singye, President of Pakistan Zia-ul-Haq, Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi, King of Nepal Birendra Shah, President of Sri Lanka JR Jayewardene, and President of Maldives Maumoon Gayoom.
Members and observers
|GDP per Capita
|GDP Growth Rate
|Foreign Direct Investment
|Foreign Exchange Reserves(million)||Defense Budget(% of GDP)
|Literacy Rate(Given Age & above||Corruption Rank 2014
|Life Expectancy||Population below Poverty Line||Primary School Enrollment ||Secondary School enrollment ||Population undernourished(%)
|Afghanistan||32.007||$21.3 bn||$63.5 bn||$1,976||3.2%||$0.3 bn||N/A||$6,442||N/A||28.1%(Age 15)||172/175||60||15.8%||N/A||54%||26.8%|
|Bangladesh||159.857||$205.3 bn||$572.6 bn||$3,581||6.2%||$31.2 bn||$0.66 bn||$24,072||$2.2 bn(1.2%)||57.7%(Age 15)||145/175||70||31.5%||92%||54%||16.4%|
|Bhutan||0.779||$2.2 bn||$6.3 bn||$8,158||6.4%||$0.7 bn||$63 mln||N/A||N/A||52.8%(age 15)||30/175||68||23.7%||91%||78%||N/A|
|India||1,276.2||$2308.0 bn||$7996.6 bn||$6,266||7.3%||$464.0 bn||$31.0 bn||$351,557||$45 bn(1.9%)||74.4%(age 7)||85/175||67||21.9%||94%||69%||15.2%|
|Maldives||0.38||$3.0 bn||$5.2 bn||$14,980||4.5%||$0.28 bn||N/A||$356||N/A||99%(age 15)||N/A||77||16%||N/A||N/A||5.2%|
|Nepal||28.4||$21.6 bn||$70.7 bn||$2,488||5.5%||$1.0 bn||$10 mln||$5,439||N/A||66%(age 15)||126/175||68||25.2%||98%||67%||7.8%|
|Pakistan||190.4||$250 bn||$928.0bn||$4,886||4.2%||$25.1 bn||$2.2 bn||$16,305||$7.4 bn(3.5%)||55%(age 15)||126/175||66||22.6%||72%||34%||22%|
|Sri Lanka||21.7||$80.4 bn||$233.7 bn||$11,068||7%||$11.8 bn||$0.9 bn||$8,314||$1.4 bn(2.3%)||98.1%(age 15)||85/175||75||8.9%||94%||99%||22%|
The first secretary general was Abul Hasan (16 January 1985 - 5 October 1989) the first female secretary general was Fathima Dhayana Sied (Maldivis) The first secretary general from India was Kant Kishore Bhargava (17 Oct 1989 - 31 Dec 1991)
SAARC was founded by seven states in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan began negotiating their accession to SAARC and formally applied for membership on the same year. The issue of Afghanistan joining SAARC generated a great deal of debate in each member state, including concerns about the definition of South Asian identity because Afghanistan is a Central Asian country.
The SAARC member states imposed a stipulation for Afghanistan to hold a general election; the non-partisan elections were held in late 2005. Despite initial reluctance and internal debates, Afghanistan joined SAARC as its eighth member state in April 2007.
On 2 August 2006, the foreign ministers of the SAARC countries agreed in principle to grant observer status to three applicants; the US and South Korea (both made requests in April 2006), as well as the European Union (requested in July 2006). On 4 March 2008, Iran requested observer status, followed shortly by Mauritius.
Potential future members
Myanmar has expressed interest in upgrading its status from an observer to a full member of SAARC. Russia has applied for observer status membership of SAARC. Turkey applied for observer status membership of SAARC in 2012. South Africa has participated in meetings.
The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.
The SAARC Secretariat is supported by following Regional Centres established in Member States to promote regional co-operation. These Centres are managed by Governing Boards comprising representatives from all the Member States, SAARC Secretary-General and the Ministry of Foreign/External Affairs of the Host Government. The Director of the Centre acts as Member Secretary to the Governing Board which reports to the Programming Committee.
- SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC), Dhaka, Bangladesh
- SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC), Dhaka, Bangladesh
- SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC), Kathmandu, Nepal
- SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC), New Delhi, India
- SAARC Human Resources Development Centre (SHRDC), Islamabad, Pakistan
- SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC), Maldives
- SAARC Information Centre (SIC), Nepal
- SAARC Energy Centre (SEC), Pakistan
- SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC), India
- SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC), Bhutan
- SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC), Sri Lanka
- SAARC Development Fund (SDF), Bhutan
Apex and Recognised Bodies
SAARC has six Apex Bodies, namely, SAARC Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SCCI), SAARCLAW (South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation In Law), South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA), South Asia Foundation (SAF), South Asia Initiative to End Violence Against Children (SAIEVAC), Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature (FOSWAL)
Hemant Batra is the current incumbent Secretary General of SAARCLAW.
SAARC also has about 17 recognised bodies.
Lasting peace and prosperity of the Indian subcontinent has been elusive due to the various ongoing conflicts and in the region. Political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings which have refrained from interfering in the internal matters of its member states. During the 12th and 13th SAARC summits, extreme emphasis was laid upon greater co-operation between the SAARC members to fight terrorism.
South Asian Free Trade Area
SAFTA was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union. In 1995, the Sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18–19 December 1995) agreed on the need to strive for the realisation of SAFTA and to this end an Inter-Governmental Expert Group (IGEG) was set up in 1996 to identify the necessary steps for progressing to a free trade area. The Tenth SAARC Summit (Colombo, 29–31 July 1998) decided to set up a Committee of Experts (COE) to draft a comprehensive treaty framework for creating a free trade area within the region, taking into consideration the asymmetries in development within the region and bearing in mind the need to fix realistic and achievable targets. The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 during Twelfth SAARC Summit held in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006, and the Trade Liberalisation Programme commenced from 1 July 2006. Under this agreement, SAARC members will bring their duties down to 20 per cent by 2009. Following the Agreement coming into force the SAFTA Ministerial Council (SMC) has been established comprising the Commerce Ministers of the Member States. In 2012 the SAARC exports increased substantially to US$354.6 billion from US$206.7 billion in 2009. Imports too increased from US$330 billion to US$602 billion over the same period. But the intra-SAARC trade amounts to just a little over 1% of SAARC's GDP. In contrast, in ASEAN (which is actually smaller than SAARC in terms of size of economy) the intra-bloc trade stands at 10% of its GDP.
SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme
The SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme was launched in 1992. The leaders at the Fourth Summit (Islamabad, 29–31 December 1988), while realising the importance of having people to people contacts, among the peoples of SAARC countries, decided that certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a Special Travel document, which would exempt them from visas within the region. As directed by the Summit, the Council of Ministers regularly kept under review the list of entitled categories. Currently the list included 24 categories of entitled persons, which include Dignitaries, Judges of higher courts, Parliamentarians, Senior Officials, Businessmen, Journalists, Sportsmen etc. The Visa Stickers are issued by the respective Member States to the entitled categories of that particular country. The validity of the Visa Sticker is generally for one year. The implementation is reviewed regularly by the Immigration Authorities of SAARC Member States.
The Twelfth Summit approved the SAARC Award to support individuals and organisations within the region. The main ends of the SAARC Award are:
- To encourage individuals and organisations based in South Asia to undertake programmes and activities that complement the efforts of SAARC
- To encourage individuals and organizations in South Asia contributing to bettering the conditions of women and children
- To honour outstanding contributions and achievements of individuals and organizations within the region in the fields of peace, development, poverty alleviation, environment protection and regional cooperation
- To honour any other contributions and achievement not covered above of individuals and organisations in the region.
The SAARC Award consists of a gold medal, a letter of citation, and cash prize of US $25,000 (₹15 lakhs). Since the institution of the SAARC Award in 2004, it has been awarded only once and the Award was posthumously conferred upon the late President Ziaur Rahman of Bangladesh.
SAARC Literary Award
SAARC Literary Award is an annual award conferred by the Foundation of SAARC (South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation) Writers and Literature (FOSWAL) since 2001 which is an apex SAARC body. Shamshur Rahman, Mahasweta Devi, Jayanta Mahapatra, Abhi Subedi, Mark Tully, Sitakant Mahapatra, Uday Prakash, Suman Pokhrel and Abhay K are some of the prominent recipients of this award.
SAARC Youth Award
The SAARC Youth Award is awarded to outstanding individuals from the SAARC region. The award is notable due to the recognition it gives to the Award winner in the SAARC region. The award is based on specific themes which apply to each year. The award recognises and promotes the commitment and talent of the youth who give back to the world at large through various initiatives such as Inventions, Protection of the Environment and Disaster relief. The recipients who receive this award are ones who have dedicated their lives to their individual causes to improve situations in their own countries as well as paving a path for the SAARC region to follow. The Committee for the SAARC Youth Award selects the best candidate based on his/her merits and their decision is final.
- 1997: Outstanding Social Service in Community Welfare – Mohammed Sukur Salek (Bangladesh)
- 1998: New Inventions and Shanu - Najmul Hasnain Shah (Pakistan)
- 2001: Creative Photography: South Asian Diversity – Mushfiqul Alam (Bangladesh)
- 2002: Outstanding contribution to protect the Environment – Masil Khan (Pakistan)
- 2003: Invention in the Field of Traditional Medicine – Hassan Sher (Pakistan)
- 2004: Outstanding contribution to raising awareness for TB and/or HIV/AIDS – Ajij Prasad Poudyal (Nepal)
- 2006: Promotion of Tourism in South Asia – Syed Zafar Abbas Naqvi (Pakistan)
- 2008: Protecting the Environment in South Asia – Uswatta Liyanage Deepani Jayantha (Sri Lanka)
- 2009: Outstanding contribution to humanitarian works in the aftermath of Natural Disasters – Ravikant Singh (India)
- 2010: Outstanding contribution for the Protection of Environment and mitigation of Climate Change – Anoka Primrose Abeyrathne (Sri Lanka)
SAARC does not have an official anthem like some other regional organisations (e.g. ASEAN). A poem by poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar spurred a search for a better SAARC Anthem. Nepal's foreign minister has expressed the need for a SAARC anthem to connect SAARC nations. Nepal at the 18th summit in Kathmandu in November 2014 planned to introduce proposal for a SAARC Anthem in the agenda of summit when heads of all member states meet here.
Secretaries-General of SAARC
|Abul Hasan||16 January 1985 to 15 October 1989|
|Kant Kishore Bhargava||17 October 1989 to 31 December 1991|
|Ibrahim Hussein Zaki||1 January 1992 to 31 December 1993|
|Yadav Kant Silwal||1 January 1994 to 31 December 1995|
|Naeem U. Hasan||1 January 1996 to 31 December 1998|
|Nihal Rodrigo||1 January 1999 to 10 January 2002|
|Q. A. M. A. Rahim||11 January 2002 to 28 February 2005|
|Chenkyab Dorji||1 March 2005 to 29 February 2008|
|Sheel Kant Sharma||1 March 2008 to 28 February 2011|
|Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed||1 March 2011 to 11 March 2012|
|Ahmed Saleem||12 March 2012 to 28 February 2014|
|Arjun Bahadur Thapa||1 March 2014 to (present)|
|1st||7–8 December 1985||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Ataur Rahman Khan|
|2nd||16–17 November 1986||India||Bengaluru||Rajiv Gandhi|
|3rd||2–4 November 1987||Nepal||Kathmandu||Marich Man Singh Shrestha|
|4th||29–31 December 1988||Pakistan||Islamabad||Benazir Bhutto|
|5th||21–23 November 1990||Maldives||Malé||Maumoon Abdul Gayoom|
|6th||21 December 1991||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Ranasinghe Premadasa|
|7th||10–11 April 1993||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Khaleda Zia|
|8th||2–4 May 1995||India||New Delhi||P V Narasimha Rao|
|9th||12–14 May 1997||Maldives||Malé||Maumoon Abdul Gayoom|
|10th||29–31 July 1998||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Chandrika Kumaratunga|
|11th||4–6 January 2002||Nepal||Kathmandu||Sher Bahadur Deuba|
|12th||2–6 January 2004||Pakistan||Islamabad||Zafarullah Khan Jamali|
|13th||12–13 November 2005||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Khaleda Zia|
|14th||3–4 April 2007||India||New Delhi||Manmohan Singh|
|15th||1–3 August 2008||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Mahinda Rajapaksa|
|16th||28–29 April 2010||Bhutan||Thimphu||Jigme Thinley|
|17th||10–11 November 2011||Maldives||Addu||Mohammed Nasheed|
|18th||dated info][||Nepal||Kathmandu||Sushil Koirala|
- SAARC satellite
- Asia Cooperation Dialogue
- Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
- Indian-Ocean Rim Association
- List of SAARC summits
- Mekong–Ganga Cooperation
- South Asian Free Trade Area
- South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation
- "Nepal’s Arjun Bahadur Thapa is SAARC’s new Secretary General". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Mohamed Ibrahim GhafooriI[sic]". SAARC. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "MJH Jabed". SAARC. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Singye Dorjee". SAARC. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "L. Savithri". SAARC. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation : Home". SAARC. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- SAARC. "Harpal Singh Nepali". Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- SAARC. "Ahmar Ismail". Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- SAARC. "Prasanna Gamage". Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- SAARC Summit. "SAARC". SAARC Summit. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- SAARC Secretariat. "SAARC Secretariat". SAARC Secretariat. SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- World Bank
- Editorial (1 August 2008). "History and mission of SAARC". Daily Star, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- SAARC Summit press, 1st Summit. "1st Summit Declaration" (PDF). SAARC Summit press, 1st Summit. SAARC Summit press, 1st Summit. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- SAARC 14th Summit Declaration, press. "14th Summit Declaration". Declaration of the Fourteenth SAARC Summit. SAARC 14th Summit Declaration, press.
- Charter of SAARC. "Charter of SAARC". Charter of SAARC. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Muhammad, Jamshed Iqbal. "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements" (PDF). National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research in Islamabad. NIHCR in Islamabad. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "A Brief on SAARC." South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. No date. See for a complete historical account of SAARC e.g. Michael, Arndt (2013). India's Foreign Policy and Regional Multilateralism (Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 57–112.
- Jang Media. "History and Evolution of SAARC". Jang Media Research Unit. Jang Media Group. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- About SAARC. "About SAARC". About SAARC. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- [Workd Bank]
- [World Bank]
- "South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation". South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- Staff (August 28, 2005). "Afghanistan keen to join SAARC". rediff web services. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Staff reporter (4 April 2004). "Afghanistan inducted as 8th member: 14th Saarc summit begins". Dawn news, 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Sáez, Lawrence (2011). The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) : an emerging collaboration architecture. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57628-4.
- "South Asia: Afghanistan Joins World's Largest Regional Grouping." Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 April 2007.
- "Cooperation with Observers". South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- "Cooperation with Observers". South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "SAARC to grant observer status to US, S Korea, EU." Hindustan Times. 2 August 2006.
- Waliur Rahman. "US and S Korea to observe SAARC." BBC News, 11 April 2008.
- "Iran requests for observer status in SAARC." People's Daily, 5 March 2009.
- SAARC and Myanmar: Observer Research Foundation
- "Russia, Turkey seek observer status in SAARC". The Economic Times. 16 February 2014.
- "Russia, Turkey seek observer status in SAARC". Yahoo News. 16 February 2014.
- SAARC The Changing Dimensions: UNU-CRIS Working Papers United Nations University, Comparative Regional Integration Studies
- Russia keen to join SAARC as observer, Oneindia News
- SAARC hi nations call for transparency in social sector – Thaindian News
- See for this aspect Michael, Arndt (2013). Sovereignty vs. Security: SAARC and its Role in the Regional Security Architecture in South Asia. Harvard Asia Quarterly Summer 2013, Vol. VX, No.2: 37-45
- Jhawar, Shiv (2004). Building a Noble World. p. 44.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
-  FOSWAL Website
-  Five Writers honoured at SAARC Litearure Festival, Hindustan Times March 11, 2013
-  Official website of SAARC:Apex and Recognized Bodies
- Mahasweta Devi to get SAARC Literary Award Oneindia.in March 30, 2007
- Hindustan Times, New Delhi, Saturday, February 14, 2015
- Will SAARC have an anthem like ASEAN? Hindustan Times, 3 November 2014
- Indian diplomat's poem spurs search for SAARC anthem IANS January 9, 2014
- Nepal foreign minister expresses need for an anthem to connect SAARC nations Business Standard, 6 June 2014
- SAARC website
- Term expires 28 February 2017
- "Kathmandu, Nepal to host 18th SAARC Summit in November 2014". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
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